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Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
(born Fannie Coralie Perkins; April 10, 1880[1][2] – May 14, 1965) was an American sociologist and workers-rights advocate who served as the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, the longest serving in that position, and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend, Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal
New Deal
coalition. She and Interior Secretary Harold L. Ickes were the only original members of the Roosevelt cabinet to remain in office for his entire presidency. During her term as Secretary of Labor, Perkins executed many aspects of the New Deal, including the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Public Works Administration and its successor the Federal Works Agency, and the labor portion of the National Industrial Recovery Act. With the Social Security Act
Social Security Act
she established unemployment benefits, pensions for the many uncovered elderly Americans, and welfare for the poorest Americans. She pushed to reduce workplace accidents and helped craft laws against child labor. Through the Fair Labor Standards Act, she established the first minimum wage and overtime laws for American workers, and defined the standard forty-hour work week. She formed governmental policy for working with labor unions and helped to alleviate strikes by way of the United States
United States
Conciliation Service. Perkins dealt with many labor questions during World War II, when skilled labor was vital and women were moving into formerly male jobs.[3]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Life and career before the cabinet position 3 Cabinet career 4 Later life 5 Legacy

5.1 Character in historical context 5.2 Memorials and monuments 5.3 Perkins and the Maine
Maine
Department of Labor mural

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Early life[edit] Perkins was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to Susan Bean Perkins (September 1849 – 1927) and Frederick W. Perkins (24 August 1844 – 1916), the owner of a stationer's business (both of her parents originally were from Maine).[4] She spent much of her childhood in Worcester, Massachusetts. She was christened Fannie Coralie Perkins, but she changed her name to Frances[5] when she joined the Episcopal church in 1905.[6] Perkins attended the Classical High School in Worcester. She graduated from Mount Holyoke College
Mount Holyoke College
with a Bachelor of Arts degree in chemistry and physics in 1902. She obtained a master's degree in political science from Columbia University
Columbia University
in 1910.[7] In the interim, she held a variety of teaching positions including a position teaching chemistry from 1904 to 1906 at Ferry Hall School
Ferry Hall School
(now Lake Forest Academy). In Chicago, she volunteered at settlement houses, including Hull House. In 1918 she began her years of study in economics and sociology at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School.[8] Life and career before the cabinet position[edit] She achieved statewide prominence as head of the New York Consumers League in 1910 and lobbied with vigor for better working hours and conditions. Perkins also taught as a professor of sociology at Adelphi College.[9] The next year, she witnessed the tragic Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, a pivotal event in her life. It was because of this event that Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
would leave her office at the New York Consumers League and become the executive secretary for the Committee on Safety of the City of New York.[6] In 1913, Perkins married New York economist Paul Caldwell Wilson. She kept her birth name, defending her right to do so in court. The couple had a daughter, Susanna. Both father and daughter were described by biographer Kirstin Downey as having "manic-depressive symptoms".[10] Wilson was frequently institutionalized for mental illness.[11] Perkins was the sole support for her household.[12] Prior to moving to Washington, D.C., Perkins held various positions in New York State government. She had gained respect from the political leaders in the state of New York. In 1919 she was added to the Industrial Commission of the State of New York by Governor Alfred Smith.[6] In 1929 the newly elected New York governor, Franklin Roosevelt, appointed Perkins as the inaugural Commissioner of the New York State Department of Labor.[13] Having earned the co-operation and respect of various political factions, Perkins ably helped put New York in the forefront of progressive reform. She expanded factory investigations, reduced the workweek for women to 48 hours and championed minimum wage and unemployment insurance laws. She worked vigorously to put an end to child labor and to provide safety for women workers.[6] Cabinet career[edit]

Secretary of Labor Perkins on the cover of Time (August 14, 1933)

Perkins and Congressman Theodore Peyser with President Roosevelt as he signs the National Labor Relations Act
National Labor Relations Act
(June 6, 1933)

Perkins en route to President Truman's swearing-in shortly after learning of FDR's death (April 12, 1945)

In 1933, Roosevelt appointed Perkins as Secretary of the Department of Labor, a position she held for twelve years, longer than any other Secretary of Labor.[14] She became the first woman to hold a cabinet position in the United States
United States
and thus, became the first woman to enter the presidential line of succession.[8] With few exceptions, President Roosevelt consistently supported the goals and programs of Secretary Perkins. As Secretary of Labor, Perkins played a key role in the cabinet by writing New Deal
New Deal
legislation, including minimum-wage laws. Her most important contribution, however, came in 1934 as chairwoman of the President's Committee on Economic Security (CES). In this post, she was involved in all aspects of the reports including her hand in the creation of the Civilian Conservation Corps
Civilian Conservation Corps
and the She-She-She Camps.[6] Perkins also drafted the Social Security Act
Social Security Act
of 1935. On the day that the bill was signed into law, her husband escaped from a mental institution.[12][15] In 1939, she came under fire from some members of Congress for refusing to deport the communist head of the west coast International Longshore and Warehouse Union, Harry Bridges. Ultimately, however, Bridges was vindicated by the Supreme Court.[16] Later life[edit] Following her tenure as Secretary of Labor, in 1945 Perkins was asked by President Harry Truman
Harry Truman
to serve on the United States
United States
Civil Service Commission, which she did until 1952, when her husband died and she resigned from federal service.[17] During this period, she also published a memoir of her time in FDR's administration called The Roosevelt I Knew (1946, ISBN 9780143106418) which offered a sympathetic view of the president. Following her government service career, Perkins remained active as a teacher and lecturer at the New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University
Cornell University
until her death in 1965 at age 85. At Cornell she lived at the Telluride House
Telluride House
where she was one of the intellectual community's first female members. Kirstin Downey, author of The Woman Behind the New Deal: The Life of Frances Perkins, FDR's Secretary of Labor and His Moral Conscience, dubbed her time at the Telluride House
Telluride House
"probably the happiest phase of her life".[18] She is buried in the Glidden Cemetery in Newcastle, Maine.[19] Legacy[edit]

The Frances Perkins Building
Frances Perkins Building
is the Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
headquarters of the United States
United States
Department of Labor and is located at 200 Constitution Avenue NW and runs alongside Interstate 395

The Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
House, a U.S. National Historic Landmark since 1991, located at 2326 California Street, NW, Washington, D.C.

Perkins would have been famous simply by being the first woman cabinet member, but her legacy stems from her additional accomplishments. She was largely responsible for the U.S. adoption of social security, unemployment insurance, federal laws regulating child labor, and adoption of the federal minimum wage.[20] The liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church honors Perkins with a feast day on May 13. She was the winner of the "Golden Halo" in Lent Madness 2013,[14] an educational tool hosted by Forward Movement Publications featuring the saints of the calendar of the Episcopal Church. In 1967, the Telluride House
Telluride House
and Cornell University's School of Industrial and Labor Relations established the Frances Perkins Memorial Fellowship.[21] In 2015, Perkins was named by Equality Forum as one of their 31 Icons of the 2015 LGBT History Month.[22] Character in historical context[edit] As the first female member of the presidential cabinet, Perkins had an unenviable challenge: she had to be as capable, as fearless, as tactful, as politically astute as the other Washington politicians, in order to make it possible for other women to be accepted into the halls of power after her.[23] Perkins had a cool personality which held her aloof from the crowd. On one occasion, however, she engaged in some heated name-calling with Alfred P. Sloan, the chairman of the board at General Motors. During a punishing United Auto Workers strike, she phoned Sloan in the middle of the night and called him a scoundrel and a skunk for not giving in to the union's demands. She said, "You don't deserve to be counted among decent men. You'll go to hell when you die." Sloan's late-night response was one of irate indignation.[24] Her results indicate her great love of workers and lower-class groups, but her Boston
Boston
upbringing held her back from mingling freely and exhibiting personal affection. She was well-suited for the high-level efforts to effect sweeping reforms, but never caught the public's eye or its affection.[25] Memorials and monuments[edit] The Frances Perkins Building
Frances Perkins Building
that is the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Labor in Washington, D.C. was named in her honor in 1980. Her home in Washington from 1937 to 1940, and her Maine
Maine
family home are both designated National Historic Landmarks. The Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
Center is a nonprofit organization located in Damariscotta, Maine. Its mission is to fulfill the legacy of Frances Perkins through educating visitors on her work and programs, and preserving the Perkins family homestead for future generations. The Center regularly hosts events and exhibitions for the public.[26] Perkins remains a prominent alumna of Mount Holyoke College, whose Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
Program allows "women of non-traditional age" (i.e., age 24 or older) to complete a Bachelor of Arts degree. There are approximately 140  Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
scholars each year.[27] Perkins and the Maine
Maine
Department of Labor mural[edit] A mural depicting Perkins was displayed in the Maine
Maine
Department of Labor headquarters,[28] the native state of her parents. On March 23, 2011, Maine's Republican governor, Paul LePage, ordered the mural removed. A spokesperson for the governor said they received complaints about the mural from state business officials and from an anonymous fax charging that it was reminiscent of "communist North Korea
North Korea
where they use these murals to brainwash the masses".[29] LePage also ordered that the names of seven conference rooms in the state department of labor be changed, including one named after Perkins.[29] A lawsuit was filed in U.S. District Court seeking "to confirm the mural's current location, ensure that the artwork is adequately preserved, and ultimately to restore it to the Department of Labor's lobby in Augusta".[30] As of January 2013, the mural resides at Maine State Museum, Maine
Maine
State Library and Maine
Maine
State Archives entrance.[31] See also[edit]

List of female United States
United States
Cabinet Secretaries

Notes[edit]

^ "Fannie Perkins". 1880 United States
United States
Census. FamilySearch.org. Retrieved June 5, 2011. Birthplace: Ma; Age: 2 months; Head of Household: Fred Perkins; Relation: Daughter; Census Place: Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts  ^ "Volume 315, Page 132". Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Vital Records, 1841–1910. New England Historic Genealogical Society. Retrieved June 5, 2011. Fannie Coralie Perkins; 1880; Boston, Suffolk Co., Massachusetts; Birth  (subscription required) ^ Downey, Kirstin. The Woman Behind the New Deal, 2009, p. 337. ^ 1880 Census ^ Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
Collection. Mount Holyoke College
Mount Holyoke College
Archives ^ a b c d e Kennedy, Susan E. "Perkins, Frances". American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press, Feb. 2000. Web. March 27, 2013. ^ Downey, Kristin. The Woman Behind the New Deal. Anchor Books, 2010, p. 11, p. 25. ^ a b "125 Influential People and Ideas: Frances Perkins". Wharton Alumni Magazine. Wharton.upenn.edu. Spring 2007. Retrieved March 12, 2017.  ^ Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
Collection. Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University ^ Downey, Kirstin. The Woman Behind the New Deal, 2009, p. 380. ^ Downey, Kirstin. The Woman Behind the New Deal, 2009, p. 2. ^ a b Karenna Gore Schiff (2005). Lighting the Way: Nine Women Who Changed Modern America. Miramax Books/Hyperion. ISBN 978-1-4013-5218-9. OCLC 62302578.  ^ Our History – New York State Department of Labor Archived March 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. Labor.ny.gov (March 25, 1911). Retrieved on 2013-08-12. ^ a b Markoe, Lauren (March 28, 2013). "FDR Labor Secretary Frances Perkins wins 'Lent Madness' tournament". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved March 2, 2018.  ^ Alexandra Starr (February 12, 2006). "Women Warriors". The New York Times.  ^ Gibbons, Chip (September 2016). "The Trial(s) of Harry Bridges". Jacobin. Retrieved March 2, 2018.  ^ Breitman, Jessica. "Frances Perkins". FDR Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved March 2, 2018.  ^ "Discovering Frances Perkins". ILR School. February 24, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2016.  ^ "CAM Cover Story". Cornell Alumni Magazine.com (May 17, 1965). Retrieved on 2013-08-12. ^ "Labor Hall of Fame – Frances M. Perkins". U.S. Department of Labor. June 20, 2011. Retrieved September 5, 2016.  ^ Pasachoff, Naomi (1999). Frances Perkins: Champion of the New Deal. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 147.  ^ Malcolm Lazin (August 20, 2015). "Op-ed: Here Are the 31 Icons of 2015's Gay History Month". Advocate.com. Retrieved August 21, 2015.  ^ The Tennessean, Arts & Entertainment, March 8, 2009, "The Woman Behind the New Deal" (Kirstin Downey). "Perkins ... not only had to do more than her male counterparts to prove herself, but she had to do it while dealing with rough-and-tumble labor leaders, a husband in and out of mental institutions, condescending bureaucrats and some Congress members hell-bent on impeaching her." p. 11. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, p. 68, Random House, New York, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4. ^ Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
Collection. Mount Holyoke College
Mount Holyoke College
Archives ^ The Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
Center ^ " Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
Program". Mount Holyoke College. Retrieved July 6, 2012.  ^ "Judy Taylor Fine Art Studio and Gallery, featuring Portraits, Landscape Art, Figurative Art, Still Life Art, and Great Master's Reproductions". Judytaylorstudio.com. Retrieved December 30, 2011.  ^ a b Greenhouse, Steven (March 23, 2011). "Gov. Paul LePage
Paul LePage
Takes Aim at Mural
Mural
to Maine's Workers". The New York Times.  ^ "Fed. lawsuit filed over Maine
Maine
labor mural removal", The Boston Globe, April 1, 2011. ^ "Labor mural flap cost state more than $6,000", Portland Press Herald, January 19, 2013.

References[edit]

Berg, Gordon. " Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
and the Flowering of Economic and Social Policies". Monthly Labor Review. 112:6 (June 1989). Downey, Kirstin. The Woman Behind the New Deal: The Life of Frances Perkins, FDR's Secretary of Labor and His Moral Conscience, New York: Nan A. Talese/Doubleday, 2009. ISBN 0-385-51365-8. Keller, Emily. Frances Perkins: First Woman Cabinet Member. Greensboro: Morgan Reynolds Publishing, 2006. ISBN 9781931798914. Martin, George Whitney. Madam Secretary: Frances Perkins. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976. ISBN 0-395-24293-2. Pasachoff, Naomi. Frances Perkins: Champion of the New Deal. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-512222-4. Perkins, Frances. The Roosevelt I Knew. New York: Penguin Group, 1946. ISBN 0-670-60737-1. Severn, Bill. Frances Perkins: A Member of the Cabinet. New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1976. ISBN 0-8015-2816-X.

External links[edit]

Library resources about Frances Perkins

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By Frances Perkins

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Works by or about Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
at Internet Archive Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
Center Audio recording of Perkins lecture at Cornell A film clip "You May Call Her Madam Secretary (1987)" is available at the Internet Archive Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
Collection at Mount Holyoke College Perkins Papers at Mount Holyoke College Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
Collection. Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Notable New Yorkers – Frances Perkins—Biography, photographs, and interviews of Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
from the Notable New Yorkers collection of the Oral History Research Office at Columbia University Columbians Ahead of Their Time, Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
biography Frances Perkins. Correspondence and Memorabilia. 5017. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Martin P. Catherwood Library, Cornell University. Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
Lectures at the Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Martin P. Catherwood Library, Cornell University. National Women's Hall of Fame Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
Papers Project: Frances Perkins U.S. Department of Labor Biography "Biographer Chronicles Perkins, 'New Deal' Pioneer", All Things Considered, March 28, 2009. An interview with Kirstin Downey about her biography of Frances Perkins. "Remembering Social Security's Forgotten Shepherd", Morning Edition, August 12, 2005. Penny Colman and Linda Wertheimer Discuss Frances Perkins Remarkable Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
in Twin Cities in 1935 – Pantagraph (Bloomington, Illinois newspaper)

Political offices

Preceded by William Doak United States
United States
Secretary of Labor 1933–1945 Succeeded by Lewis Schwellenbach

v t e

United States
United States
Secretaries of Labor

Secretaries of Commerce and Labor

Cortelyou Metcalf Straus Nagel

Secretaries of Labor

Wilson Davis Doak Perkins Schwellenbach Tobin Durkin Mitchell Goldberg Wirtz Shultz Hodgson Brennan Dunlop Usery Marshall Donovan Brock McLaughlin Dole Martin Reich Herman Chao Solis Perez Acosta

v t e

Cabinet of President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1933–45)

Vice President

John N. Garner (1933–41) Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1941–45) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945)

Secretary of State

Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
(1933–44) Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1944–45)

Secretary of the Treasury

William Hartman Woodin (1933–34) Henry Morgenthau Jr.
Henry Morgenthau Jr.
(1934–45)

Secretary of War

George H. Dern (1933–36) Harry H. Woodring (1936–40) Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1940–45)

Attorney General

Homer S. Cummings (1933–39) Frank Murphy
Frank Murphy
(1939–40) Robert H. Jackson
Robert H. Jackson
(1940–41) Francis B. Biddle (1941–45)

Postmaster General

James A. Farley (1933–40) Frank C. Walker (1940–45)

Secretary of the Navy

Claude A. Swanson
Claude A. Swanson
(1933–39) Charles Edison
Charles Edison
(1940) Frank Knox
Frank Knox
(1940–44) James V. Forrestal (1944–45)

Secretary of the Interior

Harold L. Ickes
Harold L. Ickes
(1933–45)

Secretary of Agriculture

Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1933–40) Claude Raymond Wickard (1940–45)

Secretary of Commerce

Daniel C. Roper
Daniel C. Roper
(1933–38) Harry L. Hopkins (1938–40) Jesse H. Jones
Jesse H. Jones
(1940–45) Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1945)

Secretary of Labor

Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
(1933–45)

v t e

Cabinet of President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945–53)

Vice President

None (1945–49) Alben W. Barkley
Alben W. Barkley
(1949–53)

Secretary of State

Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1945–47) George C. Marshall (1947–49) Dean G. Acheson (1949–53)

Secretary of the Treasury

Henry Morgenthau Jr.
Henry Morgenthau Jr.
(1945) Fred M. Vinson
Fred M. Vinson
(1945–46) John W. Snyder (1946–53)

Secretary of War

Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1945) Robert P. Patterson
Robert P. Patterson
(1945–47) Kenneth C. Royall (1947)

Secretary of Defense

James V. Forrestal (1947–49) Louis A. Johnson
Louis A. Johnson
(1949–50) George C. Marshall (1950–51) Robert A. Lovett
Robert A. Lovett
(1951–53)

Attorney General

Francis B. Biddle (1945) Tom C. Clark
Tom C. Clark
(1945–49) J. Howard McGrath
J. Howard McGrath
(1949–52) James P. McGranery (1952–53)

Postmaster General

Frank C. Walker (1945) Robert E. Hannegan
Robert E. Hannegan
(1945–47) Jesse Monroe Donaldson (1947–53)

Secretary of the Navy

James V. Forrestal (1945–47)

Secretary of the Interior

Harold L. Ickes
Harold L. Ickes
(1945–46) Julius A. Krug (1946–49) Oscar Littleton Chapman (1949–53)

Secretary of Agriculture

Claude Raymond Wickard (1945) Clinton P. Anderson (1945–48) Charles F. Brannan
Charles F. Brannan
(1948–53)

Secretary of Commerce

Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1945–46) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946–48) Charles Sawyer (1948–53)

Secretary of Labor

Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
(1945) Lewis B. Schwellenbach
Lewis B. Schwellenbach
(1945–48) Maurice J. Tobin
Maurice J. Tobin
(1948–53)

v t e

Inductees to the National Women's Hall of Fame

1970–1979

1973

Jane Addams Marian Anderson Susan B. Anthony Clara Barton Mary McLeod Bethune Elizabeth Blackwell Pearl S. Buck Rachel Carson Mary Cassatt Emily Dickinson Amelia Earhart Alice Hamilton Helen Hayes Helen Keller Eleanor Roosevelt Florence Sabin Margaret Chase Smith Elizabeth Cady Stanton Helen Brooke Taussig Harriet Tubman

1976

Abigail Adams Margaret Mead Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias

1979

Dorothea Dix Juliette Gordon Low Alice Paul Elizabeth Bayley Seton

1980–1989

1981

Margaret Sanger Sojourner Truth

1982

Carrie Chapman Catt Frances Perkins

1983

Belva Lockwood Lucretia Mott

1984

Mary "Mother" Harris Jones Bessie Smith

1986

Barbara McClintock Lucy Stone Harriet Beecher Stowe

1988

Gwendolyn Brooks Willa Cather Sally Ride Ida B. Wells-Barnett

1990–1999

1990

Margaret Bourke-White Barbara Jordan Billie Jean King Florence B. Seibert

1991

Gertrude Belle Elion

1993

Ethel Percy Andrus Antoinette Blackwell Emily Blackwell Shirley Chisholm Jacqueline Cochran Ruth Colvin Marian Wright Edelman Alice Evans Betty Friedan Ella Grasso Martha Wright Griffiths Fannie Lou Hamer Dorothy Height Dolores Huerta Mary Jacobi Mae Jemison Mary Lyon Mary Mahoney Wilma Mankiller Constance Baker Motley Georgia O'Keeffe Annie Oakley Rosa Parks Esther Peterson Jeannette Rankin Ellen Swallow Richards Elaine Roulet Katherine Siva Saubel Gloria Steinem Helen Stephens Lillian Wald Madam C. J. Walker Faye Wattleton Rosalyn S. Yalow Gloria Yerkovich

1994

Bella Abzug Ella Baker Myra Bradwell Annie Jump Cannon Jane Cunningham Croly Catherine East Geraldine Ferraro Charlotte Perkins Gilman Grace Hopper Helen LaKelly Hunt Zora Neale Hurston Anne Hutchinson Frances Wisebart Jacobs Susette La Flesche Louise McManus Maria Mitchell Antonia Novello Linda Richards Wilma Rudolph Betty Bone Schiess Muriel Siebert Nettie Stevens Oprah Winfrey Sarah Winnemucca Fanny Wright

1995

Virginia Apgar Ann Bancroft Amelia Bloomer Mary Breckinridge Eileen Collins Elizabeth Hanford Dole Anne Dallas Dudley Mary Baker Eddy Ella Fitzgerald Margaret Fuller Matilda Joslyn Gage Lillian Moller Gilbreth Nannerl O. Keohane Maggie Kuhn Sandra Day O'Connor Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin Pat Schroeder Hannah Greenebaum Solomon

1996

Louisa May Alcott Charlotte Anne Bunch Frances Xavier Cabrini Mary A. Hallaren Oveta Culp Hobby Wilhelmina Cole Holladay Anne Morrow Lindbergh Maria Goeppert-Mayer Ernestine Louise Potowski Rose Maria Tallchief Edith Wharton

1998

Madeleine Albright Maya Angelou Nellie Bly Lydia Moss Bradley Mary Steichen Calderone Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary Joan Ganz Cooney Gerty Cori Sarah Grimké Julia Ward Howe Shirley Ann Jackson Shannon Lucid Katharine Dexter McCormick Rozanne L. Ridgway Edith Nourse Rogers Felice Schwartz Eunice Kennedy Shriver Beverly Sills Florence Wald Angelina Grimké
Angelina Grimké
Weld Chien-Shiung Wu

2000–2009

2000

Faye Glenn Abdellah Emma Smith DeVoe Marjory Stoneman Douglas Mary Dyer Sylvia A. Earle Crystal Eastman Jeanne Holm Leontine T. Kelly Frances Oldham Kelsey Kate Mullany Janet Reno Anna Howard Shaw Sophia Smith Ida Tarbell Wilma L. Vaught Mary Edwards Walker Annie Dodge Wauneka Eudora Welty Frances E. Willard

2001

Dorothy H. Andersen Lucille Ball Rosalynn Carter Lydia Maria Child Bessie Coleman Dorothy Day Marian de Forest Althea Gibson Beatrice A. Hicks Barbara Holdridge Harriet Williams Russell Strong Emily Howell Warner Victoria Woodhull

2002

Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis Ruth Bader Ginsburg Katharine Graham Bertha Holt Mary Engle Pennington Mercy Otis Warren

2003

Linda G. Alvarado Donna de Varona Gertrude Ederle Martha Matilda Harper Patricia Roberts Harris Stephanie L. Kwolek Dorothea Lange Mildred Robbins Leet Patsy Takemoto Mink Sacagawea Anne Sullivan Sheila E. Widnall

2005

Florence Ellinwood Allen Ruth Fulton Benedict Betty Bumpers Hillary Clinton Rita Rossi Colwell Mother Marianne Cope Maya Y. Lin Patricia A. Locke Blanche Stuart Scott Mary Burnett Talbert

2007

Eleanor K. Baum Julia Child Martha Coffin Pelham Wright Swanee Hunt Winona LaDuke Elisabeth Kübler-Ross Judith L. Pipher Catherine Filene Shouse Henrietta Szold

2009

Louise Bourgeois Mildred Cohn Karen DeCrow Susan Kelly-Dreiss Allie B. Latimer Emma Lazarus Ruth Patrick Rebecca Talbot Perkins Susan Solomon Kate Stoneman

2010–2019

2011

St. Katharine Drexel Dorothy Harrison Eustis Loretta C. Ford Abby Kelley
Abby Kelley
Foster Helen Murray Free Billie Holiday Coretta Scott King Lilly Ledbetter Barbara A. Mikulski Donna E. Shalala Kathrine Switzer

2013

Betty Ford Ina May Gaskin Julie Krone Kate Millett Nancy Pelosi Mary Joseph Rogers Bernice Sandler Anna Schwartz Emma Willard

2015

Tenley Albright Nancy Brinker Martha Graham Marcia Greenberger Barbara Iglewski Jean Kilbourne Carlotta Walls LaNier Philippa Marrack Mary Harriman Rumsey Eleanor Smeal

2017

Matilda Cuomo Temple Grandin Lorraine Hansberry Victoria Jackson Sherry Lansing Clare Boothe Luce Aimee Mullins Carol Mutter Janet Rowley Alice Waters

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 8311454 LCCN: n50012858 ISNI: 0000 0001 1741 0864 GND: 124081185 SUDOC: 136892

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