Dr FRANçOIS CARLO ANTOMMARCHI (5 July 1780 in
Morsiglia , Corsica
– 4 March 1838 in
Santiago de Cuba
Santiago de Cuba , Cuba) was
Napoleon 's physician
from 1818 to his death in 1821.
He began his studies in
Livorno , Italy, and later earned the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy and Medicine at the
University of Pisa
University of Pisa in
March 1808. Antommarchi then went to
Florence , Italy, and was
attached to the
Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova . Antommarchi earned
the diploma of
Surgeon in 1812 from the University of
Imperial University) and was appointed by its president as
While in this capacity, Antommarchi worked under Paolo Mascagni
(1752–1815) starting on 7 July 1813.
Saint Helena to become
Napoleon I 's
physician until his death. Antommarchi took up this position at the
behest of Napoleon's mother Maria
Letizia Ramolino and his uncle
Joseph Fesch . Antommarchi received a letter of employment
on 19 December 1818. Antommarchi was sent to St. Helena in replacement
of Dr Barry Edward O\'Meara as Napoleon's personal physician, because
the illustrious captive would not agree to accept medical officers
such as Dr Alexander Baxter or Dr James Roch Verling, who were
proposed to him by his custodian, or "gaoler", sir
Hudson Lowe .
Napoleon was not so impressed by Antommarchi's medical skills
and even dismissed him from his service a couple of times, only to let
him resume his duty soon after. In the last moments of illness,
Antommarchi was assisted by Dr Archibald Arnott, who was accepted by
Napoleon at the pressing demands from his two officers, Count
Montholon and Grand-Marshal Bertrand. After Napoleon's death,
Antommarchi wrote The Last Moments of
Napoleon where he concluded that
Napoleon died of stomach cancer .
In 1831 Antommarchi went to Poland and became the general inspector
of Polish hospitals during
November Uprising where he assisted the
Polish people in an uprising against the Russians. He fled to Paris to
escape the czar's forces.
Antommarchi then immigrated to
Louisiana where he donated the bronze
death mask of
Napoleon to the people of
New Orleans in 1834.
Antommarchi lived in
Veracruz , Mexico, for a brief period, and was
employed there as an itinerant physician. He moved from
Santiago de Cuba
Santiago de Cuba , Cuba, where he again worked as a
physician. The move to Cuba was prompted by Antommarchi seeking his
cousin Antonio Juan Benjamin Antommarchi, who made his fortune in
coffee plantations. Antommarchi became adept at performing surgery for
the removal of cataracts . He died in Cuba, of yellow fever , on 3
April 1838, at the age of 57.
* 1 Life chronology
* 2 Works
* 2.1 Dissertation on cataract, 1808
* 2.2 Napoleon\'s Death Mask, 1821
* 2.3 Diary of Napoleon\'s Medical Care
* 2.4 Anatomical Prints of the Human Body with Natural Dimensions,
* 3 Name variants
* 4 Controversy
* 4.1 Birth
* 4.2 Napoleon\'s death mask
* 4.3 Right Hand Cast of
* 4.4 Mascagni Heirs
* 5 Notes
* 6 References
* 7 External links
Morsiglia , Corsica, France
5 July 1780
Earned Doctor of Philosophy and Medicine Degree
Pisa , Italy
Florence , Italy
7 July 1813
Napoleon I 's physician
Saint Helena , Corsica, France
19 December 1818
Saint Helena, Corsica, France
10 September 1819
Made Napoleon\'s Death Mask
Saint Helena, Corsica, France
7 May 1821
Published "Anatomical Prints of the Human Body with Natural
Published various books based on his diary of Napoleon's medical
Became general inspector of Polish hospitals
Louisiana , United States
Veracruz , Mexico
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
3 April 1838
"Death of Napoleon", by Charles de Steuben, 1828. Dr Antommarchi
is standing next to
Napoleon with his hand on the pillow.
Death Mask of Napoleon, front view
DISSERTATION ON CATARACT, 1808
This work is mentioned in The Memorial of
Saint Helena by Emmanuel,
comte de Las Cases .
NAPOLEON\'S DEATH MASK, 1821
On 7 May 1821 Antommarchi took a plaster cast of Napoleon's face.
Numerous copies of this cast have been made and some can be seen at
Louisiana State Museum –
The Cabildo ,
New Orleans , Louisiana,
* Museo Napoleónico de La Habana,
Habana , Cuba
Art Institute of Chicago
Art Institute of Chicago ,
Chicago , Illinois, United States
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, North
Carolina , United States
* Museo Nacional de Historia,
Chapultepec Castle ,
* Musée de l\'Armée , Paris, France
St. Louis Mercantile Library ,
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri , United States
DIARY OF NAPOLEON\'S MEDICAL CARE
Antommarchi's diary contained detail records of his medical care for
Napoleon. This diary is a source for numerous books published between
1823 and 1826. These books have been published in many languages
including French, English, German, Italian , and Spanish.
ANATOMICAL PRINTS OF THE HUMAN BODY WITH NATURAL DIMENSIONS, PARIS,
Paolo Mascagni (1752–1815) was the most celebrated anatomist of his
day. Antommarchi became
Prosector to Mascagni who left manuscripts and
drawings for an intended publication of a comprehensive complete
anatomy with life-size figures. Antommarchi prepared the publication
but was meanwhile called to Saint Helena. Antommarchi left, taking
with him three copies of Mascagni's plates. When Antommarchi returned,
he published these plates, printed from lithographs, under his own
name in a monumental work which appeared from 1823 to 1826 under the
title of: "Planches anatomiques du corps humain exécutées d'après
les dimensions naturelles accompagnées d'un texte explicatif".
The plates for the publication were drawn and possibly engraved by
Antoine Seratoni .
Paolo Mascagni 's anatomical drawing with
François Carlo Antommarchi's original name has many variants in the
literature due to translations and misspellings:
François Carlo Antommarchi
François Carlo Antommarchi (original name)
* François Charles Antommarchi (French translation)
* Francesco Carlo Antonmarchi (Italian translation)
* Francisco Carlos Antommarchi (Spanish translation)
* Francis Charles Antommarchi (English translation)
* Francesco Carlo Antomarchi (misspelling)
The phonetic pronunciation of "François" is "frahn-swah".
The literature cites both 1780 and 1789 as the birth date of
NAPOLEON\'S DEATH MASK
It is unclear if the original cast for the death mask of Napoleon
made by Antommarchi survived. It is said that Antommarchi's cast
failed but Dr Francis Burton apparently took another cast which
survived. To complicate matters, Madame Bertrand, apparently related
Henri Gatien Bertrand and Napoleon's attendant, is said to have
stolen a large part of the cast taken by Burton and given it to
No unequivocal and decisive proof has ever been presented to settle
this controversy and it may never be resolved. Possible motivations
for this controversy, for both parties, can include but are not
* Fierce rivalry between the conquerors, i.e. the British, and the
conquered, i.e. the French
RIGHT HAND CAST OF NAPOLEON
Despite a post-mortem cast of Bonaparte's right hand, allegedly by
Antommarchi, sold and exhibited in museums, none of the persons
that were present in
Saint Helena when
Napoleon died ever reported
that such a cast occurred. On the contrary, his servant Louis-Étienne
Saint-Denis (a.k.a. "le mameluck Ali") regrets in his memoirs that
nobody had the idea to cast Napoleon's hands.
A legal dispute between Antommarchi and the heirs of Mascagni
regarding the rights to Mascagni's plates was never resolved.
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci studied anatomy at the Hospital of Santa
* ^ The "Death of Napoleon" painting is currently displayed at
Musée de l\'Armée in Paris, France.
* ^ ""Paolo Mascagni", The University of Iowa, 12 June 2006".
Lib.uiowa.edu. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
* ^ A B Thomason, Henry D., "Napoleon, the First Emperor of France:
From St. Helena to Santiago de Cuba. Being a Summary of Facts
Concerning the Latter Days of Dr. François Antomarchi, the Last
Physician to His Imperial Majesty", 1910
* ^ see Chronology of Napoleon\'s last months of illness
* ^ Sven Jonas Stille, Podróż do Polski, Warszawa 1985, p. 137.
* ^ Saby, Claude-Alain, "1815 Les naufragés de l'Empire aux
* ^ A B "Reynolds, James, "Head and Upper Body", 2006".
Acquirecontent.com. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
* ^ Garzón-Sobrado, Eduardo, "Speech at the historic restoration
of the death mask of the Emperor
Napoleon I to the people of
the Chapultepec Palace , 25 July 2005
* ^ De Las Cases, Emmanuel , "The Memorial of
Saint Helena ", 1823
* ^ "
Louisiana Purchase". Lsm.crt.state.la.us. Retrieved 10 October
* ^ "The Art Institute of Chicago: Home: Under Construction".
Artic.edu. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
* ^ "North Carolina Collection-
Napoleon Death Mask". Lib.unc.edu.
27 May 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
* ^ "Instituto Napoleónico México-Francia". Inmf.org. Retrieved
10 October 2010.
* ^ "Museo Nacional De Historia". Mnh.inah.gob.mx. Retrieved 10
* ^ "Document sans nom". Invalides.org. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
* ^ "St. Louis Mercantile Library". Umsl.edu. Retrieved 10 October
* ^ Las Cases, Emmanuel-Auguste-Dieudonné, Napoleon, Antommarchi,
Francesco, O'Meara, Barry Edward, Charlet, Nicolas-Toussaint,
"Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène", 1842
* ^ Antommarchi, Francesco, "The last days of the Emperor Napoleon:
By Doctor F. Antommarchi, His Physician. In Two Volumes.", 1825
* ^ Thomason, Henry D., Antommarchi, Francesco, "Napoleon, the
First Emperor of France: From St. Helena to Santiago de Cuba. Being a
Summary of Facts Concerning the Latter Days of Dr. François
Antomarchi, the Last Physician to His Imperial Majesty", 1910
* ^ Napoleon, Gourgaud, Gaspard, Montholon, Charles-Tristan,
O'Meara, Barry Edward, Las Cases, Emanuel Auguste Dieudonné Marius
Joseph, Antommarchi, Francesco, "Memoirs of the History of France
During the Reign of Napoleon" 1823
* ^ Antommarchi, Francesco, "The last days of Napoleon: memoirs of
the last two years of Napoleon's exile", 1826
* ^ Antommarchi, Francesco, "Derniers momens de Napoléon, ou,
Complément du Mémorial de Ste-Hélène: ou complément du mémorial
de Ste-Hélène", 1825
* ^ Antommarchi, Francesco, "Mémoires du docteur Antommarchi, ou,
Les derniers momens de Napoléon: ou Les derniers momens de
* ^ Antommarchi, François, "Mémoires du docteur F. Antommarchi,
ou Les derniers momens de Napoléon", 1825
* ^ Antommarchi, Francesco C., "Anatomical Prints of the Human Body
with Natural Dimensions", 1826
* ^ Antommarchi, Francisco, "Prodromo della grande anatomia seconda
opera pstuma di Paolo Mascagni, posta in ordine, e poblicata a spese
di una Societa innominata da Francisco Antommarchi", 1819
* ^ Antommarchi, Francisco, "Tavole figurate di aalcume porti
organiche del corpo umano degli animali e dei vegetablii, esposte nel
prodromo della grande anatomia di Paolo Mascagni", 1819
* ^ Moodie, Roy L., "Anatomical Names with Biographical Sketches",
1917. Google Books. 21 November 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
* ^ Gourdol, Jean-Yves, "Francesco Antommarchi 1789 – 1838.
Napoleon in Saint Helena",
* ^ ""Napolean\'s death mask", National Museums Liverpool".
Liverpoolmuseums.org.uk. Retrieved 10 October 2010. and ""Mystery of
Napoleons Death Mask", The New York Times, 15 April 1915". New York
Times. 15 August 1915. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
* ^ ""Historical: Hand of
Napoleon Bonaparte", Designs Toscano".
Designtoscano.com. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
* ^ ""Napoleon, Prisoner — Post-mortem: The reliquaries", 2006".
Napoleonprisonnier.com. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
* ^ "The
Arcole Napoleonic Museum",
* ^ Saint-Denis, Louis-Étienne (Mameluck Ali); Bourachot,
Christophe (2000). Souvenirs sur l'empereur Napoléon. Paris:
p. 277. ISBN 978-2-86959-493-7 . Il est très fâcheux que l'on n'ait
pas pensé à mouler les mains, lesquelles cependant étaient assez
belles pour être conservées.
* ^ Choulant, Ludwig, Mortimer, Frank, Fielding, Hudson G.,
Streeter, Edward C., "History and bibliography of anatomic
illustration in its relation to anatomic science and the graphic
* ^ Knight, Charles, "Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the
diffusion of useful knowledge: Second supplement", 1858
* ^ "Eimas, Richard, "The Great Anatomy of Paolo Mascagni", 1963".
Lib.uiowa.edu. 3 November 2002. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
* Museo Napoleónico de La Habana
* Death mask of