Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to
several genera of the family Canidae. Foxes have a flattened skull,
upright triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned snout, and a
long bushy tail (or brush).
Twelve species belong to the monophyletic group of
Vulpes genus of
"true foxes". Approximately another 25 current or extinct species are
always or sometimes called foxes; these foxes are either part of the
paraphyletic group of the South American foxes, or of the outlying
group, which consists of bat-eared fox, gray fox, and island fox.
Foxes live on every continent except Antarctica. By far the most
common and widespread species of fox is the red fox (
with about 47 recognized subspecies. The global distribution of
foxes, together with their widespread reputation for cunning, has
contributed to their prominence in popular culture and folklore in
many societies around the world. The hunting of foxes with packs of
hounds, long an established pursuit in Europe, especially in the
British Isles, was exported by European settlers to various parts of
the New World.
2 Phylogenetic relationships
3.1 General morphology
3.5 Sexual characteristics
Island fox (
Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes)
6 Relationships with humans
6.3 Urban foxes
6.4 In culture
9 External links
The word fox comes from Old English, which derived from Proto-Germanic
*fuhsaz.[nb 1] This in turn derives from Proto-Indo-European *puḱ-,
meaning ’thick-haired; tail’.[nb 2] Male foxes are known as dogs,
tods or reynards, females as vixens, and young as cubs, pups, or kits,
though the latter name is not to be confused with a distinct species
called kit foxes. A group of foxes is referred to as a skulk, leash,
Within the Canidae, the results of
DNA analysis shows several
The fox-like canids, which include the kit fox (
Vulpes velox), red fox
Cape fox (
Arctic fox (
and fennec fox (
The wolf-like canids, (genus Canis, Cuon and Lycaon) including the dog
Canis lupus familiaris), gray wolf (
Canis lupus), red wolf (Canis
rufus), eastern wolf (
Canis lycaon), coyote (
Canis latrans), golden
Ethiopian wolf (
Canis simensis), black-backed
Canis mesomelas), side-striped jackal (
Canis adustus), dhole
(Cuon alpinus), and
African wild dog
African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).
The South American canids, including the bush dog (Speothos
venaticus), hoary fox (
Lycalopex uetulus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon
thous) and maned wolf.
Various monotypic taxa, including the bat-eared fox (Otocyon
megalotis), gray fox (
Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and raccoon dog
Foxes are generally smaller than other members of the family Canidae
such as wolves, jackals, and domestic dogs. For example, in the
largest species, the red fox, males weigh on average between 4.1 and
8.7 kg (9.0 and 19.2 lb), while the smallest species, the
fennec fox, weighs just 0.7 to 1.6 kg (1.5 to 3.5 lb).
Fox-like features typically include a triangular face, pointed ears,
an elongated rostrum, and a bushy tail. Foxes are digitigrade, and
thus, walk on their toes. Unlike most members of the family Canidae,
foxes have partially retractable claws.
Fox vibrissae, or whiskers,
are black. The whiskers on the muzzle, mystaciae vibrissae, average
100–110 mm (3.9–4.3 in) long, while the whiskers
everywhere else on the head average to be shorter in length. Whiskers
(carpal vibrissae) are also on the forelimbs and average 40 mm
(1.6 in) long, pointing downward and backward. Other physical
characteristics vary according to habitat and adaptive significance.
Fox species differ in fur color, length, and density. Coat colors
range from pearly white to black and white to black flecked with white
or grey on the underside. Fennec foxes (and other species of fox
adapted to life in the desert, such as kit foxes), for example, have
large ears and short fur to aid in keeping the body cool. Arctic
foxes, on the other hand, have tiny ears and short limbs as well as
thick, insulating fur, which aid in keeping the body warm. Red
foxes, by contrast, have a typical auburn pelt, the tail normally
ending with white marking. A fox's coat color and texture may vary
due to the change in seasons; fox pelts are richer and denser in the
colder months and lighter in the warmer months. To get rid of the
dense winter coat, foxes moult once a year around April; the process
begins from the feet, up the legs, and then along the back. Coat
color may also change as the individual ages.
A fox's dentition, like all other canids, is I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 4/4, M
3/2 = 42. (Bat-eared foxes have six extra molars, totaling in 48
teeth.) Foxes have pronounced carnassial pairs, which is
characteristic of a carnivore. These pairs consist of the upper
premolar and the lower first molar, and work together to shear tough
material like flesh. Foxes' canines are pronounced, also
characteristic of a carnivore, and are excellent in gripping prey.
Arctic fox curled up in snow
In the wild, the typical lifespan of a fox is one to three years,
although individuals may live up to ten years. Unlike many canids,
foxes are not always pack animals. Typically, they live in small
family groups, but some (Arctic foxes) are known to be solitary.
Foxes are omnivores. The diet of foxes is largely made up of
invertebrates such as insects, and small vertebrates such as reptiles
and birds, and can include eggs and plants. Many species are
generalist predators, but some (such as the crab-eating fox) have more
specialized diets. Most species of fox consume around 1 kg
(2.2 lb) of food every day. Foxes cache excess food, burying it
for later consumption, usually under leaves, snow, or soil.
Foxes tend to use a pouncing technique where they crouch down to
camouflage themselves in the terrain, then using their hind legs, leap
up with great force to land on top of their targeted prey. Using
their pronounced canine teeth, foxes grip on to their prey's neck and
either shake until the prey is dead, or until the animal can be
The gray fox is one of only two canine species known to regularly
climb trees; the other is the raccoon dog.
The male fox's scrotum is held up close to the body with the testes
inside even after they descend. Like other canines, the male fox has a
baculum, or penile bone. The testes of red foxes are
smaller than those of Arctic foxes. Sperm formation in red foxes
begins in August–September, with the testicles attaining their
greatest weight in December–February.
Vixens are in heat for one to six days, making their reproductive
cycle twelve months long. As with other canines, the ova are shed
during estrus without the need for the stimulation of copulating. Once
the egg is fertilized, the vixen enters a period of gestation that can
last from 52 to 53 days. Foxes tend to have an average litter size of
four to five with an 80 percent success rate in becoming
pregnant. Litter sizes can vary greatly according to species
and environment – the Arctic fox, for example, can have up to
The vixen has four pairs of teats. Each teat has 8 to 20 lactiferous
ducts, which connect the mammary gland to the nipple, allowing for
milk to be carried to the nipple.
The fox's vocal repertoire is vast:
Whine - Made shortly after birth. Occurs at a high rate when kits are
hungry and when their body temperatures are low. Whining stimulates
the mother to care for her young; it also has been known to stimulate
the male fox into caring for his mate and kits.
Yelp - Made about 19 days later. The kits' whining turns into
infantile barks, yelps, which occur heavily during play.
Explosive call - At the age of about one month, the kits can emit an
explosive call which is intended to be threatening to intruders or
other cubs; a high pitch howl.
Combative call - In adults, the explosive call becomes an open-mouthed
combative call during any conflict; a sharper bark.
Growl - An adult fox's indication to their kits to feed or head to the
Bark - Adult foxes warn against intruders and in defense by
In the case of domesticated foxes, the whining seems to remain in
adult individuals as a sign of excitement and submission in the
presence of their owners.
Canids commonly known as foxes include the following genera and
Ethiopian wolf, sometimes called the Simien fox or Simien jackal
Ethiopian wolf, native to the Ethiopian highlands
Crab-eating fox, a South American species
extinct genus, including the Falkland Islands wolf, sometimes known as
the Falklands Islands fox
Falkland Islands wolf
Falkland Islands wolf Illustration by John Gerrard Keulemans
Culpeo or Andean fox
South American gray fox
South American gray fox
South American gray fox in
Pan de Azúcar National Park
Pan de Azúcar National Park along the
Pacific coast of the Atacama Desert
Bat-eared fox in Kenya
Cozumel fox (undescribed)
Island fox (
Urocyon littoralis), in the Channel Islands of California,
Tibetan sand fox
The fennec fox is the smallest species of fox
The island fox is a near-threatened species.
Several fox species are endangered in their native environments.
Pressures placed on foxes include habitat loss and being hunted for
pelts, other trade, or control. Due in part to their opportunistic
hunting style and industriousness, foxes are commonly resented as
nuisance animals. On the other hand, foxes, while often considered
pests themselves, have been successfully employed to control pests on
fruit farms while leaving the fruit intact.
Island fox (
The island fox, though considered a near-threatened species throughout
the world, is becoming increasingly endangered in its endemic
environment of the California Channel Islands. A population on an
island is smaller than those on the mainland because of limited
resources like space, food and shelter. Island populations,
therefore, are highly susceptible to external threats ranging from
introduced predatory species and humans to extreme weather. On the
California Channel Islands, it was found that the population of the
island fox was so low due to an outbreak of canine distemper virus
from 1999 to 2000 as well as predation by non-native golden
eagles. Since 1993, the eagles have caused the population to
decline by as much as 95%. Because of the low number of foxes, the
population went through an Allee effect; this is where at low enough
densities, an individual's fitness decreases. Conservationists,
therefore, had to take healthy breeding pairs out of the wild
population to breed them in captivity until they had enough foxes to
release back into the wild. Nonnative grazers were also removed so
that native plants would be able to grow back to their natural height,
thereby providing adequate cover and protection for the foxes against
Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes)
Darwin's fox is considered critically endangered because of their
small known population of 250 mature individuals as well as their
restricted distribution. On the Chilean mainland, the population
is limited to
Nahuelbuta National Park and the surrounding Valdivian
rainforest. Similarly on Chiloé Island, their population is
limited to the forests that extend from the southernmost to the
northwestern most part of the island. Though the Nahuelbuta
National Park is protected, 90% of the species live on Chiloé
Island. A major problem the species faces, therefore, is their
dwindling, limited habitat due to the cutting and burning of the
unprotected forests. Because of deforestation, the Darwin's fox
habitat is shrinking, allowing for their competitor's (chilla fox)
preferred habitat of open space, to increase; the Darwin's fox,
subsequently, is being outcompeted. Another problem they face is
their inability to fight off diseases transmitted by the increasing
number of pet dogs. To conserve these animals, researchers suggest
the need for the forests that link the
Nahuelbuta National Park to the
Chile and in turn
Chiloé Island and its forests, to be
protected. They also suggest that other forests around
examined to determine whether Darwin's foxes have previously existed
there or can live there in the future, should the need to reintroduce
the species to those areas arise. And finally, the researchers
advise for the creation of a captive breeding program, in Chile,
because of the limited number of mature individuals in the wild.
Relationships with humans
A red fox on the porch of a house.
Foxes are often considered pests or nuisance creatures for their
opportunistic attacks on poultry and other small livestock. Fox
attacks on humans are not common. Many foxes adapt well to human
environments, with several species classified as "resident urban
carnivores" for their ability to sustain populations entirely within
urban boundaries. Foxes in urban areas can live longer and can
have smaller litter sizes than foxes in non-urban areas. Urban
foxes are ubiquitous in Europe, where they show altered behaviors
compared to non-urban foxes, including increased population density,
smaller territory, and pack foraging. Foxes have been introduced
in numerous locations, with varying effects on indigenous flora and
In some countries, foxes are major predators of rabbits and hens.
Population oscillations of these two species were the first nonlinear
oscillation studied, and led to the now-famous Lotka-Volterra
Fox hunting originated in the
United Kingdom in the 16th century.
Hunting with dogs is now banned in the United Kingdom,
though hunting without dogs is still permitted. Red foxes were
introduced into Australia in the early 19th century for sport, and
have since become widespread through much of the country. They've
caused population decline among many native species and prey on
livestock, especially new lambs.
Fox hunting is practiced as
recreation in several other countries including Canada, France,
Russia and the United States.
A tame fox in Talysarn, Wales
Domesticated red fox
Domesticated red fox and
Red fox § Taming and
There are many records of domesticated red foxes and others, but
rarely of sustained domestication. A recent and notable case is the
Russian silver fox, which resulted in visible and behavioral
changes, and is a case study of an animal population modeling
according to human domestication needs. The current group of
domesticated silver foxes are the result of nearly fifty years of
experiments in the Soviet Union and
Russia to domesticate the silver
morph of the red fox. This selective breeding resulted in physical and
behavioral traits appearing that are frequently seen in domestic cats,
dogs, and other animals, such as pigmentation changes, floppy ears,
and curly tails. Notably, the new foxes became more tame, allowing
themselves to be petted, whimpering to get attention and sniffing and
licking their caretakers.
Red fox § Urban foxes
Foxes, particularly red foxes, have been inhabiting and breeding in
human-populated areas since the twentieth century. They have adapted
well to these environments, taking advantage of man-made features such
as houses and gardens to create dens. For sustenance, they take
advantage of food thrown away by humans. In some cases, human
residents will feed foxes that frequent their local area. In this
sense, a benign relationship has been established in which foxes have
become comfortable and amiable toward the humans who, while becoming
their providers, do not much mind the presence of the foxes. However,
for some, urban foxes have proven to be a nuisance due to their
intrusion and destruction of private property. Urban fox control
methods and laws vary regionally.
Main article: Foxes in popular culture
The fox appears in many cultures, usually in folklore. However, there
are slight variations in their depictions in folklore. In Western
folklore and also in Persian folklore, foxes are depicted as a symbol
of cunning and trickery – a reputation derived especially from their
reputed ability to evade hunters. This is usually represented as a
character possessing these traits. These traits are used on a wide
variety of characters, either making them a nuisance to the story, a
misunderstood hero, or a devious villain.
In Asian folklore, foxes are depicted as a familiar spirit possessed
of magic powers. Similar to Western folklore, foxes are depicted as
mischievous, usually tricking other people, with the ability to
disguise as an attractive female human. However, there are other
depictions of foxes as a mystical, sacred creature, that can either
bring wonder or ruin. Nine-tailed foxes appear in Chinese
folklore, literature, and mythology, in which, depending on the tale
can be a good or a bad omen. The motif was eventually introduced
from Chinese to Japanese and Korean cultures.
Vulpecula represents a fox.
^ Cf. West Frisian foks, Dutch vos, and German Fuchs.
Hindi pū̃ch ‘tail’,
Tocharian B päkā ‘tail;
chowrie’, and Lithuanian paustìs ‘fur’. The bushy tail also
forms the basis for the fox's Welsh name, llwynog, literally meaning
‘bushy’, from llwyn meaning ‘bush’. Likewise, Portuguese:
raposa from rabo ‘tail’, Lithuanian uodẽgis from uodegà
‘tail’, and Ojibwa waagosh from waa, which refers to the up and
down "bounce" or flickering of an animal or its tail.
^ Macdonald, David W.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio, eds. (2004). The
biology and conservation of wild canids (Nachdr. d. Ausg. 2004. ed.).
Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 49.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lloyd, H.G. (1981). The red fox (2. impr.
ed.). London: Batsford. p. 21. ISBN 0-7134-11902.
^ Fellows, Dave. "
Animal Congregations, or What Do You Call a Group
of.....?". Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. USGS. Archived
from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
Fox Cubs and the breeding cycle". New Forest Explorers Guide.
Retrieved 29 July 2016.
^ a b c d Wayne, Robert K. (June 1993). "Molecular evolution of the
dog family". Trends in Genetics. 9 (6): 218–224.
doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90122-x. PMID 8337763.
^ Larivière, S.; Pasitschniak-Arts, M. (1996). "
Mammalian Species: No. 537, pp. 1–11. doi:10.2307/3504236.
^ Nobleman, Marc Tyler (2007). Foxes. Benchmark Books (NY).
pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0-7614-2237-2.
^ a b c d e Burrows, Roger (1968). Wild fox. Newton Abbot: David &
Charles. ISBN 9780715342176.
Arctic fox (
Vulpes lagopus)". ARKive. Retrieved 2 October
^ Fox, David. "
Vulpes vulpes, red fox".
Animal Diversity Web.
Retrieved 2 October 2014.
^ "Canidae". The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 23 September
^ Fedriani, J.M.; T. K. Fuller; R. M. Sauvajot; E. C. York
(2000-07-05). "Competition and intraguild predation among three
sympatric carnivores" (PDF). Oecologia. 125 (2): 258–270.
doi:10.1007/s004420000448. PMID 24595837. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 2011-10-06.
^ Fox, David L. (2007). "
Vulpes vulpes (red fox)".
Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.
^ Macdonald, David W. (26 April 2010). "Food Caching by Red Foxes and
Some Other Carnivores". Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie. 42 (2):
^ Lavigne, Guillaume de (2015-03-19). Free Ranging Dogs - Stray, Feral
or Wild?. Lulu Press, Inc. ISBN 9781326219529.
^ Čanády, Alexander. "Variability of the baculum in the red fox
Vulpes vulpes) from Slovakia." Zoology and Ecology 23.3 (2013):
^ Bijlsma, Rob G. "Copulatory lock of wild red fox (
Vulpes vulpes) in
broad daylight." Naturalist 80: 45-67.
^ Heptner & Naumov 1998, p. 341
^ Heptner & Naumov 1998, p. 537
^ Parkes, I. W. Rowlands and A. S. (21 August 2009). "The Reproductive
Processes of certain Mammals.-VIII. Reproduction in Foxes (Vulpes
spp.)". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 105 (4):
^ Hildebrand, Milton (1952). "The Integument in Canidae". Journal of
Mammalogy. 33 (4): 419–428. doi:10.2307/1376014.
^ Tembrock, Günter. "Canid vocalizations". Behavioural Processes. 1
(1): 57–75. doi:10.1016/0376-6357(76)90007-3.
^ Ginsburg, Joshua Ross and David Whyte MacDonald. Foxes, Wolves,
Jackals, and Dogs. p.58.
^ Bathgate, Michael. The Fox's Craft in Japanese Religion and Culture.
^ McCandless, Linda Foxes are Beneficial on Fruit Farms.
^ a b ANGULO, ELENA; ROEMER, GARY W.; BEREC, LUDĚK; GASCOIGNE,
JOANNA; COURCHAMP, FRANCK (29 May 2007). "Double Allee Effects and
Extinction in the Island Fox". Conservation Biology. 21 (4):
^ a b Primack, Richard B. (2014). Essentials of conservation biology
(Sixth ed.). Sinauer Associates. pp. 143–146.
^ a b c Kohlmann, Stephan G.; Schmidt, Gregory A.; Garcelon, David K.
(10 April 2005). "A population viability analysis for the Island Fox
on Santa Catalina Island, California". Ecological Modelling. 183 (1):
^ a b "Channel Islands: The Restoration of the Island Fox". National
Park Service. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
^ a b c d e Jiménez, J. E. (2006). "Ecology of a coastal population
of the critically endangered
Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes) on
Chiloé Island, southern Chile". Journal of Zoology. 271 (1): 63–77.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00218.x. Retrieved 30 September
^ Jiménez, J.E.; Lucherini, M. & Novaro, A.J. (2008).
IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 30
^ a b c d Yahnke, Christopher J.; Johnson, Warren E.; Geffen, Eli;
Smith, Deborah; Hertel, Fritz; Roy, Michael S.; Bonacic, Cristian F.;
Fuller, Todd K.; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K. (1996).
"Darwin's Fox: A Distinct Endangered
Species in a Vanishing Habitat".
Conservation Biology. 10 (2): 366–375.
^ Barratt, Sarah and Martin Barratt. Practical Quail-keeping. 2013.
^ a b Iossa, G. et al. A Taxonomic Analysis of Urban Carnivore
Ecology, from Urban Carnivores. Stanley Gehrt et al. eds. 2010. p.174.
^ Francis, Robert and Michael Chadwick. Urban Ecosystems 2013. p.126.
^ See generally Long, John. Introduced Mammals of the World. 2013.
^ Sprott, Julien. Elegant Chaos 2010. p.89.
^ Komarova, Natalia. Axiomatic Modeling in Life Sciences, from
Mathematics and Life Sciences. Alexandra Antoniouk and Roderick
Melnik, eds. pp.113–114.
^ "Hunt campaigners lose legal bid". BBC News Online.
^ Singh, Anita (2009-09-18). "David Cameron 'to vote against fox
hunting ban'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original
on 30 September 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
Fox Hunting. North West League Against Cruel Sports Support Group.
Fox Hunting: For and Against" (PDF).
^ Fact Sheet: European Red Fox, Department of the Environment,
^ "The most affectionate foxes are bred in Novosibirsk - citation
needed -". Redhotrussia.com. Retrieved 2014-04-08.
^ Trut, Lyudmila N. (1999). "Early Canid Domestication: The
Experiment" (PDF). American Scientist. 87.
^ Kenneth Mason, Jonathan Losos, Susan Singer, Peter Raven, George
Johnson(2011)Biology Ninth Edition, p. 423. McGraw-Hill, New
^ Harris, Stephen (1986). Urban Foxes. 18 Anley Road, London W14 OBY:
Whittet Books Ltd. ISBN 0905483472.
^ Uther, Hans-Jörg (2006). "The
Fox in World Literature: Reflections
on a "Fictional Animal"". Asian
Folklore Studies. 65 (2): 133–160.
^ Kang, Xiaofei (2006). The cult of the fox: Power, gender, and
popular religion in late imperial and modern China. New York: Columbia
University Press. p. 15–21. ISBN 0-231-13338-3.
^ Wallen, Martin (2006). Fox. London: Reaktion Books.
pp. 69–70. ISBN 9781861892973.
^ "Constellation Names". Constellation Guide. Retrieved 1 October
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fox.
Look up fox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Fox
BBC Wales Nature:
The fox website
Texts on Wikisource:
"Fox". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.
"Fox". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9 (9th ed.). 1879.
Badger and the Fox". Popular Science Monthly. 38. April
1891. Reprinted from Cornhill Magazine.
"Fox". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
"Fox". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
"Fox". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
"Fox". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
African palm civet
African palm civet (N. binotata)
Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)
Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda)
Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni)
Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)
Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri)
Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei)
Common kusimanse (C. obscurus)
Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)
Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata)
Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii)
Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens)
Black mongoose (G. nigrata)
Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea)
Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta)
Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula)
Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)
Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus)
Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii)
Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus)
Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon)
Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose (H. javanicus)
Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso)
Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus)
Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii)
Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva)
Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)
White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)
Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)
Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus)
Banded mongoose (M. mungo)
Selous' mongoose (P. selousi)
Meller's mongoose (R. melleri)
Meerkat (S. suricatta)
Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)
Brown hyena (H. brunnea)
Striped hyena (H. hyaena)
Aardwolf (P. cristatus)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Small family listed below
Cheetah (A. jubatus)
Caracal (C. caracal)
African golden cat
African golden cat (C. aurata)
Bay cat (C. badia)
Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat (C. temminckii)
European wildcat (F. silvestris)
African wildcat (F. lybica)
Jungle cat (F. chaus)
Black-footed cat (F. nigripes)
Sand cat (F. margarita)
Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti)
Domestic cat (F. catus)
Ocelot (L. pardalis)
Margay (L. wiedii)
Pampas cat (L. colocola)
Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)
Kodkod (L. guigna)
Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)
Oncilla (L. tigrinus)
Southern tigrina (L. guttulus)
Serval (L. serval)
Canadian lynx (L. canadensis)
Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)
Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)
Bobcat (L. rufus)
Pallas's cat (O. manul)
Marbled cat (P. marmorata)
Fishing cat (P. viverrinus)
Leopard cat (P. bengalensis)
Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis)
Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps)
Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)
Cougar (P. concolor)
Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi)
Lion (P. leo)
Jaguar (P. onca)
Leopard (P. pardus)
Tiger (P. tigris)
Snow leopard (P. uncia)
Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa)
Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)
Viverridae (includes Civets)
Binturong (A. binturong)
Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)
Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)
Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet (P. larvata)
Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus)
Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)
Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni)
Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)
Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni)
Otter civet (C. bennettii)
Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet (D. hosei)
Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)
Banded linsang (P. linsang)
Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)
African civet (C. civetta)
Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica)
Angolan genet (G. angolensis)
Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni)
Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet (G. cristata)
Common genet (G. genetta)
Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni)
Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata)
Pardine genet (G. pardina)
Aquatic genet (G. piscivora)
King genet (G. poensis)
Servaline genet (G. servalina)
Haussa genet (G. thierryi)
Cape genet (G. tigrina)
Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)
African linsang (P. richardsonii)
Leighton's linsang (P. leightoni)
Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina)
Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila)
Malayan civet (V. tangalunga)
Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)
Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet (V. indica)
Fossa (C. ferox)
Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii)
Western falanouc (E. major)
Malagasy civet (F. fossana)
Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata)
Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri)
Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)
Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor)
Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)
Caniformia (cont. below)
Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)
Sun bear (H. malayanus)
Sloth bear (M. ursinus)
Spectacled bear (T. ornatus)
American black bear
American black bear (U. americanus)
Brown bear (U. arctos)
Polar bear (U. maritimus)
Asian black bear
Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga)
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii)
American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus)
Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)
Hooded skunk (M. macroura)
Striped skunk (M. mephitis)
Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis)
Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)
Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons)
Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis)
Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius)
Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)
Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni)
Northern olingo (B. gabbii)
Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo (B. medius)
Olinguito (B. neblina)
Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus)
Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)
White-nosed coati (N. narica)
South American coati
South American coati (N. nasua)
Western mountain coati (N. olivacea)
Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)
Kinkajou (P. flavus)
Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus)
Raccoon (P. lotor)
Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)
Red panda (A. fulgens)
Caniformia (cont. above)
(includes fur seals
and sea lions)
South American fur seal
South American fur seal (A. australis)
Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri)
Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis)
Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella)
Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii)
Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal (A. pusillus)
Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi)
Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)
Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)
Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)
Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion (N. cinerea)
South American sea lion
South American sea lion (O. flavescens)
New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri)
California sea lion
California sea lion (Z. californianus)
Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)
Walrus (O. rosmarus)
Hooded seal (C. cristata)
Bearded seal (E. barbatus)
Gray seal (H. grypus)
Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)
Leopard seal (H. leptonyx)
Weddell seal (L. weddellii)
Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus)
Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris)
Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)
Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus)
Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)
Ross seal (O. rossi)
Harp seal (P. groenlandicus)
Spotted seal (P. largha)
Harbor seal (P. vitulina)
Caspian seal (P. caspica)
Ringed seal (P. hispida)
Baikal seal (P. sibirica)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Canidae (includes dogs)
Short-eared dog (A. microtis)
Side-striped jackal (C. adustus)
African golden wolf
African golden wolf (C. anthus)
Golden jackal (C. aureus)
Coyote (C. latrans)
Gray wolf (C. lupus)
Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas)
Red wolf (C. rufus)
Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis)
Crab-eating fox (C. thous)
Maned wolf (C. brachyurus)
Dhole (C. alpinus)
Culpeo (L. culpaeus)
Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes)
South American gray fox
South American gray fox (L. griseus)
Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus)
Sechuran fox (L. sechurae)
Hoary fox (L. vetulus)
African wild dog
African wild dog (L. pictus)
Raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)
Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)
Bush dog (S. venaticus)
Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus)
Island fox (U. littoralis)
Bengal fox (V. bengalensis)
Blanford's fox (V. cana)
Cape fox (V. chama)
Corsac fox (V. corsac)
Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata)
Arctic fox (V. lagopus)
Kit fox (V. macrotis)
Pale fox (V. pallida)
Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli)
Swift fox (V. velox)
Red fox (V. vulpes)
Fennec fox (V. zerda)
African clawless otter
African clawless otter (A. capensis)
Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)
Sea otter (E. lutris)
Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)
North American river otter
North American river otter (L. canadensis)
Marine otter (L. felina)
Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis)
Southern river otter
Southern river otter (L. provocax)
Eurasian otter (L. lutra)
Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)
Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)
Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)
Hog badger (A. collaris)
Tayra (E. barbara)
Lesser grison (G. cuja)
Greater grison (G. vittata)
Wolverine (G. gulo)
Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca)
Striped polecat (I. striatus)
Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)
American marten (M. americana)
Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula)
Beech marten (M. foina)
Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii)
European pine marten
European pine marten (M. martes)
Japanese marten (M. melampus)
Sable (M. zibellina)
Fisher (P. pennanti)
Japanese badger (M. anakuma)
Asian badger (M. leucurus)
European badger (M. meles)
Honey badger (M. capensis)
Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti)
Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata)
Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis)
Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)
(Weasels and Ferrets)
Amazon weasel (M. africana)
Mountain weasel (M. altaica)
Stoat (M. erminea)
Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii)
Colombian weasel (M. felipei)
Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata)
Japanese weasel (M. itatsi)
Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah)
European mink (M. lutreola)
Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina)
Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes)
Least weasel (M. nivalis)
Malayan weasel (M. nudipes)
European polecat (M. putorius)
Siberian weasel (M. sibirica)
Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa)
Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)
American mink (N. vison)
African striped weasel
African striped weasel (P. albinucha)
American badger (T. taxus)
Marbled polecat (V. peregusna)