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Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae. Foxes have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned snout, and a long bushy tail (or brush). Twelve species belong to the monophyletic group of Vulpes
Vulpes
genus of "true foxes". Approximately another 25 current or extinct species are always or sometimes called foxes; these foxes are either part of the paraphyletic group of the South American foxes, or of the outlying group, which consists of bat-eared fox, gray fox, and island fox.[1] Foxes live on every continent except Antarctica. By far the most common and widespread species of fox is the red fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes) with about 47 recognized subspecies.[2] The global distribution of foxes, together with their widespread reputation for cunning, has contributed to their prominence in popular culture and folklore in many societies around the world. The hunting of foxes with packs of hounds, long an established pursuit in Europe, especially in the British Isles, was exported by European settlers to various parts of the New World.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Phylogenetic relationships 3 Biology

3.1 General morphology 3.2 Pelage 3.3 Dentition 3.4 Behavior 3.5 Sexual characteristics 3.6 Vocalization

4 Classification 5 Conservation

5.1 Island fox
Island fox
( Urocyon
Urocyon
littoralis) 5.2 Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(Pseudalopex fulvipes)

6 Relationships with humans

6.1 Fox
Fox
hunting 6.2 Domestication 6.3 Urban foxes 6.4 In culture

7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Etymology The word fox comes from Old English, which derived from Proto-Germanic *fuhsaz.[nb 1] This in turn derives from Proto-Indo-European *puḱ-, meaning ’thick-haired; tail’.[nb 2] Male foxes are known as dogs, tods or reynards, females as vixens, and young as cubs, pups, or kits, though the latter name is not to be confused with a distinct species called kit foxes. A group of foxes is referred to as a skulk, leash, or earth.[3][4] Phylogenetic relationships Within the Canidae, the results of DNA
DNA
analysis shows several phylogenetic divisions:

The fox-like canids, which include the kit fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
velox), red fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes), Cape fox
Cape fox
( Vulpes
Vulpes
chama), Arctic fox
Arctic fox
( Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus), and fennec fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
zerda).[5] The wolf-like canids, (genus Canis, Cuon and Lycaon) including the dog ( Canis
Canis
lupus familiaris), gray wolf ( Canis
Canis
lupus), red wolf (Canis rufus), eastern wolf ( Canis
Canis
lycaon), coyote ( Canis
Canis
latrans), golden jackal ( Canis
Canis
aureus), Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
( Canis
Canis
simensis), black-backed jackal ( Canis
Canis
mesomelas), side-striped jackal ( Canis
Canis
adustus), dhole (Cuon alpinus), and African wild dog
African wild dog
(Lycaon pictus).[5] The South American canids, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), hoary fox ( Lycalopex
Lycalopex
uetulus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and maned wolf.[5] Various monotypic taxa, including the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), gray fox ( Urocyon
Urocyon
cinereoargenteus), and raccoon dog ( Nyctereutes
Nyctereutes
procyonoides).[5]

Biology

Fox
Fox
skeleton

General morphology Foxes are generally smaller than other members of the family Canidae such as wolves, jackals, and domestic dogs. For example, in the largest species, the red fox, males weigh on average between 4.1 and 8.7 kg (9.0 and 19.2 lb),[6] while the smallest species, the fennec fox, weighs just 0.7 to 1.6 kg (1.5 to 3.5 lb).[7] Fox-like features typically include a triangular face, pointed ears, an elongated rostrum, and a bushy tail. Foxes are digitigrade, and thus, walk on their toes. Unlike most members of the family Canidae, foxes have partially retractable claws.[8] Fox
Fox
vibrissae, or whiskers, are black. The whiskers on the muzzle, mystaciae vibrissae, average 100–110 mm (3.9–4.3 in) long, while the whiskers everywhere else on the head average to be shorter in length. Whiskers (carpal vibrissae) are also on the forelimbs and average 40 mm (1.6 in) long, pointing downward and backward.[2] Other physical characteristics vary according to habitat and adaptive significance. Pelage Fox
Fox
species differ in fur color, length, and density. Coat colors range from pearly white to black and white to black flecked with white or grey on the underside. Fennec foxes (and other species of fox adapted to life in the desert, such as kit foxes), for example, have large ears and short fur to aid in keeping the body cool.[2][8] Arctic foxes, on the other hand, have tiny ears and short limbs as well as thick, insulating fur, which aid in keeping the body warm.[9] Red foxes, by contrast, have a typical auburn pelt, the tail normally ending with white marking.[10] A fox's coat color and texture may vary due to the change in seasons; fox pelts are richer and denser in the colder months and lighter in the warmer months. To get rid of the dense winter coat, foxes moult once a year around April; the process begins from the feet, up the legs, and then along the back.[8] Coat color may also change as the individual ages.[2] Dentition A fox's dentition, like all other canids, is I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 4/4, M 3/2 = 42. (Bat-eared foxes have six extra molars, totaling in 48 teeth.) Foxes have pronounced carnassial pairs, which is characteristic of a carnivore. These pairs consist of the upper premolar and the lower first molar, and work together to shear tough material like flesh. Foxes' canines are pronounced, also characteristic of a carnivore, and are excellent in gripping prey.[11] Behavior

Arctic fox
Arctic fox
curled up in snow

In the wild, the typical lifespan of a fox is one to three years, although individuals may live up to ten years. Unlike many canids, foxes are not always pack animals. Typically, they live in small family groups, but some (Arctic foxes) are known to be solitary.[2][8] Foxes are omnivores.[12][13] The diet of foxes is largely made up of invertebrates such as insects, and small vertebrates such as reptiles and birds, and can include eggs and plants. Many species are generalist predators, but some (such as the crab-eating fox) have more specialized diets. Most species of fox consume around 1 kg (2.2 lb) of food every day. Foxes cache excess food, burying it for later consumption, usually under leaves, snow, or soil.[8][14] Foxes tend to use a pouncing technique where they crouch down to camouflage themselves in the terrain, then using their hind legs, leap up with great force to land on top of their targeted prey.[2] Using their pronounced canine teeth, foxes grip on to their prey's neck and either shake until the prey is dead, or until the animal can be disemboweled.[2] The gray fox is one of only two canine species known to regularly climb trees; the other is the raccoon dog.[15] Sexual characteristics The male fox's scrotum is held up close to the body with the testes inside even after they descend. Like other canines, the male fox has a baculum, or penile bone.[2][16][17] The testes of red foxes are smaller than those of Arctic foxes.[18] Sperm formation in red foxes begins in August–September, with the testicles attaining their greatest weight in December–February.[19] Vixens are in heat for one to six days, making their reproductive cycle twelve months long. As with other canines, the ova are shed during estrus without the need for the stimulation of copulating. Once the egg is fertilized, the vixen enters a period of gestation that can last from 52 to 53 days. Foxes tend to have an average litter size of four to five with an 80 percent success rate in becoming pregnant.[2][20] Litter sizes can vary greatly according to species and environment – the Arctic fox, for example, can have up to eleven kits.[21] The vixen has four pairs of teats. Each teat has 8 to 20 lactiferous ducts, which connect the mammary gland to the nipple, allowing for milk to be carried to the nipple.[citation needed] Vocalization The fox's vocal repertoire is vast:

Whine - Made shortly after birth. Occurs at a high rate when kits are hungry and when their body temperatures are low. Whining stimulates the mother to care for her young; it also has been known to stimulate the male fox into caring for his mate and kits. Yelp - Made about 19 days later. The kits' whining turns into infantile barks, yelps, which occur heavily during play. Explosive call - At the age of about one month, the kits can emit an explosive call which is intended to be threatening to intruders or other cubs; a high pitch howl. Combative call - In adults, the explosive call becomes an open-mouthed combative call during any conflict; a sharper bark. Growl - An adult fox's indication to their kits to feed or head to the adult's location. Bark - Adult foxes warn against intruders and in defense by barking.[2][22]

In the case of domesticated foxes, the whining seems to remain in adult individuals as a sign of excitement and submission in the presence of their owners.[2] Classification Canids commonly known as foxes include the following genera and species:[2]

Genus Species Picture

Canis Ethiopian wolf, sometimes called the Simien fox or Simien jackal

Ethiopian wolf, native to the Ethiopian highlands

Cerdocyon Crab-eating fox

Crab-eating fox, a South American species

† Dusicyon extinct genus, including the Falkland Islands wolf, sometimes known as the Falklands Islands fox

Falkland Islands wolf
Falkland Islands wolf
Illustration by John Gerrard Keulemans (1842–1912)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
or Andean fox Darwin's fox South American gray fox Pampas fox Sechuran fox Hoary fox

A South American gray fox
South American gray fox
in Pan de Azúcar National Park
Pan de Azúcar National Park
along the Pacific coast of the Atacama Desert

Otocyon Bat-eared fox

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
in Kenya

Urocyon

Gray fox Island fox Cozumel fox
Cozumel fox
(undescribed)

Island fox
Island fox
( Urocyon
Urocyon
littoralis), in the Channel Islands of California, US

Vulpes

Arctic fox Bengal fox Blanford's fox Cape fox Corsac fox Fennec fox Kit fox Pale fox Rüppell's fox Red fox Swift fox Tibetan sand fox

The fennec fox is the smallest species of fox

Red fox

Conservation

The island fox is a near-threatened species.

Several fox species are endangered in their native environments. Pressures placed on foxes include habitat loss and being hunted for pelts, other trade, or control.[23] Due in part to their opportunistic hunting style and industriousness, foxes are commonly resented as nuisance animals.[24] On the other hand, foxes, while often considered pests themselves, have been successfully employed to control pests on fruit farms while leaving the fruit intact.[25] Island fox
Island fox
( Urocyon
Urocyon
littoralis) The island fox, though considered a near-threatened species throughout the world, is becoming increasingly endangered in its endemic environment of the California Channel Islands.[26] A population on an island is smaller than those on the mainland because of limited resources like space, food and shelter.[27] Island populations, therefore, are highly susceptible to external threats ranging from introduced predatory species and humans to extreme weather.[27] On the California Channel Islands, it was found that the population of the island fox was so low due to an outbreak of canine distemper virus from 1999 to 2000[28] as well as predation by non-native golden eagles.[29] Since 1993, the eagles have caused the population to decline by as much as 95%.[28] Because of the low number of foxes, the population went through an Allee effect; this is where at low enough densities, an individual's fitness decreases.[26] Conservationists, therefore, had to take healthy breeding pairs out of the wild population to breed them in captivity until they had enough foxes to release back into the wild.[28] Nonnative grazers were also removed so that native plants would be able to grow back to their natural height, thereby providing adequate cover and protection for the foxes against golden eagles.[29] Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(Pseudalopex fulvipes) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
is considered critically endangered because of their small known population of 250 mature individuals as well as their restricted distribution.[30] On the Chilean mainland, the population is limited to Nahuelbuta National Park and the surrounding Valdivian rainforest.[30] Similarly on Chiloé Island, their population is limited to the forests that extend from the southernmost to the northwestern most part of the island.[30] Though the Nahuelbuta National Park is protected, 90% of the species live on Chiloé Island.[31] A major problem the species faces, therefore, is their dwindling, limited habitat due to the cutting and burning of the unprotected forests.[30] Because of deforestation, the Darwin's fox habitat is shrinking, allowing for their competitor's (chilla fox) preferred habitat of open space, to increase; the Darwin's fox, subsequently, is being outcompeted.[32] Another problem they face is their inability to fight off diseases transmitted by the increasing number of pet dogs.[30] To conserve these animals, researchers suggest the need for the forests that link the Nahuelbuta National Park to the coast of Chile
Chile
and in turn Chiloé Island
Chiloé Island
and its forests, to be protected.[32] They also suggest that other forests around Chile
Chile
be examined to determine whether Darwin's foxes have previously existed there or can live there in the future, should the need to reintroduce the species to those areas arise.[32] And finally, the researchers advise for the creation of a captive breeding program, in Chile, because of the limited number of mature individuals in the wild.[32] Relationships with humans

A red fox on the porch of a house.

Foxes are often considered pests or nuisance creatures for their opportunistic attacks on poultry and other small livestock. Fox attacks on humans are not common.[33] Many foxes adapt well to human environments, with several species classified as "resident urban carnivores" for their ability to sustain populations entirely within urban boundaries.[34] Foxes in urban areas can live longer and can have smaller litter sizes than foxes in non-urban areas.[34] Urban foxes are ubiquitous in Europe, where they show altered behaviors compared to non-urban foxes, including increased population density, smaller territory, and pack foraging.[35] Foxes have been introduced in numerous locations, with varying effects on indigenous flora and fauna.[36] In some countries, foxes are major predators of rabbits and hens. Population oscillations of these two species were the first nonlinear oscillation studied, and led to the now-famous Lotka-Volterra equation.[37][38] Fox
Fox
hunting Main article: Fox
Fox
hunting Fox hunting
Fox hunting
originated in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the 16th century. Hunting with dogs is now banned in the United Kingdom,[39][40][41][42] though hunting without dogs is still permitted. Red foxes were introduced into Australia in the early 19th century for sport, and have since become widespread through much of the country. They've caused population decline among many native species and prey on livestock, especially new lambs.[43] Fox hunting
Fox hunting
is practiced as recreation in several other countries including Canada, France, Ireland, Italy, Russia
Russia
and the United States. Domestication

A tame fox in Talysarn, Wales

See also: Domesticated red fox
Domesticated red fox
and Red fox
Red fox
§ Taming and domestication There are many records of domesticated red foxes and others, but rarely of sustained domestication. A recent and notable case is the Russian silver fox,[44] which resulted in visible and behavioral changes, and is a case study of an animal population modeling according to human domestication needs. The current group of domesticated silver foxes are the result of nearly fifty years of experiments in the Soviet Union and Russia
Russia
to domesticate the silver morph of the red fox. This selective breeding resulted in physical and behavioral traits appearing that are frequently seen in domestic cats, dogs, and other animals, such as pigmentation changes, floppy ears, and curly tails.[45] Notably, the new foxes became more tame, allowing themselves to be petted, whimpering to get attention and sniffing and licking their caretakers.[46] Urban foxes Main article: Red fox
Red fox
§ Urban foxes Foxes, particularly red foxes, have been inhabiting and breeding in human-populated areas since the twentieth century. They have adapted well to these environments, taking advantage of man-made features such as houses and gardens to create dens. For sustenance, they take advantage of food thrown away by humans. In some cases, human residents will feed foxes that frequent their local area. In this sense, a benign relationship has been established in which foxes have become comfortable and amiable toward the humans who, while becoming their providers, do not much mind the presence of the foxes. However, for some, urban foxes have proven to be a nuisance due to their intrusion and destruction of private property. Urban fox control methods and laws vary regionally.[47] In culture Main article: Foxes in popular culture The fox appears in many cultures, usually in folklore. However, there are slight variations in their depictions in folklore. In Western folklore and also in Persian folklore, foxes are depicted as a symbol of cunning and trickery – a reputation derived especially from their reputed ability to evade hunters. This is usually represented as a character possessing these traits. These traits are used on a wide variety of characters, either making them a nuisance to the story, a misunderstood hero, or a devious villain. In Asian folklore, foxes are depicted as a familiar spirit possessed of magic powers. Similar to Western folklore, foxes are depicted as mischievous, usually tricking other people, with the ability to disguise as an attractive female human. However, there are other depictions of foxes as a mystical, sacred creature, that can either bring wonder or ruin.[48] Nine-tailed foxes appear in Chinese folklore, literature, and mythology, in which, depending on the tale can be a good or a bad omen.[49] The motif was eventually introduced from Chinese to Japanese and Korean cultures.[50] The constellation Vulpecula
Vulpecula
represents a fox.[51] Notes

^ Cf. West Frisian foks, Dutch vos, and German Fuchs. ^ Cf. Hindi
Hindi
pū̃ch ‘tail’, Tocharian B
Tocharian B
päkā ‘tail; chowrie’, and Lithuanian paustìs ‘fur’. The bushy tail also forms the basis for the fox's Welsh name, llwynog, literally meaning ‘bushy’, from llwyn meaning ‘bush’. Likewise, Portuguese: raposa from rabo ‘tail’, Lithuanian uodẽgis from uodegà ‘tail’, and Ojibwa waagosh from waa, which refers to the up and down "bounce" or flickering of an animal or its tail.

References

^ Macdonald, David W.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio, eds. (2004). The biology and conservation of wild canids (Nachdr. d. Ausg. 2004. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 0198515561.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lloyd, H.G. (1981). The red fox (2. impr. ed.). London: Batsford. p. 21. ISBN 0-7134-11902.  ^ Fellows, Dave. " Animal
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Congregations, or What Do You Call a Group of.....?". Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. USGS. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2014.  ^ " Fox
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Cubs and the breeding cycle". New Forest Explorers Guide. Retrieved 29 July 2016.  ^ a b c d Wayne, Robert K. (June 1993). "Molecular evolution of the dog family". Trends in Genetics. 9 (6): 218–224. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90122-x. PMID 8337763.  ^ Larivière, S.; Pasitschniak-Arts, M. (1996). " Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes". Mammalian Species: No. 537, pp. 1–11. doi:10.2307/3504236.  ^ Nobleman, Marc Tyler (2007). Foxes. Benchmark Books (NY). pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0-7614-2237-2.  ^ a b c d e Burrows, Roger (1968). Wild fox. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 9780715342176.  ^ " Arctic fox
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( Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus)". ARKive. Retrieved 2 October 2014.  ^ Fox, David. " Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes, red fox". Animal
Animal
Diversity Web. Retrieved 2 October 2014.  ^ "Canidae". The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 23 September 2014.  ^ Fedriani, J.M.; T. K. Fuller; R. M. Sauvajot; E. C. York (2000-07-05). "Competition and intraguild predation among three sympatric carnivores" (PDF). Oecologia. 125 (2): 258–270. doi:10.1007/s004420000448. PMID 24595837. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-06.  ^ Fox, David L. (2007). " Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes (red fox)". Animal
Animal
Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.  ^ Macdonald, David W. (26 April 2010). "Food Caching by Red Foxes and Some Other Carnivores". Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie. 42 (2): 170–185. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1976.tb00963.x.  ^ Lavigne, Guillaume de (2015-03-19). Free Ranging Dogs - Stray, Feral or Wild?. Lulu Press, Inc. ISBN 9781326219529.  ^ Čanády, Alexander. "Variability of the baculum in the red fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes) from Slovakia." Zoology and Ecology 23.3 (2013): 165-170. ^ Bijlsma, Rob G. "Copulatory lock of wild red fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes) in broad daylight." Naturalist 80: 45-67. ^ Heptner & Naumov 1998, p. 341 ^ Heptner & Naumov 1998, p. 537 ^ Parkes, I. W. Rowlands and A. S. (21 August 2009). "The Reproductive Processes of certain Mammals.-VIII. Reproduction in Foxes (Vulpes spp.)". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 105 (4): 823–841. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1935.tb06267.x.  ^ Hildebrand, Milton (1952). "The Integument in Canidae". Journal of Mammalogy. 33 (4): 419–428. doi:10.2307/1376014. JSTOR 1376014.  ^ Tembrock, Günter. "Canid vocalizations". Behavioural Processes. 1 (1): 57–75. doi:10.1016/0376-6357(76)90007-3.  ^ Ginsburg, Joshua Ross and David Whyte MacDonald. Foxes, Wolves, Jackals, and Dogs. p.58. ^ Bathgate, Michael. The Fox's Craft in Japanese Religion and Culture. 2004. p.18. ^ McCandless, Linda Foxes are Beneficial on Fruit Farms. nysaes.cornell.edu (1997-04-24) ^ a b ANGULO, ELENA; ROEMER, GARY W.; BEREC, LUDĚK; GASCOIGNE, JOANNA; COURCHAMP, FRANCK (29 May 2007). "Double Allee Effects and Extinction
Extinction
in the Island Fox". Conservation Biology. 21 (4): 1082–1091. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00721.x.  ^ a b Primack, Richard B. (2014). Essentials of conservation biology (Sixth ed.). Sinauer Associates. pp. 143–146. ISBN 9781605352893.  ^ a b c Kohlmann, Stephan G.; Schmidt, Gregory A.; Garcelon, David K. (10 April 2005). "A population viability analysis for the Island Fox on Santa Catalina Island, California". Ecological Modelling. 183 (1): 77–94. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2004.07.022.  ^ a b "Channel Islands: The Restoration of the Island Fox". National Park Service. Retrieved 25 September 2014.  ^ a b c d e Jiménez, J. E. (2006). "Ecology of a coastal population of the critically endangered Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(Pseudalopex fulvipes) on Chiloé Island, southern Chile". Journal of Zoology. 271 (1): 63–77. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00218.x. Retrieved 30 September 2014.  ^ Jiménez, J.E.; Lucherini, M. & Novaro, A.J. (2008). "Pseudalopex fulvipes". IUCN Red List
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of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 30 September 2014.  ^ a b c d Yahnke, Christopher J.; Johnson, Warren E.; Geffen, Eli; Smith, Deborah; Hertel, Fritz; Roy, Michael S.; Bonacic, Cristian F.; Fuller, Todd K.; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K. (1996). "Darwin's Fox: A Distinct Endangered Species
Species
in a Vanishing Habitat". Conservation Biology. 10 (2): 366–375. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10020366.x.  ^ Barratt, Sarah and Martin Barratt. Practical Quail-keeping. 2013. ^ a b Iossa, G. et al. A Taxonomic Analysis of Urban Carnivore Ecology, from Urban Carnivores. Stanley Gehrt et al. eds. 2010. p.174. ^ Francis, Robert and Michael Chadwick. Urban Ecosystems 2013. p.126. ^ See generally Long, John. Introduced Mammals of the World. 2013. ^ Sprott, Julien. Elegant Chaos 2010. p.89. ^ Komarova, Natalia. Axiomatic Modeling in Life Sciences, from Mathematics and Life Sciences. Alexandra Antoniouk and Roderick Melnik, eds. pp.113–114. ^ "Hunt campaigners lose legal bid". BBC News Online. 2006-06-23.  ^ Singh, Anita (2009-09-18). "David Cameron 'to vote against fox hunting ban'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-02.  ^ Fox
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Hunting. North West League Against Cruel Sports Support Group. nwlacs.co.uk ^ " Fox
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Hunting: For and Against" (PDF).  ^ Fact Sheet: European Red Fox, Department of the Environment, Australian Government ^ "The most affectionate foxes are bred in Novosibirsk - citation needed -". Redhotrussia.com. Retrieved 2014-04-08.  ^ Trut, Lyudmila N. (1999). "Early Canid Domestication: The Fox
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Farm Experiment" (PDF). American Scientist. 87.  ^ Kenneth Mason, Jonathan Losos, Susan Singer, Peter Raven, George Johnson(2011)Biology Ninth Edition, p. 423. McGraw-Hill, New York.ISBN 978-0-07-353222-6. ^ Harris, Stephen (1986). Urban Foxes. 18 Anley Road, London W14 OBY: Whittet Books Ltd. ISBN 0905483472.  ^ Uther, Hans-Jörg (2006). "The Fox
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in World Literature: Reflections on a "Fictional Animal"". Asian Folklore
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Studies. 65 (2): 133–160. JSTOR 30030396.  ^ Kang, Xiaofei (2006). The cult of the fox: Power, gender, and popular religion in late imperial and modern China. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 15–21. ISBN 0-231-13338-3.  ^ Wallen, Martin (2006). Fox. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 69–70. ISBN 9781861892973.  ^ "Constellation Names". Constellation Guide. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fox.

Look up fox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Fox

BBC Wales Nature: Fox
Fox
videos The fox website Texts on Wikisource:

"Fox". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.  "Fox". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9 (9th ed.). 1879.  "The Badger
Badger
and the Fox". Popular Science Monthly. 38. April 1891.  Reprinted from Cornhill Magazine. "Fox". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  "Fox". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). 1911.  "Fox". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.  "Fox". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.  "Fox". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. 

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon dog
Raccoon dog
(N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

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