The town was built as a small railroad station for the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. The town was originally named Oxford, for a large ox that was killed when crossing the railroad tracks. The name of the town was changed because there was another town named Oxford located on the rail line. 
Fowler is located at (38.128343, -104.025007).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.5 square miles (1.3 km2), all of it land.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 1206 people, 521 households, and 330 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,468.5 people per square mile (950.3/km²). There were 591 housing units at an average density of 1,209.7 per square mile (465.7/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 95.02% White, 0.08% Black, 1.08% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 2.99% from other races, and 0.66% from two or more races. Latino or Hispanic of any race were 12.35% of the population.
There were 521 households out of which 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 34.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.87.
In the town, the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 22.5% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, and 24.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 84.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.2 males. The Civilians are protected and served by the Fowler Police Department
The median income for a household in the town was $25,761, and the median income for a family was $32,143. Males had a median income of $25,536 versus $20,750 for females. The per capita income for the town was $15,501. About 11.3% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.0% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over.
The Fowler School District has one elementary school and one high school. Their high school mascot is the Grizzlies.