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The term "Four Policemen" refers to a post-war council consisting of the Big Four that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
proposed as a guarantor of world peace. The members of the Big Four, called the Four Powers during World War II, were the four major Allies of World War II: the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China. The United Nations
United Nations
envisioned by Roosevelt consisted of three branches: an executive branch comprising the Big Four, an enforcement branch composed of the same four great powers acting as the Four Policemen or Four Sheriffs, and an international assembly representing the member nations of the UN.[1] The Four Policemen
Four Policemen
would be responsible for keeping order within their spheres of influence: Britain in its empire and in Western Europe; the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in Eastern Europe and the central Eurasian landmass; China
China
in East Asia and the Western Pacific; and the United States
United States
in the Western hemisphere. As a preventive measure against new wars, countries other than the Four Policemen
Four Policemen
were to be disarmed. Only the Four Policemen
Four Policemen
would be allowed to possess any weapons more powerful than a rifle.[2] The Four Policemen
Four Policemen
came into fruition as the permanent members of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council, but its powers were significantly diminished as a compromise with internationalist critics.[3] When the United Nations
United Nations
was officially established in later 1945, France was in due course added as the fifth member of the council at that time[4] due to the insistence of Churchill.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 Plans for the Four Policemen 1.3 Formation of the United Nations

2 Legacy 3 See also 4 References

4.1 Citations 4.2 Sources

History[edit] Background[edit] See also: League of Nations During World War II, President Roosevelt initiated post-war plans for the creation of a new and more durable international organization that would replace the former League of Nations. Prior to the war, Roosevelt had initially been a supporter of the League of Nations, but he lost confidence in the League due to its ineffectiveness at preventing the outbreak of the second World War. Roosevelt wanted to create an international organization that secured global peace through the unified efforts of the world's great powers, rather than through the Wilsonian notions of international consensus and collaboration that guided the League of Nations.[5] By 1935, he told his foreign policy adviser Sumner Welles: "The League of Nations
League of Nations
has become nothing more than a debating society, and a poor one at that!"[6] Roosevelt criticized the League of Nations
League of Nations
for representing the interests of too many nations. The President said to the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov
Vyacheslav Molotov
that "he could not visualize another League of Nations
League of Nations
with 100 different signatories; there were simply too many nations to satisfy, hence it was a failure and would be a failure".[7] Roosevelt's proposal in 1941 was to create a new international body led by a "trusteeship" of great powers that would oversee smaller countries. In September 1941, he wrote:

In the present complete world confusion, it is not thought advisable at this time to reconstitute a League of Nations
League of Nations
which, because of its size, makes for disagreement and inaction... There seem no reason why the principle of trusteeship in private affairs should be not be extended to the international field. Trusteeship is based on the principle of unselfish service. For a time at least there are many minor children among the peoples of the world who need trustees in their relations with other nations and people, just as there are many adult nations or peoples which must be led back into a spirit of good conduct.[5]

The State Department had begun drafting a postwar successor to the League of Nations
League of Nations
under the auspices of Roosevelt while the United States was still formally a neutral power.[8] Roosevelt was reluctant to publicly announce his plans for creating a postwar international body. He was aware of the risk that the American public might reject his proposals, and he did not want to repeat Woodrow Wilson's struggle to convince the Senate to approve American membership in the League of Nations. When the Atlantic Charter
Atlantic Charter
was issued in August 1941, Roosevelt had ensured that the charter omitted mentioning any American commitment towards the establishment of a new international body after the war.[9] The attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 led to a change in Roosevelt's position. He transformed his trusteeship proposal into an organization centered around the Four Policemen: the United States, China, the Soviet Union, and Britain.[5] Plans for the Four Policemen[edit]

1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the United Nations' original three branches. The branch on the right represents the Four Policemen.

The idea that great powers should "police" the world had been discussed by President Roosevelt as early as August 1941, during his first meeting with Winston Churchill. Roosevelt made his first references to the Four Policemen
Four Policemen
proposal in early 1942.[10] He presented his postwar plans to Molotov,[11] who had arrived in Washington on May 29 to discuss the possibility of launching a second front in Europe.[12] Roosevelt told Molotov that the Big Four must unite after the war to police the world and disarm aggressor states.[10] When Molotov asked about the role of other countries, Roosevelt answered by opining that too many "policemen" could lead to infighting, but he was open to the idea of allowing other allied countries to participate.[10] A memorandum of the conference summarizes their conversation:

The President told Molotov that he visualized the enforced disarmament of our enemies and, indeed, some of our friends after the war; that he thought that the United States, England, Russia and perhaps China should police the world and enforce disarmament by inspection. The President said that he visualized Germany, Italy, Japan, France, Czechoslovakia, Rumania and other nations would not be permitted to have military forces. He stated that other nations might join the first four mentioned after experience proved they could be trusted.[7]

Roosevelt and Molotov continued their discussion of the Four Policemen in a second meeting on June 1. Molotov informed the President that Stalin was willing to support Roosevelt's plans for maintaining postwar peace through the Four Policemen
Four Policemen
and enforced disarmament. Roosevelt also raised the issue of postwar decolonization. He suggested that former colonies should undergo a period of transition under the governance of an international trusteeship prior to their independence.[11][13] China
China
was brought in as a member of the Big Four and a future member of the Four Policemen. Roosevelt was in favor of recognizing China
China
as a great power because he was certain that the Chinese would side with the Americans
Americans
against the Soviets. He said to British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, "In any serious conflict of policy with Russia, [China] would undoubtedly line up on our side." The President believed that a pro-American China
China
would be useful for the United States should the Americans, Soviets, and Chinese agree to jointly occupy Japan and Korea after the war.[14] When Molotov voiced concerns about the stability of China, Roosevelt responded by saying that the combined "population of our nations and friends was well over a billion people."[7][11] Churchill objected to Roosevelt's inclusion of China
China
as one of the Big Four because he feared that the Americans
Americans
were trying to undermine Britain's colonial holdings in Asia. In October 1942, Churchill told Eden that Republican China
China
represented a "faggot vote on the side of the United States
United States
in any attempt to liquidate the British overseas empire."[15] Eden shared this view with Churchill and expressed skepticism that China, which was then in the midst of a civil war, could ever return to a stable nation. Roosevelt responded to Churchill's criticism by telling Eden that " China
China
might become a very useful power in the Far East to help police Japan" and that he was fully supportive of offering more aid to China.[14] Roosevelt's Four Policemen
Four Policemen
proposal received criticism from the liberal internationalists, who wanted power to be more evenly distributed among the member nations of the UN. Internationalists were concerned that the Four Policemen
Four Policemen
could lead to a new Quadruple Alliance.[3] Formation of the United Nations[edit] On New Year's Day 1942, the representatives of Allied "Big Four", the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China, signed a short document which later came to be known as the Declaration by United Nations
United Nations
and the next day the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures.[16][17] A new plan for the United Nations
United Nations
was drafted by the State Department in April 1944. It kept the emphasis on great power solidarity that was central to Roosevelt's Four Policemen
Four Policemen
proposal for the United Nations. The members of the Big Four would serve as permanent members of the United Nation's Security Council. Each of the four permanent members would be given a United Nations
United Nations
Security Council veto power, which would override any UN resolution that went against the interests of one of the Big Four. However, the State Department had compromised with the liberal internationalists. Membership eligibility was widened to include all nation states fighting against the Axis powers
Axis powers
instead of a select few. The Dumbarton Oaks Conference
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
convened in August 1944 to discuss plans for the postwar United Nations
United Nations
with delegations from the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China.[3] The Big Four was the only four sponsoring countries of the San Francisco Conference of 1945 and their heads of the delegations took turns as chairman of the plenary meetings.[18] During this conference, the Big Four and their allies signed the United Nations
United Nations
Charter.[19] Legacy[edit] In the words of a former Undersecretary General of the UN, Sir Brian Urquhart:

It was a pragmatic system based on the primacy of the strong — a "trusteeship of the powerful," as he then called it, or, as he put it later, "the Four Policemen." The concept was, as [Senator Arthur H.] Vandenberg noted in his diary in April 1944, "anything but a wild-eyed internationalist dream of a world state.... It is based virtually on a four-power alliance." Eventually this proved to be both the potential strength and the actual weakness of the future UN, an organization theoretically based on a concert of great powers whose own mutual hostility, as it turned out, was itself the greatest potential threat to world peace.[20]

See also[edit]

Allies of World War II Global policeman

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Hoopes & Brinkley 1997, p. 100. ^ Gaddis 1972, p. 25. ^ a b c Gaddis 1972, p. 27. ^ 1946-47 Part 1: The United Nations. Section 1: Origin and Evolution.Chapter E: The Dumbarton Oaks Conversations. The Yearbook of the United Nations. United Nations. p. 6. Retrieved 18 February 2018.  ^ a b c Gaddis 1972, p. 24. ^ Welles 1951, pp. 182–204. ^ a b c United States
United States
Department of State 1942, p. 573. ^ Bosco 2009, p. 14. ^ Gaddis 1972, pp. 25–26. ^ a b c Kimball 1991, p. 85. ^ a b c Dallek 1995, p. 342. ^ Gaddis 1972, p. 68. ^ United States
United States
Department of State 1942, p. 580. ^ a b Dallek 1995, p. 390. ^ Dallek 1995, p. 389. ^ United Nations
United Nations
Official Website. ^ Ma 2003, pp. 203–204. ^ United Nations
United Nations
Official Website 1945. ^ Gaddis 1972, p. 28. ^ Urquhart, Brian. Looking for the Sheriff. New York Review of Books, July 16, 1998.  access-date= requires url= (help)

Sources[edit]

Bosco, David (2009). Five to Rule Them All: The UN Security Council and the Making of the Modern World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532876-9.  Dallek, Robert (1995). Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945: With a New Afterword. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-982666-7.  Gaddis, John Lewis (1972). The United States
United States
and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12239-9.  Hoopes, Townsend; Brinkley, Douglas (1997). FDR and the Creation of the U.N. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08553-2.  Kimball, Warren F. (1991). The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03730-2.  Ma, Xiaohua (2003). The Sino-American alliance during World War II
World War II
and the lifting of the Chinese exclusion acts. New York: Routledge. pp. 203–204. ISBN 0-415-94028-1.  Welles, Sumner (1951). "Two Roosevelt Decisions: One Debit, One Credit". Foreign Affairs (29): 182–204.  United Nations
United Nations
Official Website. "1942: Declaration of The United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 21 April 2016.  United Nations
United Nations
Official Website (1945). "1945: The San Francisco Conference". United Nations. Retrieved 16 May 2015.  United States
United States
Department of State (1942). "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics". Foreign relations of the United States
United States
diplomatic papers, 1942. Europe Volume III. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 406–771. 

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

32nd President of the United States
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Intelligence

Central Intelligence Agency Defense Intelligence Agency Federal Bureau of Investigation National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency National Reconnaissance Office National Security Agency Office of the Director of National Intelligence

Uniformed

Armed Forces

Army Marine Corps Navy Air Force Coast Guard

National Guard NOAA Corps Public Health Service Corps

51st state

political status of Puerto Rico District of Columbia statehood movement

Elections

Electoral College

Foreign relations

Foreign policy

Hawaiian sovereignty movement Ideologies

anti-Americanism exceptionalism nationalism

Local government Parties

Democratic Republican Third parties

Red states and blue states

Purple America

Scandals State government

governor state legislature state court

Uncle Sam

Economy

By sector

Agriculture Banking Communications Energy Insurance Manufacturing Mining Tourism Trade Transportation

Companies

by state

Currency Exports Federal budget Federal Reserve System Financial position Labor unions Public debt Social welfare programs Taxation Unemployment Wall Street

Society

Culture

Americana Architecture Cinema Cuisine Dance Demography Education Family structure Fashion Flag Folklore Languages

American English Indigenous languages ASL

Black American Sign Language

HSL Plains Sign Talk Arabic Chinese French German Italian Russian Spanish

Literature Media

Journalism Internet Newspapers Radio Television

Music Names People Philosophy Public holidays Religion Sexuality Sports Theater Visual art

Social class

Affluence American Dream Educational attainment Homelessness Home-ownership Household income Income inequality Middle class Personal income Poverty Professional and working class conflict Standard of living Wealth

Issues

Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime

incarceration

Criticism of government Discrimination

affirmative action antisemitism intersex rights islamophobia LGBT rights racism same-sex marriage

Drug policy Energy policy Environmental movement Gun politics Health care

abortion health insurance hunger obesity smoking

Human rights Immigration

illegal

International rankings National security

Mass surveillance Terrorism

Separation of church and state

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

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United Kingdom articles

History

Chronology

Formation Georgian era Victorian era Edwardian era First World War Interwar Second World War UK since 1945 (social history)

By topic

Economic Empire Maritime Military

Geography

Administrative

Countries of the United Kingdom Crown dependencies Overseas territories City status Towns Former colonies

Physical

British Isles

terminology Great Britain

Coastline Geology Lakes and lochs Mountains Rivers Volcanoes

Resources

Energy/Renewable energy

Biodiesel Coal Geothermal Hydraulic frac. Hydroelectricity Marine North Sea oil Solar Wind

Food

Agriculture Fishing

English Scottish

Hunting

Materials

Flora Forestry Mining

Politics

Constitution Courts Elections Foreign relations Human rights Judiciary Law Law enforcement Legislation Monarchy

monarchs

Nationality Parliament

House of Commons House of Lords

Political parties

Government

Cabinet

list

Civil service Departments Prime Minister

list

Military

Royal Navy Army Royal Air Force Weapons of mass destruction

Economy

Banks

Bank of England

Budget Economic geography Manufacturing Pound (currency) Stock Exchanges (London Exchange) Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Transport British Rail

Society

Affordability of housing Crime Demography Drug policy Education Ethnic groups Health Immigration Innovation Languages Poverty Prostitution Public holidays Social care Social structure

Culture

Art Cinema Cuisine Identity Literature Media Music Religion Sport Symbols Theatre

Countries of the United Kingdom

England

History

social timeline

Geography Politics Law Economy

tourism

Education Health care Culture Religion Symbols

Northern Ireland

History Geography Politics

Assembly Executive First Minister and deputy

Law Economy

tourism

Education Health care Culture Religion Symbols

Scotland

History

timeline

Geography Politics

Parliament Government First Minister

Law Economy

tourism

Education Health care Culture Religion Symbols

Wales

History Geography Welsh Government Politics

Assembly First Minister

Law Economy

tourism

Education Health care Culture Religion Symbols

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

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Soviet Union
Soviet Union
topics

History

Index of Soviet Union-related articles Russian Revolution

February October

Russian Civil War Russian SFSR USSR creation treaty New Economic Policy Stalinism Great Purge Great Patriotic War (World War II) Cold War Khrushchev Thaw 1965 reform Stagnation Perestroika Glasnost Revolutions of 1989 Dissolution Nostalgia Post-Soviet states

Geography

Subdivisions

Republics

autonomous

Oblasts

autonomous

Autonomous okrugs Closed cities

list

Regions

Caspian Sea Caucasus Mountains European Russia North Caucasus Siberia Ural Mountains West Siberian Plain

Politics

General

Constitution Elections Foreign relations

Brezhnev Doctrine

Government

list

Human rights

LGBT

Law Leaders

Collective leadership

Passport system State ideology

Marxism–Leninism Leninism Stalinism

Bodies

Communist Party

organisation Central Committee

Politburo Secretariat

Congress General Secretary

Congress of Soviets (1922–1936) Supreme Soviet (1938–1991) Congress of People's Deputies (1989–1991) Supreme Court

Offices

Premier President Deputy Premier First Deputy Premier

Security services

Cheka GPU NKVD MVD MGB KGB

Political repression

Red Terror Collectivization Great Purge Population transfer Gulag

list

Holodomor Political abuse of psychiatry

Ideological repression

Religion Suppressed research Censorship Censorship of images

Economy

Agriculture Central Bank Energy policy Five-Year Plans Net material product Inventions Ruble (currency) Internet domain Transport

Science

Communist Academy Academy of Sciences Academy of Medical Sciences Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences Sharashkas Naukograds

list

Society

Crime Demographics

Soviet people working class 1989 census

Languages

Linguistics

LGBT

Culture

Ballet Cinema Fashion Literature Music

opera

Propaganda Sports Stalinist architecture

Opposition

Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
and their groups

list

Anthem

republics

Emblem

republics

Flag

republics

Templates

Departments Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
1917 Joseph Stalin Stagnation Era Fall of Communism

Book Category Commons Portal WikiProject

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China articles

History

China

timeline

Ancient China
China
(outline) (2070–221 BCE) Imperial China
China
(221 BCE–1911 CE) Republic of China
China
(1912–1949) People's Republic of China−PRC

PRC 1949–76 PRC 1976–89 PRC 1989–2002 PRC since 2002 Years in the PRC

Geography Natural environment

Overviews

Borders Extreme points Geology Natural disasters

Regions

East Northeast North South Central

Central South

Western

Northwest Southwest

Terrain

Bays Canyons Caves Deserts Grasslands Hills Islands Mountains

ranges passes

Peninsulas Northeast / North / Central Plains Valleys Volcanoes

Water

Canals Lakes Rivers Waterfalls Wetlands Water resources

Seas

Bohai Yellow East China South China

Reserves

Protected areas National parks Nature reserves UNESCO
UNESCO
Biosphere Reserves

Wildlife

Fauna Flora

Government Politics Economy

Government and politics

Civil service Constitution Elections Environmental policy Foreign relations Military (People's Liberation Army) National People's Congress

Standing Committee

National security Political parties and movements

Communist Party

General Secretary Politburo

Democratic Parties Anti-democratisation Pro-democratisation

President

Vice President

State Council

Premier Vice Premier

Administrative divisions

Baseline islands Border crossings Cities Province-level subdivisions

Law

Judicial system Human rights

LGBT

Law enforcement Nationality law Penal system

Economy

Agriculture Banking

Central bank

Economic history Energy

Petroleum industry Renewable energy

Finance system Foreign aid received Foreign aid program Historical GDP International rankings Poverty Reform Renminbi
Renminbi
(currency) Science and technology

history

Special
Special
Economic Zones (SEZs) Standard of living Telecommunications Tourism Transport

airports ports and harbors

People Society Culture

People

Demographics Emigration Ethnic groups Internal migration Statistics Urbanization

Society

Anthem Chinese Dream Corruption Crime Emblem Education

universities

Flag "Generation Y" Harmonious Socialist Society HIV/AIDS Intellectualism Languages Poverty Public health

food safety

incidents

Public holidays Rural life Sexuality Socialism with Chinese characteristics Social issues Social relations Social structure Social welfare Suicide Terrorism Time zones Urban life Water supply and sanitation Women Xiaokang (middle-class) Primary stage of socialism

Culture

Archaeology Archives Art Cinema Cuisine Dance Gardens Libraries Literature Martial arts Media

newspapers radio television

Music Parks Philosophy Religion Smoking Sports Tea culture Tourism Variety arts World Heritage Sites

Index

Category Portal

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 United Nations

António Guterres, Secretary-General Amina J. Mohammed, Deputy Secretary-General Miroslav Lajčák, General Assembly President

United Nations
United Nations
System

United Nations
United Nations
Charter

Preamble

Principal organs

General Assembly

President

Security Council

Members

Economic and Social Council Secretariat

Secretary-General Deputy Secretary-General Under-Secretary-General

International Court of Justice

statute

Trusteeship Council

Secretariat Offices and Departments

Headquarters Envoy on Youth Spokesperson for the Secretary-General Geneva Palace of Nations Nairobi Vienna Economic and Social Affairs Political Affairs Public Information

Dag Hammarskjöld Library

Safety and Security Palestinian Rights Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations Internal Oversight Legal Affairs Developing Countries Sport for Development and Peace Disarmament Affairs Outer Space Affairs Partnerships Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs UN organizations by location United Nations
United Nations
Office for Developing Countries Sexual Violence in Conflict

Programmes and specialized agencies

FAO ICAO IFAD ILO IMO ITC IPCC IAEA MINURSO UNIDO ITU UNAIDS SCSL UNCTAD UNCITRAL UNCDF UNDG UNDP UNDPI UNDPKO

peacekeeping

UNEP

OzonAction UNEP/GRID-Arendal UNEP-WCMC

UNESCO UNFIP UNFPA UN-HABITAT OHCHR UNHCR UNHRC UNICEF UNICRI UNIDIR UNITAR UN-Oceans UNODC UNOPS UNOSAT UNRISD UNRWA UNSSC UNU

UNU-OP UNU-CRIS

UNV UN Women UNWTO UPU WFP WHO WIPO WMO

Members / observers

Full members Founding members

UNSC Permanent members

Observers

European Union

History

League of Nations Four Policemen Declaration by United Nations Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
missions

history timeline

Enlargement

Resolutions

Security Council vetoes General Assembly

66th 67th

Security Council

Cyprus Iran Iraq Israel Lebanon Nagorno-Karabakh North Korea Palestine Syria Western Sahara

Elections

Secretary-General (2006 2016) International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
2011 General Assembly President (2012 2016) Security Council (2015 2016)

Related

Bretton Woods system Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Criticism Delivering as One Flag

Honour Flag

Four Nations Initiative Genocide Convention UN Global Compact ICC International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World International Years UN laissez-passer Military Staff Committee Official languages Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Peacekeeping Treaty Series UN Day Universal Declaration of Human Rights Millennium Declaration

Summit Development Goals

Security Council veto power UN reform

Security Council reform

UN Art Collection UN Memorial Cemetery Korea

Other

Outline UN television film series (1964–1966)

.