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The FOUR POLICEMEN refers to a post-war council consisting of the Big Four that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
proposed as a guarantor of world peace . The members of the BIG FOUR, called the FOUR POWERS during World War II
World War II
, were the four major Allies of World War II
World War II
: the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the United States
United States
, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Republic of China
China
. The United Nations
United Nations
envisioned by Roosevelt consisted of three branches: an executive branch comprising the Big Four, an enforcement branch composed of the same four great powers acting as the Four Policemen
Four Policemen
or FOUR SHERIFFS, and an international assembly representing the member nations of the UN.

The Four Policemen
Four Policemen
would be responsible for keeping order within their spheres of influence: Britain in its empire and in Western Europe; the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in Eastern Europe and the central Eurasian landmass; China
China
in East Asia and the Western Pacific; and the United States in the Western hemisphere. As a preventive measure against new wars, countries other than the Four Policemen
Four Policemen
were to be disarmed. Only the Four Policemen
Four Policemen
would be allowed to possess any weapons more powerful than a rifle. The Four Policemen
Four Policemen
came into fruition as the permanent members of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council , but its powers were significantly diminished as a compromise with internationalist critics. France
France
was later added as the fifth member of the council in 1945 due to the insistence of Churchill.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Background * 1.2 Plans for the Four Policemen
Four Policemen
* 1.3 Formation of the United Nations
United Nations

* 2 Legacy * 3 See also

* 4 References

* 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Sources

HISTORY

BACKGROUND

See also: League of Nations
League of Nations

During World War II
World War II
, President Roosevelt initiated post-war plans for the creation of a new and more durable international organization that would replace the former League of Nations
League of Nations
. Prior to the war, Roosevelt had initially been a supporter of the League of Nations, but he lost confidence in the League due to its ineffectiveness at preventing the outbreak of the second World War. Roosevelt wanted to create an international organization that secured global peace through the unified efforts of the world's great powers , rather than through the Wilsonian notions of international consensus and collaboration that guided the League of Nations. By 1935, he told his foreign policy adviser Sumner Welles : "The League of Nations
League of Nations
has become nothing more than a debating society, and a poor one at that!"

Roosevelt criticized the League of Nations
League of Nations
for representing the interests of too many nations. The President said to the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov that "he could not visualize another League of Nations
League of Nations
with 100 different signatories; there were simply too many nations to satisfy, hence it was a failure and would be a failure". Roosevelt's proposal in 1941 was to create a new international body led by a "trusteeship" of great powers that would oversee smaller countries. In September 1941, he wrote:

In the present complete world confusion, it is not thought advisable at this time to reconstitute a League of Nations
League of Nations
which, because of its size, makes for disagreement and inaction... There seem no reason why the principle of trusteeship in private affairs should be not be extended to the international field. Trusteeship is based on the principle of unselfish service. For a time at least there are many minor children among the peoples of the world who need trustees in their relations with other nations and people, just as there are many adult nations or peoples which must be led back into a spirit of good conduct.

The State Department had begun drafting a postwar successor to the League of Nations
League of Nations
under the auspices of Roosevelt while the United States was still formally a neutral power. Roosevelt was reluctant to publicly announce his plans for creating a postwar international body. He was aware of the risk that the American public might reject his proposals, and he did not want to repeat Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
's struggle to convince the Senate to approve American membership in the League of Nations. When the Atlantic Charter was issued in August 1941, Roosevelt had ensured that the charter omitted mentioning any American commitment towards the establishment of a new international body after the war. The attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 led to a change in Roosevelt's position. He transformed his trusteeship proposal into an organization centered around the Four Policemen: the United States, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, and Britain.

PLANS FOR THE FOUR POLICEMEN

1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the United Nations' original three branches. The branch on the right represents the Four Policemen.

The idea that great powers should "police" the world had been discussed by President Roosevelt as early as August 1941, during his first meeting with Winston Churchill. Roosevelt made his first references to the Four Policemen
Four Policemen
proposal in early 1942. He presented his postwar plans to Molotov, who had arrived in Washington on May 29 to discuss the possibility of launching a second front in Europe. Roosevelt told Molotov that the Big Four must unite together after the war to police the world and disarm aggressor states. When Molotov asked about the role of other countries, Roosevelt answered by opining that too many "policemen" could lead to infighting, but he was open to the idea of allowing other allied countries to participate. A memorandum of the conference summarizes their conversation:

The President told Molotov that he visualized the enforced disarmament of our enemies and, indeed, some of our friends after the war; that he thought that the United States, England, Russia and perhaps China
China
should police the world and enforce disarmament by inspection. The President said that he visualized Germany, Italy, Japan, France, Czechoslovakia, Rumania and other nations would not be permitted to have military forces. He stated that other nations might join the first four mentioned after experience proved they could be trusted.

Roosevelt and Molotov continued their discussion of the Four Policemen in a second meeting on June 1. Molotov informed the President that Stalin was willing to support Roosevelt's plans for maintaining postwar peace through the Four Policemen
Four Policemen
and enforced disarmament. Roosevelt also raised the issue of postwar decolonization. He suggested that former colonies should undergo a period of transition under the governance of an international trusteeship prior to their independence.

The Republic of China
China
was brought in as a member of the Big Four and a future member of the Four Policemen. Roosevelt was in favor of recognizing China
China
as a great power because he was certain that the Chinese would side with the Americans
Americans
against the Soviets. He said to British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden , "In any serious conflict of policy with Russia, would undoubtedly line up on our side." The President believed that a pro-American China
China
would be useful for the United States
United States
should the Americans, Soviets, and Chinese agree to jointly occupy Japan and Korea after the war. When Molotov voiced concerns about the stability of China, Roosevelt responded by saying that the combined "population of our nations and friends was well over a billion people."

Churchill objected to Roosevelt's inclusion of China
China
as one of the Big Four because he feared that the Americans
Americans
were trying to undermine Britain's colonial holdings in Asia. In October 1942, Churchill told Eden that Republican China
China
represented a "faggot vote on the side of the United States
United States
in any attempt to liquidate the British overseas empire." Eden shared this view with Churchill and expressed skepticism that China, which was then in the midst of a civil war, could ever return to a stable nation. Roosevelt responded to Churchill's criticism by telling Eden that " China
China
might become a very useful power in the Far East to help police Japan" and that he was fully supportive of offering more aid to China.

Roosevelt's Four Policemen
Four Policemen
proposal received criticism from the liberal internationalists, who wanted power to be more evenly distributed among the member nations of the UN. Internationalists were concerned that the Four Policemen
Four Policemen
could lead to a new Quadruple Alliance.

FORMATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

On New Year's Day 1942, the representatives of Allied "Big Four", the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China, signed a short document which later came to be known as the Declaration by United Nations
United Nations
and the next day the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures. A new plan for the United Nations was drafted by the State Department in April 1944. It kept the emphasis on great power solidarity that was central to Roosevelt's Four Policemen
Four Policemen
proposal for the United Nations. The members of the Big Four would serve as permanent members of the United Nation's Security Council. Each of the four permanent members would be given a United Nations Security Council veto power , which would override any UN resolution that went against the interests of one of the Big Four. However, the State Department had compromised with the liberal internationalists. Membership eligibility was widened to include all nation states fighting against the Axis powers instead of a select few. The Dumbarton Oaks Conference convened in August 1944 to discuss plans for the postwar United Nations
United Nations
with delegations from the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China. The Big Four was the only four sponsoring countries of the San Francisco Conference
San Francisco Conference
of 1945 and their heads of the delegations took turns as chairman of the plenary meetings. During this conference, the Big Four and their allies signed the United Nations
United Nations
Charter .

LEGACY

In the words of a former Undersecretary General of the UN, Sir Brian Urquhart :

It was a pragmatic system based on the primacy of the strong — a "trusteeship of the powerful," as he then called it, or, as he put it later, "the Four Policemen." The concept was, as Vandenberg noted in his diary in April 1944, "anything but a wild-eyed internationalist dream of a world state.... It is based virtually on a four-power alliance." Eventually this proved to be both the potential strength and the actual weakness of the future UN, an organization theoretically based on a concert of great powers whose own mutual hostility, as it turned out, was itself the greatest potential threat to world peace.

SEE ALSO

* Allies of World War II
World War II

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ Hoopes & Brinkley 1997 , p. 100. * ^ Gaddis 1972 , p. 25. * ^ A B C Gaddis 1972 , p. 27. * ^ A B C Gaddis 1972 , p. 24. * ^ Welles 1951 , pp. 182–204. * ^ A B C United States
United States
Department of State 1942 , p. 573. * ^ Bosco 2009 , p. 14. * ^ Gaddis 1972 , pp. 25–26. * ^ A B C Kimball 1991 , p. 85. * ^ A B C Dallek 1995 , p. 342. * ^ Gaddis 1972 , p. 68. * ^ United States
United States
Department of State 1942 , p. 580. * ^ A B Dallek 1995 , p. 390. * ^ Dallek 1995 , p. 389. * ^ United Nations
United Nations
Official Website . * ^ Ma 2003 , pp. 203-204. * ^ United Nations
United Nations
Official Website 1945 . * ^ Gaddis 1972 , p. 28. * ^ Urquhart, Brian . Looking for the Sheriff. New York Review of Books, July 16, 1998. access-date= requires url= (help )

SOURCES

* Bosco, David (2009). Five to Rule Them All: The UN Security Council and the Making of the Modern World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532876-9 . * Dallek, Robert (1995). Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945: With a New Afterword. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-982666-7 . * Gaddis, John Lewis (1972). The United States
United States
and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12239-9 . * Hoopes, Townsend; Brinkley, Douglas (1997). FDR and the Creation of the U.N. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08553-2 . * Kimball, Warren F. (1991). The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03730-2 . * Ma, Xiaohua (2003). The Sino-American alliance during World War II and the lifting of the Chinese exclusion acts. New York: Routledge. pp. 203–204. ISBN 0-415-94028-1 . * Welles, Sumner (1951). "Two Roosevelt Decisions: One Debit, One Credit". Foreign Affairs (29): 182–204. * United Nations
United Nations
Official Website. "1942: Declaration of The United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 21 April 2016. * United Nations
United Nations
Official Website (1945). "1945: The San Francisco Conference". United Nations. Retrieved 16 May 2015. * United States
United States
Department of State (1942). "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics". Foreign relations of the United States diplomatic papers, 1942. Europe Volume III. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 406–771.

* v * t * e

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt

* 32nd President of the United States
President of the United States
(1933–1945) * 44th Governor of New York
Governor of New York
(1929–1932) * Assistant Secretary of the Navy (1913–1920) * New York State Senator (1911–1913)

PRESIDENCY

* Inaugurations (1st * 2nd * 3rd * 4th)

* New Deal
New Deal

* overview * New Deal
New Deal
coalition * First 100 days * Second New Deal
New Deal

* Federal Emergency Relief Administration * Civilian Conservation Corps * Agricultural Adjustment Administration * Emergency Banking Act * Tennessee Valley Authority * National Labor Relations Act
National Labor Relations Act

* National Industry Recovery Act

* Public Works Administration * National Recovery Administration

* Works Progress Administration
Works Progress Administration

* National Youth Administration

* Social Security Act

* Aid to Families with Dependent Children

* Communications Act of 1934

* Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission

* Securities and Exchange Commission

* Monetary gold ownership

* Gold Reserve Act * Silver seizure

* Record on civil rights

* Defense industry non-discrimination * Fair Employment Practices Commission

* Indian Reorganization Act

* Executive Orders 9066, 9102

* War Relocation Authority * Japanese American internment
Japanese American internment
* German-American internment * Italian-American internment

* Brownlow Committee * Executive Office of the President
Executive Office of the President
* G.I. Bill of Rights * Cullen–Harrison Act * Roerich Pact

* Four Freedoms

* Four Freedoms Monument

* Black Cabinet * Jefferson\'s Birthday holiday * Judicial Court-Packing Bill

* Federal Judicial appointments

* Supreme Court

* Cabinet * "Brain Trust" * Modern Oval Office * Official car * Criticism

Presidential Foreign policy

* Banana Wars
Banana Wars

* U.S. occupation of Nicaragua, 1912–1933 * U.S. occupation of Haiti, 1915–1934

* Good Neighbor Policy (1933–1945) * Montevideo Convention (1933) * Second London Naval Treaty (1936) * ABCD line (1940) * Export Control Act * Four Policemen * Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
* 1940 Selective Service Act * Atlantic Charter (1941)

* Military history of the United States
United States
during World War II
World War II

* Home front during World War II
World War II
* Combined Munitions Assignments Board * War Production Board

* Declaration by United Nations
United Nations
(1942)

* Dumbarton Oaks Conference

* World War II
World War II
conferences * Quebec Agreement
Quebec Agreement
* Europe first * Morgentau Plan support

Presidential speeches

* Commonwealth Club Address * Madison Square Garden speech * " Four Freedoms " * Infamy Speech * Arsenal of Democracy * "...is fear itself" * Fireside chats * "Look to Norway" * Quarantine Speech * "The More Abundant Life" * Second Bill of Rights * State of the Union Address (1934 * 1938 * 1939 * 1940 * 1941 * 1945)

OTHER EVENTS

* Early life, education, career * Warm Springs Institute * Governorship of New York * Business Plot * Assassination attempt

ELECTIONS

* New York state election, 1928 * 1930 * Democratic National Convention, 1920 * 1924 * 1932 * 1936 * 1940 * 1944 * United States
United States
presidential election, 1920

* 1932

* theme song

* 1936 * 1940 * 1944

LIFE AND HOMES

* Early life and education

* Groton School

* "Springwood" birthpace, home, and gravesite * Campobello home * Paralytic illness * Top Cottage
Top Cottage
* Little White House, Warm Springs, Georgia

LEGACY

* Presidential Library and Museum

* Roosevelt Institute * Roosevelt Institute Campus Network

* Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial

* Roosevelt Island
Roosevelt Island

* Four Freedoms Park

* White House Roosevelt Room * Roosevelt Study Center * Four Freedoms Award * Four Freedoms paintings * Unfinished portrait * U.S. Postage stamps * Roosevelt dime * Books

* Films

* The Roosevelt Story 1947 * Sunrise at Campobello 1960 * Eleanor and Franklin 1976, The White House Years 1977 * World War II: When Lions Roared * Warm Springs 2005 * Hyde Park on Hudson 2012 * The Roosevelts 2014 documentary

* Other namesakes * Other works

Roosevelt family Delano family

* Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (wife) * Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (daughter) * James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
II (son) * Elliott Roosevelt (son) * Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (son) * John Aspinwall Roosevelt II (son) * Eleanor Roosevelt Seagraves (granddaughter) * Curtis Roosevelt (grandson) * Sara Delano Roosevelt (granddaughter) * Franklin Delano Roosevelt III (grandson) * John Roosevelt Boettiger (grandson) * James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
III (grandson) * James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
I (father) * Sara Ann Delano (mother) * James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
Roosevelt (half-brother) * Isaac Roosevelt (grandfather) * Jacobus Roosevelt (great-grandfather) * Fala (family dog)

* ← HERBERT HOOVER * HARRY S. TRUMAN →

* CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill

LIFE

* Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
as historian * Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
as painter * Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
as writer

* Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
in politics: 1900–39

* Timeline * War Rooms * conferences * Percentages agreement

* Statement on Atrocities

* European Advisory Commission

* Honours of Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
* Later life of Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
* The Other Club
The Other Club
* Blenheim Palace
Blenheim Palace
* Chartwell * St Martin\'s Church, Bladon

WRITINGS

* The Story of the Malakand Field Force
The Story of the Malakand Field Force
(1898) * Savrola (1899 novel) * The River War (1899) * London to Ladysmith via Pretoria
London to Ladysmith via Pretoria
(1900) * Ian Hamilton\'s March (1900) * Lord Randolph Churchill (1906) * The World Crisis (1923–1931, five volumes) * My Early Life (1930) * Marlborough: His Life and Times (1933–1938, four volumes) * Great Contemporaries (1937) * Arms and the Covenant (1938) * The Second World War (1948–1963, six volumes) * A History of the English-Speaking Peoples (1956–1958, four volumes)

SPEECHES

* " Blood, toil, tears, and sweat " * " Be ye men of valour " * " We shall fight on the beaches " * " This was their finest hour " * " Never was so much owed by so many to so few " * "Iron Curtain"

Legacy and depictions

* Palace of Westminster statue * Parliament Square statue * Washington, DC, statue * Epstein bust * Memorial Trusts * Churchill College, Cambridge
Churchill College, Cambridge
* Churchill Archives Centre
Churchill Archives Centre
* The Churchill Centre * US Churchill Museum * Cultural depictions * Churchillian Drift

RELATED

* Norway Debate * Terminological inexactitude * Siege of Sidney Street * Tonypandy Riots * Sword of Stalingrad * Operation Unthinkable
Operation Unthinkable

FAMILY

* Lord Randolph Churchill (father) * Jennie Jerome, Lady Randolph Churchill (mother) * John Strange Spencer-Churchill (brother) * Clementine Churchill, Baroness Spencer-Churchill (wife) * Diana Churchill (daughter) * Randolph Churchill (son) * Sarah Churchill (daughter) * Marigold Churchill
Marigold Churchill
(daughter) * Mary Soames, Baroness Soames (daughter) * Descendants * John Spencer-Churchill (grandfather) * Frances Anne Spencer-Churchill (grandmother) * Leonard Jerome (grandfather) * Clarissa Eden
Clarissa Eden
(niece)

* v * t * e

Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin

History and politics

OVERVIEWS

* Early life * Russian Revolution, Russian Civil War, Polish-Soviet War * Rise * Rule as Soviet leader * Cult of personality

CHRONOLOGY

* August Uprising * Anti-religious campaign (1921–1928) /(1928–1941)

* Collectivization

* Kolkhoz * Sovkhoz

* Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
* First Five-Year Plan * Sino-Soviet conflict (1929)
Sino-Soviet conflict (1929)
* 16th / 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

* Second Five-Year Plan * Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
* Soviet invasion of Xinjiang * Soviet–Japanese border conflicts * 1937 Islamic rebellion in Xinjiang * 1937 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
legislative election * 18th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) * Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact * Invasion of Poland * Winter War
Winter War
* Moscow Peace Treaty * Occupation of the Baltic states * German–Soviet Axis talks * Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact * World War II
World War II
* Soviet atomic bomb project * Tehran Conference * Yalta Conference * Potsdam Conference * Ili Rebellion * Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance * 1946 Iran crisis * 1946 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
legislative election * Turkish Straits crisis * First Indochina War * Cold War
Cold War
* Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance * Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
* Cominform
Cominform
* Greek Civil War
Greek Civil War
* 1948 Czechoslovak coup d\'état * Tito–Stalin split * Berlin Blockade
Berlin Blockade
* Comecon
Comecon
* 1950 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
legislative election * 19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Korean War
Korean War

CONCEPTS

* Stalinism
Stalinism
* Neo- Stalinism
Stalinism
* Korenizatsiya * Socialism in One Country
Socialism in One Country
* Great Break * Socialist realism * Stalinist architecture
Stalinist architecture
* Aggravation of class struggle under socialism * Five-year plans * Great Construction Projects of Communism * 1936 Soviet Constitution * New Soviet man * Stakhanovite * Transformation of nature

CONTROVERSIES

* National delimitation in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Demolition of Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
* Great Purge * Holodomor
Holodomor
* Gulag
Gulag
* Decossackization
Decossackization
* Dekulakization * Population transfer (Nazi–Soviet ) * Forced settlement * Great Break * Soviet war crimes * Rootless cosmopolitan * Night of the Murdered Poets * Doctors\' plot * Moscow Trials * Allegations of antisemitism * NKVD prisoner massacres
NKVD prisoner massacres
* Murder of Sergey Kirov * Katyń massacre * Medvedev Forest massacre * 1937 Soviet Census * Deportations (Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina * Koreans ) * Operation "North" * Georgian Affair * Mingrelian Affair * Leningrad Affair * Relationship with Shostakovich * Lysenkoism * Japhetic theory * Suppressed research in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Censorship of images * Operation "Lentil" in the Caucasus * Operation "Priboi" * Vinnytsia massacre * Kurapaty * 1946–1947 Soviet famine * Nazino affair * 1941 Red Army purge * 1906 Bolshevik raid on the Tsarevich Giorgi * 1907 Tiflis bank robbery * Soviet offensive plans controversy

WORKS

* " Marxism and the National Question " * "The Principles of Leninism " * " Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia " * "Ten Blows" speech * Alleged 19 August 1939 speech * Falsifiers of History * Stalin Note * The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) * 1936 Soviet Constitution * Stalin\'s poetry * Dialectical and Historical Materialism * Order No. 227 * Order No. 270 * " Marxism and Problems of Linguistics "

DE-STALINIZATION

* 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Pospelov Commission * Rehabilitation * Khrushchev Thaw * On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences * Gomulka thaw (Polish October) * Soviet Nonconformist Art * Shvernik Commission * 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Era of Stagnation
Era of Stagnation

Criticism and opposition

* Stalin Epigram * Lenin\'s Testament * Ryutin Affair * Anti-Stalinist left * Trotskyism
Trotskyism
* True Communists * Russian Liberation Movement ( Russian Liberation Army * Russian Corps ) * Ukrainian Liberation Army * Darkness at Noon
Darkness at Noon
* Animal Farm
Animal Farm
* Nineteen Eighty-Four * Comparison of Nazism and Stalinism
Stalinism
* The Soviet Story

REMEMBRANCE

* How the Steel Was Tempered * Friends of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Iosif Stalin tank * Iosif Stalin locomotive * Generalissimus of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Stalin statues * Pantheon, Moscow * 1956 Georgian demonstrations * Stalin Monument in Budapest * Stalin Monument in Prague * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
Museum, Gori * Batumi Stalin Museum * Places named after Stalin * Yanks for Stalin * Stalin Prize
Stalin Prize
* Stalin Peace Prize * Stalin Society * Stalin Bloc – For the USSR * Name of Russia

FAMILY

* Besarion Jughashvili (father) * Keke Geladze (mother) * Kato Svanidze (first wife) * Yakov Dzhugashvili (son) * Konstantin Kuzakov (son) * Artyom Sergeyev (adopted son) * Nadezhda Alliluyeva (second wife) * Vasily Dzhugashvili (son) * Svetlana Alliluyeva (daughter) * Yevgeny Dzhugashvili (grandson) * Galina Dzhugashvili (granddaughter) * Joseph Alliluyev (grandson) * Sergei Alliluyev (second father-in-law) * Alexander Svanidze (brother-in-law) * Yuri Zhdanov (son-in-law) * William Wesley Peters (son-in-law)

FRIENDS

* Ioseb Iremashvili * Kamo (Bolshevik) * Kliment Voroshilov * Vyacheslav Molotov * Lazar Kaganovich * Grigory Ordzhonikidze * Anastas Mikoyan

RESIDENCES

* Tiflis Spiritual Seminary * Kuntsevo Dacha * Mayakovskaya (Moscow Metro) * Sochi Dacha * Blizhnyaya Dacha

* Category
Category
* Commons * Brezhnev Era template * Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal * Communism portal

* v * t * e

World War II
World War II

* Asia and the Pacific

* China
China
* South-East Asia * North and Central Pacific * South-West Pacific

* Europe

* Western * Eastern

* Mediterranean and Middle East

* North Africa * East Africa * Italy

* West Africa * Atlantic * North America * South America

* Casualties * Military engagements * Conferences * Commanders

PARTICIPANTS

Allies (leaders )

* Australia * Belgium * Brazil * Canada * China
China
* Cuba * Czechoslovakia * Denmark * Ethiopia * France
France
* Free France
France
(from June 1940) * Greece * India * Italy (from September 1943) * Luxembourg * Mexico * Netherlands * New Zealand * Norway * Philippines (Commonwealth) * Poland * South Africa * Southern Rhodesia * Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* United Kingdom
United Kingdom

* United States
United States

* Puerto Rico

* Yugoslavia

Axis and Axis-aligned (leaders )

* Albania * Bulgaria * Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China * Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
* Finland * Germany * Hungary * Free India * Iraq * Italy (until September 1943) * Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
* Japan * Manchukuo
Manchukuo
* Philippines (Second Republic) * Romania * Slovakia

* Thailand

* Vichy France
France

* Armed neutrality

RESISTANCE

* Albania * Austria * Belgium * Bulgaria * Czech lands * Denmark * Estonia * Ethiopia * France
France
* Germany * Greece * Hong Kong * Italy * Japan * Jewish * Korea * Latvia * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Malaya * Netherlands * Northeast China
China
* Norway * Philippines

* Poland

* Anti-communist

* Romania * Thailand * Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Slovakia * Western Ukraine * Vietnam

* Yugoslavia

* Monarchists

TIMELINE

PRELUDE

* Africa * Asia * Europe

1939

* Poland * Phoney War
Phoney War
* Winter War
Winter War
* Atlantic * Changsha * China
China

1940

* Weserübung * Netherlands * Belgium

* France
France

* Armistice of 22 June 1940

* Britain * North Africa * West Africa * British Somaliland * North China
China
* Baltic States * Moldova * Indochina * Greece * Compass

1941

* East Africa * Yugoslavia * Shanggao * Greece * Crete * Iraq * Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Barbarossa) * Finland * Lithuania * Syria and Lebanon * Kiev * Iran * Leningrad * Moscow * Sevastopol

* Pearl Harbor

* The outbreak of the Pacific War
Pacific War

* Hong Kong * Philippines * Changsha * Malaya * Borneo (1941–42)

1942

* Burma * Changsha * Java Sea * Coral Sea * Gazala * Dutch Harbor * Attu (occupation) * Kiska * Zhejiang-Jiangxi * Midway * Rzhev * Blue * Stalingrad * Singapore * Dieppe * El Alamein * Guadalcanal * Torch

1943

* Tunisia * Kursk * Smolensk * Solomon Islands * Attu * Sicily * Cottage * Lower Dnieper

* Italy

* Armistice of Cassibile
Armistice of Cassibile

* Gilbert and Marshall Islands * Burma * Northern Burma and Western Yunnan * Changde

1944

* Monte Cassino / Shingle * Narva * Korsun–Cherkassy * Tempest * Ichi-Go * Overlord * Neptune * Normandy * Mariana and Palau * Bagration * Western Ukraine * Tannenberg Line * Warsaw * Eastern Romania * Belgrade * Paris * Dragoon * Gothic Line
Gothic Line
* Market Garden * Estonia * Crossbow * Pointblank * Lapland * Hungary * Leyte

* Ardennes

* Bodenplatte

* Philippines (1944–1945) * Burma (1944–45)

1945

* Vistula–Oder * Iwo Jima * Western invasion of Germany * Okinawa * Italy (Spring 1945) * Borneo * Syrmian Front
Syrmian Front
* Berlin * Czechoslovakia * Budapest * West Hunan * Guangxi * Surrender of Germany * Project Hula * Manchuria * Manila * Borneo * Taipei

* Atomic bombings

* Debate

* Kuril Islands

* Shumshu

* Surrender of Japan
Surrender of Japan

* End of World War II
World War II
in Asia

ASPECTS

GENERAL

FAMINES

* Bengal famine of 1943
Bengal famine of 1943
* Chinese famine of 1942–43 * Greek Famine of 1941-1944 * Dutch famine of 1944–45 * Vietnamese Famine of 1945

* Air warfare of World War II
World War II
* Blitzkrieg
Blitzkrieg
* Comparative military ranks * Cryptography * Diplomacy

* Home front

* United States
United States
* Australian * United Kingdom
United Kingdom

* Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
* Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
* Military awards * Military equipment * Military production * Nazi plunder * Opposition

* Technology

* Allied cooperation

* Total war * Strategic bombing * Puppet states * Women * Art and World War II
World War II

AFTERMATH

* Expulsion of Germans * Operation Paperclip * Operation Osoaviakhim * Operation Keelhaul * Occupation of Germany * Territorial changes of Germany

* Soviet occupations

* Romania * Poland * Hungary * Baltic States

* Occupation of Japan * First Indochina War * Indonesian National Revolution * Cold War
Cold War
* Decolonization
Decolonization
* Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany * Popular culture

WAR CRIMES

* Allied war crimes

* Soviet war crimes * British war crimes * United States
United States
war crimes

* German (Forced labour ) / Wehrmacht war crimes

* Holocaust * Aftermath * Response * Prosecution

* Italian war crimes

* Japanese war crimes

* Unit 731 * Prosecution

* Croatian war crimes

* against the Serbs * against the Jews

Wartime sexual violence

* German military brothels * Camp brothels * Rape during the occupation of Japan * Sook Ching * Comfort women * Rape of Nanking * Rape of Manila * Rape during the occupation of Germany * Rape during the liberation of France
France
* Rape during the liberation of Poland

PRISONERS

* Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* German prisoners of war in the United States
United States
* Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Japanese prisoners of war in World War II
World War II
* German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war
German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war
* Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union

* Bibliography * Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

United States
United States
articles

HISTORY

BY EVENT

* Timeline of U.S. history * Pre-Columbian era
Pre-Columbian era

* Colonial era

* Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
* military history * Continental Congress
Continental Congress

* American Revolution
American Revolution

* War

* American frontier
American frontier
* Drafting and ratification of Constitution * Federalist Era * War of 1812
War of 1812
* Territorial acquisitions * Territorial evolution * Mexican–American War * Civil War * Reconstruction Era
Reconstruction Era
* Indian Wars * Gilded Age * Progressive Era * African-American Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
1865–1895 / 1896–1954 * Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
* Imperialism * World War I * Roaring Twenties * Great Depression
Great Depression

* World War II
World War II

* home front * Nazism in the United States
United States

* American Century
American Century
* Cold War
Cold War
* Korean War
Korean War
* Space Race * Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
* Feminist Movement * Vietnam War
Vietnam War

* Post- Cold War
Cold War
(1991–2008)

* Collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union

* War on Terror

* War in Afghanistan * Iraq War
Iraq War

* Recent events (2008–present)

BY TOPIC

* Outline of U.S. history * Demographic * Discoveries

* Economic

* debt ceiling

* Inventions

* before 1890 * 1890–1945 * 1946–91 * after 1991

* Military * Postal * Technological and industrial

GEOGRAPHY

* Territory

* states * territories * counties * cities, towns, and villages

* Earthquakes * Extreme points * Islands

* Mountains

* peaks * ranges * Appalachian * Rocky

* National Park Service
National Park Service

* National Parks

* Regions

* East Coast * West Coast * Great Plains
Great Plains
* Gulf * Mid-Atlantic * Midwestern * New England
New England
* Pacific * Central * Eastern * Northern * Northeastern * Northwestern * Southern * Southeastern * Southwestern * Western

* Rivers

* Colorado * Columbia * Mississippi * Missouri * Ohio * Rio Grande
Rio Grande

* Time * Water supply and sanitation

POLITICS

FEDERAL

EXECUTIVE

* PRESIDENT

* Executive Office

* Cabinet / Executive departments * Civil service * Independent agencies * Law enforcement * Public policy

LEGISLATURE

* CONGRESS

* Senate

* Vice President * President pro tempore

* House of Representatives

* Speaker

JUDICIARY

* FEDERAL JUDICIARY * Supreme Court * Courts of appeals * District courts

LAW

* Constitution

* federalism * preemption * separation of powers

* Bill of Rights

* civil liberties

* Code of Federal Regulations
Code of Federal Regulations
* Federal Reporter * United States
United States
Code * United States
United States
Reports

INTELLIGENCE

* Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
* Defense Intelligence Agency * Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
* National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency * National Reconnaissance Office * National Security Agency
National Security Agency
* Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Director of National Intelligence

UNIFORMED

* Armed Forces

* Army * Marine Corps * Navy * Air Force * Coast Guard

* National Guard * NOAA Corps * Public Health Service Corps

Political divisions

* List of states and territories of the United States
United States
* States * Territories * Federal district * Native American autonomous administrative divisions * United States
United States
Minor Outlying Islands * Associated states * Local government in the United States
United States

* Federal enclave
Federal enclave

* Elections

* Electoral College

* Foreign relations

* Foreign policy * Vetos in the UN Security Council

* Ideologies

* Anti-Americanism * Exceptionalism * Nationalism

* Parties

* Democratic * Republican * Third parties

* 51st state

* political status of Puerto Rico * District of Columbia statehood movement

* Red states and blue states

* Purple America

* Scandals

* State governments

* governor * state legislature * state court

* Uncle Sam

ECONOMY

* By sector

* Agriculture

* Banking

* Wall Street
Wall Street

* Communications * Energy * Insurance * Manufacturing in the United States
United States
* Mining * Tourism * Trade * Transportation

* Companies

* by state

* Dollar (currency) * Exports * Federal budget * Federal Reserve System * Financial position * Labor unions * Public debt * Social welfare programs * Taxation * Unemployment

SOCIETY

CULTURE

* Americana
Americana
* Architecture * Cinema * Cuisine * Dance * Demography * Education * Family structure * Fashion * Flag * Folklore

* Languages

* American English
American English
* Indigenous languages

* ASL

* Black American Sign Language

* HSL * Plains Sign Talk * Arabic * Chinese * French * German * Italian * Russian * Spanish

* Literature

* Media

* Journalism * Newspapers * Radio * Television

* Music * Names * People * Philosophy * Public holidays * Religion * Sexuality * Sports * Theater * Visual art

SOCIAL CLASS

* Affluence * American Dream
American Dream
* Educational attainment * Homelessness * Home-ownership * Household income * Income inequality * Middle class * Personal income * Poverty * Professional and working class conflict * Standard of living * Wealth

ISSUES

* Ages of consent * Capital punishment

* Crime

* Incarceration

* Criticism of government

* Discrimination

* Affirmative action * Intersex rights * Islamophobia * LGBT rights * Racism * Same-sex marriage

* Drug policy * Energy policy * Environmental movement * Gun politics

* Health care

* Health insurance * Health care reform * Abortion * Hunger * Obesity * Smoking

* Human rights

* Immigration

* illegal

* International rankings

* National security

* Mass surveillance * Terrorism

* Separation of church and state

* Outline * Index

* Book
Book
* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
articles

HISTORY

CHRONOLOGY

* Formation * Georgian era * Victorian era
Victorian era
* Edwardian era
Edwardian era
* First World War * Interwar * Second World War * UK since 1945 (social history )

BY TOPIC

* Economic * Empire * Maritime * Military

GEOGRAPHY

ADMINISTRATIVE

* Countries of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
* Overseas territories * City status * Towns * Former colonies

PHYSICAL

* British Isles
British Isles

* terminology * Great Britain
Great Britain

* Coastline

* Geology

* Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland

* Lakes and lochs * Mountains * Rivers * Volcanoes

RESOURCES

* Energy /Renewable energy

* Biodiesel * Coal * Geothermal * Hydraulic frac. * Hydroelectricity * Marine * North Sea oil
North Sea oil
* Solar * Wind

* Food

* Agriculture

* Fishing

* English * Scottish

* Hunting

* Materials

* Flora * Forestry * Mining

POLITICS

* Constitution * Courts * Elections

* Foreign relations

* History

* Human rights

* Intersex * LGBT * Transgender

* Judiciary * Law * Law enforcement * Legislation

* Monarchy

* monarchs

* Nationality

* Parliament

* House of Commons * House of Lords
House of Lords

* Political parties

GOVERNMENT

* Cabinet

* list

* Civil service * Departments

* Prime Minister

* list

MILITARY

* Royal Navy
Royal Navy
* Army * Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
* Weapons of mass destruction

ECONOMY

* Banks

* Bank of England
Bank of England

* Budget * Economic geography * Manufacturing * Pound (currency) * Stock Exchange * Taxation * Telecommunications * Tourism * Transport * British Rail
British Rail

SOCIETY

* Affordability of housing * Crime * Demography * Drug policy * Education * Ethnic groups * Health care * Immigration * Innovation * Languages

* Poverty

* Food banks

* Prostitution * Public holidays * Social care * Social structure

CULTURE

* Art * Cinema * Cuisine * Identity * Literature

* Media

* television

* Music * Religion * Sport * Symbols * Theatre

COUNTRIES OF THE UNITED KINGDOM

ENGLAND

* History

* social * timeline

* Geography * Politics * Law

* Economy

* tourism

* Education * Health care * Culture * Religion * Symbols

NORTHERN IRELAND

* History * Geography

* Politics

* Assembly * Executive * First Minister and deputy

* Law

* Economy

* tourism

* Education * Health care * Culture * Religion * Symbols

SCOTLAND

* History

* timeline

* Geography

* Politics

* Parliament * Government * First Minister

* Law

* Economy

* tourism

* Education * Health care * Culture * Religion * Symbols

WALES

* History * Geography * Welsh Government

* Politics

* Assembly * First Minister

* Law

* Economy

* tourism

* Education * Health care * Culture * Religion * Symbols

* Outline * Index

* Book
Book
* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
topics

HISTORY

* Index of Soviet Union-related articles

* Russian Revolution

* February * October

* Russian Civil War * Russian SFSR * USSR creation treaty * New Economic Policy * Stalinism
Stalinism
* Great Purge * Great Patriotic War ( World War II
World War II
) * Cold War
Cold War
* Khrushchev Thaw * 1965 reform * Stagnation * Perestroika * Glasnost * Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
* Dissolution * Nostalgia * Post-Soviet states
Post-Soviet states

GEOGRAPHY

SUBDIVISIONS

* Republics

* autonomous

* Oblasts

* autonomous

* Autonomous okrugs

* Closed cities

* list

REGIONS

* Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
* European Russia * North Caucasus
North Caucasus
* Siberia
Siberia
* Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
* West Siberian Plain

POLITICS

GENERAL

* Constitution * Elections

* Foreign relations

* Brezhnev Doctrine

* Government

* list

* Human rights

* LGBT

* Law

* Leaders

* Collective leadership

* Passport system

* State ideology

* Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
* Leninism * Stalinism
Stalinism

BODIES

* Communist Party

* organisation

* Central Committee

* Politburo * Secretariat

* Congress * General Secretary

* Congress of Soviets (1922–1936) * Supreme Soviet (1938–1991) * Congress of People\'s Deputies (1989–1991) * Supreme Court

OFFICES

* Premier * President * Deputy Premier * First Deputy Premier

SECURITY SERVICES

* Cheka
Cheka
* GPU * NKVD
NKVD
* MVD * MGB * KGB

POLITICAL REPRESSION

* Red Terror
Red Terror
* Collectivization * Great Purge * Population transfer

* Gulag
Gulag

* list

* Holodomor
Holodomor
* Political abuse of psychiatry

IDEOLOGICAL REPRESSION

* Religion * Suppressed research * Censorship * Censorship of images

ECONOMY

* Agriculture * Central Bank * Energy policy * Five-Year Plans * Net material product * Inventions * Ruble (currency) * Internet domain * Transport

SCIENCE

* Communist Academy * Academy of Sciences * Academy of Medical Sciences * Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences * Sharashkas

* Naukograds

* list

SOCIETY

* Crime

* Demographics

* Soviet people
Soviet people
* working class * 1989 census

* Languages

* Linguistics

* LGBT

CULTURE

* Ballet * Cinema * Fashion * Literature

* Music

* opera

* Propaganda * Sports * Stalinist architecture
Stalinist architecture

OPPOSITION

* Soviet dissidents and their groups

* list

* Anthem

* republics

* Emblem

* republics

* Flag

* republics

TEMPLATES

* Departments * Russian Revolution 1917 * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Stagnation Era * Fall of Communism

* Book
Book
* Category
Category
* Commons * Portal
Portal
* WikiProject

* v * t * e

China
China
articles

HISTORY

* China
China

* timeline

* Ancient China
China
(outline ) (2070–221 BCE) * Imperial China
China
(221 BCE–1911 CE) * Republic of China (1912–49)
Republic of China (1912–49)

* People\'s Republic of China−PRC

* PRC 1949–76 * PRC 1976–89 * PRC 1989–2002 * PRC since 2002 * Years in the PRC

* Geography * Natural environment

OVERVIEWS

* Extreme points * Geology * Natural disasters

REGIONS

* East * Northeast * North

* South Central

* Central * South

* Western

* Northwest * Southwest

TERRAIN

* Bays * Canyons * Caves * Deserts * Grasslands * Hills * Islands

* Mountains

* ranges * passes

* Peninsulas * Northeast / North / Central Plains * Valleys * Volcanoes

WATER

* Canals * Lakes * Rivers * Waterfalls * Wetlands * Water resources

SEAS

* Bohai * Yellow * East China
China
* South China
China

RESERVES

* Protected areas * National parks * Nature reserves * UNESCO
UNESCO
Biosphere Reserves

WILDLIFE

* Fauna * Flora

* Government * Politics * Economy

Government and politics

* Civil service * Constitution * Elections * Environmental policy * Foreign relations * Military (People\'s Liberation Army)

* National People\'s Congress

* Standing Committee

* National security

* Political parties and movements

* Communist Party

* General Secretary * Politburo

* Democratic Parties * Anti-democratisation * Pro-democratisation

* President

* Vice President

* State Council

* Premier * Vice Premier

Administrative divisions

* Baseline islands * Border crossings * Cities * Province-level subdivisions

LAW

* Judicial system

* Human rights

* LGBT

* Law enforcement * Nationality law * Penal system

ECONOMY

* Agriculture

* Banking

* Central bank

* Economic history

* Energy

* Petroleum industry * Renewable energy

* Finance system * Foreign aid received * Foreign aid program * Historical GDP * International rankings * Poverty * Reform * Renminbi
Renminbi
(currency)

* Science and technology

* history

* Special
Special
Economic Zones (SEZs) * Standard of living * Telecommunications * Tourism

* Transport

* airports * ports and harbors

* People * Society * Culture

PEOPLE

* Demographics * Emigration * Ethnic groups * Internal migration * Statistics * Urbanization

SOCIETY

* Anthem * Chinese Dream * Corruption * Crime * Emblem

* Education

* universities

* Flag * "Generation Y " * Harmonious Socialist Society * HIV/AIDS * Intellectualism * Languages * Poverty

* Public health

* food safety

* incidents

* Public holidays * Rural life * Sexuality * Socialism with Chinese characteristics * Social issues * Social relations * Social structure * Social welfare * Suicide * Terrorism * Time zones * Urban life * Water supply and sanitation * Women * Xiaokang (middle-class) * Primary stage of socialism

CULTURE

* Archaeology * Archives * Art * Cinema * Cuisine * Dance * Gardens * Libraries * Literature * Martial arts

* Media

* newspapers * radio * television

* Music * Parks * Philosophy * Religion * Smoking * Sports * Tea culture * Tourism * Variety arts * World Heritage Sites

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → N. & S. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

United Nations
United Nations

* António Guterres , Secretary-General * Amina J. Mohammed , Deputy Secretary-General * Peter Thomson , General Assembly President

UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM

UNITED NATIONS CHARTER

* Preamble

PRINCIPAL ORGANS

* General Assembly

* President

* Security Council

* Members

* Economic and Social Council

* Secretariat

* Secretary-General * Deputy Secretary-General * Under-Secretary-General

* International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice

* statute

* Trusteeship Council

Programmes and specialized agencies

* FAO * ICAO * IFAD * ILO * IMO * ITC * IPCC * IAEA * MINURSO * UNIDO * ITU * UNAIDS * SCSL * UNCTAD * UNCITRAL * UNCDF * UNDAF * UNDG * UNDP * UNDPI

* UNDPKO

* peacekeeping

* UNEP

* OzonAction * UNEP/GRID-Arendal

* UNESCO
UNESCO
* UNFIP * UNFPA * UN-HABITAT * OHCHR * UNHCR * UNHRC * UNICEF
UNICEF
* UNICRI * UNIDIR * UNITAR * UN-Oceans * UNOCHA * UNODC * UNOPS * UNOSAT
UNOSAT
* UNRISD * UNRWA

* UNU

* UNU-OP * UNU-CRIS

* UNV * UN Women * UNWTO * UPU * WFP * WHO * WIPO * WMO

PRINCIPAL OFFICES

* New York (headquarters, library)

* Geneva

* Palace of Nations

* Nairobi * Vienna * UN organizations by location

MEMBERS / OBSERVERS

* Full members

* Founding members

* UNSC Permanent members

* Observers

* European Union

HISTORY

* League of Nations
League of Nations
* Four Policemen * Declaration by United Nations
United Nations

* Peacekeeping missions

* history * timeline

* Enlargement

RESOLUTIONS

* Security Council vetoes

* General Assembly

* 66th * 67th

* Security Council

* Cyprus * Iran * Iraq * Israel * Lebanon * Nagorno-Karabakh * North Korea * Palestine * Syria * Western Sahara

ELECTIONS

* Secretary-General (2006 * 2016) * International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
2011 * General Assembly President (2012 * 2016) * Security Council (2015 * 2016)

RELATED

* Bretton Woods system * Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty * Criticism * Delivering as One

* Flag

* Honour Flag

* Four Nations Initiative * Genocide Convention * UN Global Compact * ICC * International Years * UN laissez-passer * Military Staff Committee * Official languages * Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons * Peacekeeping * Treaty Series * UN Day * Universal Declaration of Human Rights

* Millennium Declaration

* Summit * Development Goals

* Security Council veto power

* UN reform

* Security Council reform

* UN Art Collection * UN Memorial Cemetery Korea

OTHER

* Outline * UN television film series (1964–1966) * In popula

.