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The Founding Fathers of the United States
United States
were descendants of immigrants settled in the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
in North America
North America
who led the American Revolution
American Revolution
against the Kingdom of Great Britain. Historian Richard B. Morris in 1973 identified the following seven figures as the key Founding Fathers: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington.[2][3] Adams, Jefferson, and Franklin were members of the Committee of Five
Committee of Five
that drafted the Declaration of Independence. Hamilton, Madison, and Jay were authors of The Federalist Papers, advocating ratification of the Constitution. The constitutions drafted by Jay and Adams for their respective states of New York (1777) and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(1780) were heavily relied upon when creating language for the US Constitution.[4] Jay, Adams and Franklin negotiated the Treaty of Paris (1783)
Treaty of Paris (1783)
that would end the American Revolutionary War.[5] Washington was Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Continental Army
Continental Army
and was President of the Constitutional Convention. All held additional important roles in the early government of the United States, with Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and Madison serving as President. Jay was the nation's first Chief Justice and Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury. While Franklin was America's most senior diplomat and later the governmental leader of Pennsylvania. The term Founding Fathers is sometimes used to refer to the Signers of the embossed version of the Declaration of Independence in 1776.[6] Signers should not to be confused with the term Framers; the Framers are defined by the National Archives as those 55 individuals who were appointed to be delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention and took part in drafting the proposed Constitution of the United States. Of the 55 Framers, only 39 were signers of the Constitution.[7][8] Two further groupings of Founding Fathers include: 1) those who signed the Continental Association, a trade ban and one of the colonists' first collective volleys protesting British control and the Intolerable Acts in 1774[9] or 2) those who signed the Articles of Confederation, the first U.S. constitutional document.[10] The phrase "Founding Fathers" is a twentieth-century appellation, coined by Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
in 1916. Prior to, and during the 19th century, they were referred to as simply the "Fathers". The term has been used to describe the founders and first settlers of the original royal colonies.[11][12]

Contents

1 Background 2 Interesting facts and commonalities

2.1 Education

2.1.1 Colonial Colleges attended 2.1.2 Advanced degrees and apprenticeships

2.1.2.1 Doctors of Medicine 2.1.2.2 Theology 2.1.2.3 Legal apprenticeships

2.1.3 Self-taught or little formal education

2.2 Demographics 2.3 Occupations 2.4 Finances 2.5 Prior Political Experience 2.6 Religion 2.7 Ownership of slaves and position on slavery 2.8 Attendance at conventions 2.9 Spouses and children 2.10 Charters of freedom and historical documents of the United States 2.11 Post-constitution life 2.12 Youth and longevity 2.13 Founders who were not signatories or delegates

3 Legacy

3.1 Institutions formed by Founders 3.2 Scholarship on the Founders

3.2.1 Living historians whose focus is the Founding Fathers 3.2.2 Noted collections of the Founding Fathers

3.3 In stage and film 3.4 Children's books

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Background[edit]

The Albany Congress
Albany Congress
of 1754 was a conference attended by seven colonies, which presaged later efforts at cooperation. The Stamp Act Congress of 1765 included representatives from nine colonies.

The First Continental Congress
First Continental Congress
met briefly in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 1774, consisting of fifty-six delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies (excluding Georgia) that became the United States of America. Among them was George Washington, who would soon be drawn out of military retirement to command the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Also in attendance was Patrick Henry, and John Adams, who like all delegates were elected by their respective colonial assemblies. Other delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts, John Dickinson
John Dickinson
from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and New York's John Jay. This congress in addition to formulating appeals to the British crown, established the Continental Association
Continental Association
to administer boycott actions against Britain. When the Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
convened on May 10, 1775, it essentially reconstituted the First Congress. Many of the same 56 delegates who attended the first meeting participated in the second.[13] New arrivals included Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
and Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, John Hancock
John Hancock
of Massachusetts, and John Witherspoon of New Jersey. Hancock was elected Congress President two weeks into the session when Peyton Randolph
Peyton Randolph
was recalled to Virginia
Virginia
to preside over the House of Burgesses. Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
replaced Randolph in the Virginia
Virginia
congressional delegation.[14] The second Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. Witherspoon was the only active clergyman to sign the Declaration. He also signed the Articles of Confederation and attended the New Jersey
New Jersey
(1787) convention that ratified the Federal Constitution.[15] The newly founded country of the United States
United States
had to create a new government to replace the British Parliament. The U.S. adopted the Articles of Confederation, a declaration that established a national government with a one-house legislature. Its ratification by all thirteen colonies gave the second Congress a new name: the Congress of the Confederation, which met from 1781 to 1789.[16] The Constitutional Convention took place during the summer of 1787, in Philadelphia.[17] Although the Convention was called to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset for some including James Madison and Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
was to create a new frame of government rather than amending the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the United States
United States
Constitution. Interesting facts and commonalities[edit]

Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy

George Washington
George Washington
served as President of the 1787 Constitutional Convention.

Benjamin Franklin, an early advocate of colonial unity, was a foundational figure in defining the U.S. ethos and exemplified the emerging nation's ideals.

Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
wrote the Federalist papers with Jay and Madison.

John Jay
John Jay
was President of the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
from 1778-1779 and negotiated the Treaty of Paris with Adams and Franklin.

James Madison, called the "Father of the Constitution" by his contemporaries

Peyton Randolph, as President of the Continental Congress, presided over creation of the Continental Association.

Richard Henry Lee, who introduced the Lee Resolution
Lee Resolution
in the Second Continental Congress
Continental Congress
calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain

A Committee of Five, composed of John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston, drafted and presented to the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
what became known as the U.S. Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776.

John Hancock, President of the Continental Congress, renowned for his large and stylish signature on the United States
United States
Declaration of Independence

John Dickinson
John Dickinson
authored the first draft of the Articles of Confederation in 1776 while serving in the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
as a delegate from Pennsylvania, and signed them late the following year, after being elected to Congress as a delegate from Delaware.

Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
was President of the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
when the Articles were passed on November 15, 1777.

Roger Sherman, the only person who signed all four U.S. historical documents

The Founding Fathers represented a cross-section of 18th-century U.S. leadership. Almost all of them were well-educated men of means who were leaders in their communities. Many were also prominent in national affairs. Virtually every one had taken part in the American Revolution; at least 29 had served in the Continental Army, most of them in positions of command. Scholars have examined the collective biography of them as well as the signers of the Declaration and the Constitution.[18] Education[edit] Many of the Founding Fathers attended or held degrees from the colonial colleges, most notably Columbia known at the time as "King's College", Princeton originally known as "The College of New Jersey", Harvard
Harvard
College, the College of William and Mary, Yale
Yale
College and University of Pennsylvania. Some had previously been home schooled or obtained early instruction from private tutors or academies.[19] Others had studied abroad. Ironically, Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
who had little formal education himself would ultimately establish the College of Philadelphia based on European models (1740); "Penn" would have the first medical school (1765) in the thirteen colonies where another Founder, Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Rush
would eventually teach. With a limited number of professional schools established in the U.S., Founders also sought advanced degrees from traditional institutions in England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
such as the University of Edinburgh, the University of St. Andrews, and the University of Glasgow. Colonial Colleges attended[edit]

College of William and Mary: Thomas Jefferson[20] Harvard
Harvard
College: John Adams, John Hancock
John Hancock
and William Williams King's College (now Columbia): John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, Gouverneur Morris, Robert R. Livingston and Egbert Benson.[21] College of New Jersey
New Jersey
(now Princeton): James Madison, Gunning Bedford Jr., Aaron Burr, Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Rush
and William Paterson College of Philadelphia later merged into the University of Pennsylvania: Hugh Williamson Yale
Yale
College: Oliver Wolcott James Wilson
James Wilson
attended the University of St. Andrews, the University of Glasgow,[22] and the University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh
though he never received a degree.

Advanced degrees and apprenticeships[edit] Doctors of Medicine[edit]

University of Edinburgh: Rush [23] University of Utrecht, Netherlands: Williamson

Theology[edit]

University of Edinburgh: Witherspoon (attended, no degree) University of St. Andrews: Witherspoon (honorary doctorate)

Legal apprenticeships[edit] Several like John Jay, James Wilson, John Williams and George Wythe[24] were trained as lawyers through apprenticeships in the colonies while a few trained at the Inns of Court
Inns of Court
in London. Self-taught or little formal education[edit] Franklin, Washington, John Williams and Henry Wisner
Henry Wisner
had little formal education and were largely self-taught or learned through apprenticeship. Demographics[edit] Some of the Founding Fathers were natives of the Thirteen Colonies.

Massachusetts: Adams New York: Jay Pennsylvania: Franklin, Morris Virginia: Washington, Jefferson, Madison

At least nine were immigrants

England: Robert Morris Ireland: Butler, Fitzsimons, McHenry, and Paterson West Indies: Hamilton Scotland
Scotland
Wilson and Witherspoon

Many of them had moved from one state to another. Eighteen had already lived, studied or worked in more than one state or colony: Baldwin, Bassett, Bedford, Davie, Dickinson, Few, Franklin, Ingersoll, Hamilton, Livingston, Alexander Martin, Luther Martin, Mercer, Gouverneur Morris, Robert Morris, Read, Sherman, and Williamson. Several others had studied or traveled abroad. Occupations[edit] The Founding Fathers practiced a wide range of high and middle-status occupations, and many pursued more than one career simultaneously. They did not differ dramatically from the Loyalists, except they were generally younger and less senior in their professions.[25]

As many as thirty-five including Adams, Hamilton and Jay were trained as lawyers though not all of them practiced law. Some had also been local judges.[26] Washington trained as a land surveyor before he became commander of a small militia At the time of the convention, 13 men were merchants: Blount, Broom, Clymer, Dayton, Fitzsimons, Shields, Gilman, Gorham, Langdon, Robert Morris, Pierce, Sherman, and Wilson. Broom and Few were small farmers. Three had retired from active economic endeavors: Franklin, McHenry, and Mifflin. Franklin and Williamson were scientists, in addition to their other activities. McClurg, McHenry, Rush, and Williamson were physicians Johnson and Witherspoon were college presidents.

Finances[edit] Historian Caroline Robbins in 1977 examined the status of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence and concluded:

There were indeed disparities of wealth, earned or inherited: some Signers were rich, others had about enough to enable them to attend Congress....The majority of revolutionaries were from moderately well-to-do or average income brackets. Twice as many Loyalists belonged to the wealthiest echelon. But some Signers were rich; few, indigent.... The Signers were elected not for wealth or rank so much as because of the evidence they had already evinced of willingness for public service.[27] A few of them were wealthy or had financial resources that ranged from good to excellent, but there are other founders who were less than wealthy. On the whole they were less wealthy than the Loyalists.[28]

Seven were major land speculators: Blount, Dayton, Fitzsimmons, Gorham, Robert Morris, Washington, and Wilson. Eleven speculated in securities on a large scale: Bedford, Blair, Clymer, Dayton, Fitzsimons, Franklin, King, Langdon, Robert Morris, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, and Sherman. Many derived income from plantations or large farms which they owned or managed, which relied upon the labor of enslaved men and women particularly in the southern colonies: Bassett, Blair, Blount, Davie,[29] Johnson, Butler, Carroll, Jefferson, Jenifer, Madison, Mason, Charles Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Rutledge, Spaight, and Washington. Eight of the men received a substantial part of their income from public office: Baldwin, Blair, Brearly, Gilman, Livingston, Madison, and Rutledge.

Prior Political Experience[edit] Several of the Founding Fathers had extensive national, state, local and foreign political experience prior to the adoption of the Constitution in 1787. Some had been diplomats. Several had been members of the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
or elected President of that body.

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
began his political career as a city councilman and then Justice of the Peace in Philadelphia. He was next elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly
Pennsylvania Assembly
and was sent by them to London as a colonial agent which helped hone his diplomatic skills. Jefferson, Adams, Jay and Franklin all acquired significant political experience as ministers to countries in Europe. John Adams
John Adams
and John Jay
John Jay
drafted the Constitutions of their respective states, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and New York, and successfully navigated them through to adoption. Jay, Thomas Mifflin
Thomas Mifflin
and Nathaniel Gorham
Nathaniel Gorham
had served as President of the Continental Congress. Gouverneur Morris
Gouverneur Morris
had been a member of the New York Provincial Congress. John Dickinson, Franklin, Langdon, and Rutledge had been governors or presidents of their states. Robert Morris had been a member of the Pennsylvania Assembly
Pennsylvania Assembly
and President of Pennsylvania's Committee of Safety (American Revolution). He was also a member of the Committee of Secret Correspondence. Roger Sherman
Roger Sherman
had served in the Connecticut
Connecticut
House of Representatives. Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
was a member of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Provincial Congress. Carroll served in the Maryland
Maryland
Senate. Wythe's first exposure to politics was as a member of Virginia's House of Burgesses. Read's entry into the political arena was as a commissioner of the town of Charlestown, Maryland. Clymer was a member of the Philadelphia Committee of Safety and the Continental Congress. Wilson's time as a member of the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
in 1776 was his introduction to colonial politics.

Nearly all of the 55 Constitutional Convention delegates had some experience in colonial and state government, and the majority had held county and local offices.[30]. Those who lacked national congressional experience were Bassett, Blair, Brearly, Broom, Davie, Dayton, Alexander Martin, Luther Martin, Mason, McClurg, Paterson, Charles Pinckney, Strong, and Yates. Religion[edit] Franklin T. Lambert (2003) has examined the religious affiliations and beliefs of some of the Founders. Of the 55 delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention, 28 were Anglicans
Anglicans
(in the Church of England; or Episcopalian, after the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
was won), 21 were Protestants, and two were Roman Catholics (D. Carroll, and Fitzsimons).[31] Among the Protestant delegates to the Constitutional Convention, eight were Presbyterians, seven were Congregationalists, two were Lutherans, two were Dutch Reformed, and two were Methodists.[31] A few prominent Founding Fathers were anti-clerical Christians such as Thomas Jefferson,[32][33][34] who constructed the Jefferson Bible, and Benjamin Franklin.[35] Historian Gregg L. Frazer argues that the leading Founders (Adams, Jefferson, Franklin, Wilson, Morris, Madison, Hamilton, and Washington) were neither Christians nor Deists, but rather supporters of a hybrid "theistic rationalism".[36] The Faiths of the Founding Fathers is a book that discusses the religion held by the founding fathers, written in 2006 by historian of U.S. religion David L. Holmes. Ownership of slaves and position on slavery[edit]

Portrait of George Washington
George Washington
and his valet slave William Lee

See also: George Washington
George Washington
and slavery and Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and slavery One of the greatest contradictions of the Founding Fathers was their disunity with regard to slavery at a time that they were seeking liberty for themselves. This hypocrisy was as evident in the North as it was in the South for many wealthy Northerners owned domestic slaves. In her study of Thomas Jefferson, historian Annette Gordon-Reed emphasizes this irony, "Others of the founders held slaves, but no other founder drafted the charter for freedom, "[37] In addition to Jefferson, George Washington, John Jay
John Jay
and many other of the Founding Fathers practiced slavery but were also conflicted by the institution which many saw as immoral and politically divisive.[38] Franklin though he was a key founder of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Abolition Society[39] originally owned slaves whom he later manumitted. John Jay would try unsuccessfully to abolish slavery as early as 1777 in the State of New York but was overruled.[40] He nonetheless founded the New York Manumission Society in 1785, for which Hamilton became an officer. They and other members of the Society founded the African Free School in New York City, to educate the children of free blacks and slaves. It was not until Jay was governor of New York in 1798, that he signed into law a gradual abolition law; fully ending slavery as of 1827. He freed his own slaves in 1798. Alexander Hamilton opposed slavery, as his experiences in life left him very familiar with slavery and its effect on slaves and on slaveholders,[41] although he did negotiate slave transactions for his wife's family, the Schuylers.[42] John Adams, Samuel Adams, and Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
never owned slaves.[43] Slaves and slavery are mentioned only indirectly in the 1787 Constitution. For example, Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3 prescribes that "three fifths of all other Persons" are to be counted for the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives and direct taxes. Additionally, in Article 4, Section 2, Clause 3, slaves are referred to as "persons held in service or labor".[39][44] The Founding Fathers, however, did make important efforts to contain slavery. Many Northern states had adopted legislation to end or significantly reduce slavery during and after the American Revolution.[44] In 1782 Virginia
Virginia
passed a manumission law that allowed slave owners to free their slaves by will or deed.[45] As a result, thousands of slaves were manumitted in Virginia.[45] Thomas Jefferson, in 1784, proposed to ban slavery in all the Western Territories, which failed to pass Congress by one vote.[44] Partially following Jefferson's plan, Congress did ban slavery in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, for lands north of the Ohio River.[44] The international slave trade was banned in all states except South Carolina, by 1800. Finally in 1807, President Jefferson called for and signed into law a Federally-enforced ban on the international slave trade throughout the U.S. and its territories. It became a federal crime to import or export a slave.[46] However, the domestic slave trade was allowed, for expansion, or for diffusion of slavery into the Louisiana Territory.[47] Attendance at conventions[edit] In the winter and spring of 1786–1787, twelve of the thirteen states chose a total of 74 delegates to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. Nineteen delegates chose not to accept election or attend the debates; for example, Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry
of Virginia
Virginia
thought that state politics were far more interesting and important than national politics, though during the ratification controversy of 1787–1788 he claimed, "I smelled a rat." Rhode Island
Rhode Island
did not send delegates because of its politicians' suspicions of the Convention delegates' motivations. As the colony was founded by Roger Williams as a sanctuary for Baptists, Rhode Island's absence at the Convention in part explains the absence of Baptist
Baptist
affiliation among those who did attend. Of the 55 who did attend at some point, no more than 38 delegates showed up at one time.[48] Spouses and children[edit] Most of the Founding Fathers married and had children. Many of their spouses, like Eliza Schuyler Hamilton, Martha Washington, Abigail Adams, Sarah Livingston Jay, Dolley Madison, Mary White Morris and Catherine Alexander Duer were strong women and made significant contributions of their own to the fight for liberty.[49] Sherman fathered the largest family: 15 children by two wives. At least nine (Bassett, Brearly, Johnson, Mason, Paterson, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Sherman, Wilson, and Wythe) married more than once. Four (Baldwin, Gilman, Jenifer, and Alexander Martin) were lifelong bachelors. Many of the delegates also had children conceived illegitimately.[50] George Washington, "The Father of our Country,"[51] had no biological descendants. Charters of freedom and historical documents of the United States[edit] The National Archives and Records Administration
National Archives and Records Administration
also known as NARA, defines U.S. Founding Documents, or Charters of Freedom, as the Declaration of Independence (1776), The Constitution (1787) and the Bill of Rights (1791). These original instruments which represent the philosophy of the United States
United States
are housed in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
in the NARA Rotunda.[52] The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
further identifies the Articles of Confederation, also preserved at NARA, as a primary U.S. document.[53] The Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
served as the first constitution of the United States
United States
until its replacement by the present Constitution on March 4, 1789. Signatories of the Continental Association
Continental Association
(CA), Declaration of Independence (DI), Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
(AC), and the United States Constitution (USC)):

Name Province/state CA (1774) DI (1776) AC (1777) USC (1787)

Andrew Adams Connecticut

Yes

John Adams Massachusetts Yes Yes

Samuel Adams Massachusetts Yes Yes Yes

Thomas Adams Virginia

Yes

John Alsop New York Yes

Abraham Baldwin Georgia

Yes

John Banister Virginia

Yes

Josiah Bartlett New Hampshire

Yes Yes

Richard Bassett Delaware

Yes

Gunning Bedford Jr. Delaware

Yes

Edward Biddle Pennsylvania Yes

John Blair Virginia

Yes

Richard Bland Virginia Yes

William Blount North Carolina

Yes

Simon Boerum New York Yes

Carter Braxton Virginia

Yes

David Brearley New Jersey

Yes

Jacob Broom Delaware

Yes

Pierce Butler South Carolina

Yes

Charles Carroll of Carrollton Maryland

Yes

Daniel Carroll Maryland

Yes Yes

Richard Caswell North Carolina Yes

Samuel Chase Maryland Yes Yes

Abraham Clark New Jersey

Yes

William Clingan Pennsylvania

Yes

George Clymer Pennsylvania

Yes

Yes

John Collins Rhode Island

Yes

Stephen Crane New Jersey Yes

Thomas Cushing Massachusetts Yes

Francis Dana Massachusetts

Yes

Jonathan Dayton New Jersey

Yes

Silas Deane Connecticut Yes

John De Hart New Jersey Yes

John Dickinson Delaware

Yes Yes

Pennsylvania Yes

William Henry Drayton South Carolina

Yes

James Duane New York Yes

Yes

William Duer New York

Yes

Eliphalet Dyer Connecticut Yes

William Ellery Rhode Island

Yes Yes

William Few Georgia

Yes

Thomas Fitzsimons Pennsylvania

Yes

William Floyd New York Yes Yes

Nathaniel Folsom New Hampshire Yes

Benjamin Franklin Pennsylvania

Yes

Yes

Christopher Gadsden South Carolina Yes

Joseph Galloway Pennsylvania Yes

Elbridge Gerry Massachusetts

Yes Yes

Nicholas Gilman New Hampshire

Yes

Nathaniel Gorham Massachusetts

Yes

Button Gwinnett Georgia

Yes

Lyman Hall Georgia

Yes

Alexander Hamilton New York

Yes

John Hancock Massachusetts

Yes Yes

John Hanson Maryland

Yes

Cornelius Harnett North Carolina

Yes

Benjamin Harrison Virginia Yes Yes

John Hart New Jersey

Yes

John Harvie Virginia

Yes

Patrick Henry Virginia Yes

Joseph Hewes North Carolina Yes Yes

Thomas Heyward Jr. South Carolina

Yes Yes

Samuel Holten Massachusetts

Yes

William Hooper North Carolina Yes Yes

Stephen Hopkins Rhode Island Yes Yes

Francis Hopkinson New Jersey

Yes

Titus Hosmer Connecticut

Yes

Charles Humphreys Pennsylvania Yes

Samuel Huntington Connecticut

Yes Yes

Richard Hutson South Carolina

Yes

Jared Ingersoll Pennsylvania

Yes

William Jackson South Carolina

Yes

John Jay New York Yes

Thomas Jefferson Virginia

Yes

Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer Maryland

Yes

Thomas Johnson Maryland Yes

William Samuel Johnson Connecticut

Yes

Rufus King Massachusetts

Yes

James Kinsey New Jersey Yes

John Langdon New Hampshire

Yes

Edward Langworthy Georgia

Yes

Henry Laurens South Carolina

Yes

Francis Lightfoot Lee Virginia

Yes Yes

Richard Henry Lee Virginia Yes Yes Yes

Francis Lewis New York

Yes Yes

Philip Livingston New York Yes Yes

William Livingston New Jersey Yes

Yes

James Lovell Massachusetts

Yes

Isaac Low New York Yes

Thomas Lynch South Carolina Yes

Thomas Lynch Jr. South Carolina

Yes

James Madison Virginia

Yes

Henry Marchant Rhode Island

Yes

John Mathews South Carolina

Yes

James McHenry Maryland

Yes

Thomas McKean Delaware Yes Yes Yes

Arthur Middleton South Carolina

Yes

Henry Middleton South Carolina Yes

Thomas Mifflin Pennsylvania Yes

Yes

Gouverneur Morris New York

Yes

Pennsylvania

Yes

Lewis Morris New York

Yes

Robert Morris Pennsylvania

Yes Yes Yes

John Morton Pennsylvania Yes Yes

Thomas Nelson Jr. Virginia

Yes

William Paca Maryland Yes Yes

Robert Treat Paine Massachusetts Yes Yes

William Paterson New Jersey

Yes

Edmund Pendleton Virginia Yes

John Penn North Carolina

Yes Yes

Charles Pinckney South Carolina

Yes

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney South Carolina

Yes

Peyton Randolph Virginia Yes

George Read Delaware Yes Yes

Yes

Joseph Reed Pennsylvania

Yes

Daniel Roberdeau Pennsylvania

Yes

Caesar Rodney Delaware Yes Yes

George Ross Pennsylvania Yes Yes

Benjamin Rush Pennsylvania

Yes

Edward Rutledge South Carolina Yes Yes

John Rutledge South Carolina Yes

Yes

Nathaniel Scudder New Jersey

Yes

Roger Sherman Connecticut Yes Yes Yes Yes

James Smith Pennsylvania

Yes

Jonathan Bayard Smith Pennsylvania

Yes

Richard Smith New Jersey Yes

Richard Dobbs Spaight North Carolina

Yes

Richard Stockton New Jersey

Yes

Thomas Stone Maryland

Yes

John Sullivan New Hampshire Yes

George Taylor Pennsylvania

Yes

Edward Telfair Georgia

Yes

Matthew Thornton New Hampshire

Yes

Matthew Tilghman Maryland Yes

Nicholas Van Dyke Delaware

Yes

George Walton Georgia

Yes

John Walton Georgia

Yes

Samuel Ward Rhode Island Yes

George Washington Virginia Yes

Yes

John Wentworth Jr. New Hampshire

Yes

William Whipple New Hampshire

Yes

John Williams North Carolina

Yes

William Williams Connecticut

Yes

Hugh Williamson North Carolina

Yes

James Wilson Pennsylvania

Yes

Yes

Henry Wisner New York Yes

John Witherspoon New Jersey

Yes Yes

Oliver Wolcott Connecticut

Yes Yes

George Wythe Virginia

Yes

Post-constitution life[edit] Subsequent events in the lives of the Founding Fathers after the adoption of the Constitution were characterized by success or failure, reflecting the abilities of these men as well as the vagaries of fate.[54] Washington, Adams, Jefferson and Madison served in highest U.S. office of President. Jay would be appointed as Chief Justice of the United States
United States
and later elected to two terms as Governor of New York. Seven (Fitzsimons, Gorham, Luther Martin, Mifflin, Robert Morris, Pierce, and Wilson) suffered serious financial reversals that left them in or near bankruptcy. Robert Morris spent three of the last years of his life imprisoned following bad land deals.[49] Two, Blount and Dayton, were involved in possibly treasonous activities. Yet, as they had done before the convention, most of the group continued to render public service, particularly to the new government they had helped to create. Youth and longevity[edit]

Death age of the Founding Fathers

Many of the Founding Fathers were under 40 years old at the time of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776: James Armistead Lafayette was 15, Marquis de Lafayette
Marquis de Lafayette
was 18, Alexander Hamilton was 19, Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr
was 20, Gouverneur Morris
Gouverneur Morris
and Betsy Ross were 24. The oldest were Benjamin Franklin, 70, and Samuel Whittemore, 81.[55] Secretary Charles Thomson
Charles Thomson
lived to the age of 94. Johnson died at 92. John Adams
John Adams
lived to the age of 90. A few – Franklin, Jay, Jefferson, Madison, Hugh Williamson, and George Wythe
George Wythe
– lived into their eighties. Approximately 16 died in their seventies, 21 in their sixties, 8 in their fifties, and 5 in their forties. Three (Alexander Hamilton, Richard Dobbs Spaight
Richard Dobbs Spaight
and Button Gwinnett) were killed in duels. Friends and political adversaries John Adams
John Adams
and Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
both died on the same day – July 4, 1826.[56] The last remaining founders, also called the "Last of the Romans", lived well into the nineteenth century.[57] Founders who were not signatories or delegates[edit] The following men and women are also recognized by many as having been founders of the United States
United States
based upon their significant contributions to the formation of American nation and democracy.

Abigail Adams, advisor, First Lady and mother of a president[58] Ethan Allen, military and political leader in Vermont[59] Richard Allen, African-American bishop[60] John Bartram, botanist, horticulturist and explorer[61] Egbert Benson, politician from New York[62] Elias Boudinot, New Jersey
New Jersey
delegate to Continental Congress[63] Aaron Burr, Vice President under Jefferson[64] George Rogers Clark, army general[65] George Clinton, New York governor and Vice President of the U.S[66] Tench Coxe, economist in the Continental Congress[67] William Richardson Davie, delegate to the Constitutional Convention (leaving before he could sign it), and Governor of North Carolina. Albert Gallatin, politician and Treasury Secretary[68] Horatio Gates, army general[65] Nathanael Greene, army general[65] Nathan Hale, captured U.S. soldier executed in 1776[58] Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, wife of Alexander Hamilton[69][70] James Iredell, advocate for Constitution, judge[66] John Paul Jones, navy captain[65] Henry Knox, army general, Secretary of War[66] Tadeusz Kościuszko, Polish army general[68] Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, French army general[68] Henry Lee III, army officer and Virginia
Virginia
governor[65] Robert R. Livingston, diplomat and jurist[58] William Maclay, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
politician and U.S. Senator[66] Dolley Madison, spouse of President James Madison[58] John Marshall, fourth Chief Justice of the United States[58] George Mason, revolutionary writer, co-father of the Bill of Rights[71] Philip Mazzei, Italian physician, merchant and author[72] James Monroe, fifth President of the United States[73] Daniel Morgan, military hero and Virginia
Virginia
Congressman[65] James Otis Jr., Massachusetts
Massachusetts
lawyer and politician[74] Thomas Paine, author of Common Sense[75][76] Andrew Pickens, army general and South Carolina
South Carolina
congressman[65] Timothy Pickering, U.S. Secretary of State from Massachusetts[77] Israel Putnam, army general[78] Edmund Randolph, first United States
United States
Attorney General, second Secretary of State[79] Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, French army general[68] Haym Solomon, financier and spy for Continental Army[80] Thomas Sumter, SC military hero and congressman[65] Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, Prussian officer[68] Joseph Warren, doctor, revolutionary leader[78] Mercy Otis Warren, political writer[66] Anthony Wayne, army general and politician[65] Noah Webster, writer, lexicographer, educator[81] Thomas Willing, banker[82] Paine Wingate, oldest survivor, Continental Congress[83][84]

Legacy[edit] Institutions formed by Founders[edit] Several Founding Fathers were instrumental in establishing schools and societal institutions that still exist today:

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
founded the University of Pennsylvania, while Jefferson founded the University of Virginia. Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Rush
founded Dickinson College
Dickinson College
and Franklin College, (today Franklin and Marshall) as well as the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, the oldest medical society in America. Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
founded the New York Post, as well as the United States Coast Guard. Henry Knox
Henry Knox
[85] helped found the Society of the Cincinnati
Society of the Cincinnati
in 1783; the society was predicated on service as an officer in the Revolutionary War and heredity. Members included Washington, Hamilton and Burr. Other Founders like Sam Adams, John Adams, Franklin and Jay criticized the formation of what they considered to be an elitist body and threat to the Constitution. Franklin would later accept an honorary membership though Jay declined.[86]

Scholarship on the Founders[edit] Articles and books by twenty-first century historians combined with the digitization of primary sources like handwritten letters continue to contribute to an encyclopedic body of knowledge about the Founding Fathers. Living historians whose focus is the Founding Fathers[edit] Ron Chernow won the Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
for his biography of George Washington. His bestselling book about Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
inspired the blockbuster musical of the same name. Joseph J. Ellis
Joseph J. Ellis
- According to Ellis, the concept of the Founding Fathers of the U.S. emerged in the 1820s as the last survivors died out. Ellis says "the founders", or "the fathers", comprised an aggregate of semi-sacred figures whose particular accomplishments and singular achievements were decidedly less important than their sheer presence as a powerful but faceless symbol of past greatness. For the generation of national leaders coming of age in the 1820s and 1830s – men like Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun – "the founders" represented a heroic but anonymous abstraction whose long shadow fell across all followers and whose legendary accomplishments defied comparison.

"We can win no laurels in a war for independence," Webster acknowledged in 1825. "Earlier and worthier hands have gathered them all. Nor are there places for us ... [as] the founders of states. Our fathers have filled them. But there remains to us a great duty of defence and preservation."[87]

Joanne B. Freeman Freeman's area of expertise is the life and legacy of Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
as well as political culture of the revolutionary and early national eras.[88][89][90] Freeman has documented the often opposing visions of the Founding Fathers as they tried to build a new framework for governance, "Regional distrust, personal animosity, accusation, suspicion, implication, and denouncement—this was the tenor of national politics from the outset.” [91] Annette Gordon-Reed
Annette Gordon-Reed
is an American historian and Harvard
Harvard
Law School professor. She is noted for changing scholarship on Thomas Jefferson regarding his relationship with Sally Hemings
Sally Hemings
and her children. She has studied the challenges facing the Founding Fathers particularly as it relates to their position and actions on slavery. She points out "the central dilemma at the heart of American democracy: the desire to create a society based on liberty and equality" that yet does not extend those privileges to all." [37] Jack N. Rakove - Thomas Jefferson Peter S. Onuf
Peter S. Onuf
- Thomas Jefferson Noted collections of the Founding Fathers[edit]

Adams Papers Editorial Project Founders Online

Founders Online is a searchable database of over 178,000 documents authored by or addressed to George Washington, John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams
John Adams
(and family), Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.

The Papers of Alexander Hamilton The Selected Papers of John Jay
John Jay
at Columbia University The Papers of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
at Princeton University The Papers of James Madison
James Madison
at University of Virginia The Washington Papers
The Washington Papers
at University of Virginia The Franklin Papers at Yale
Yale
University

In stage and film[edit] The Founding Fathers were portrayed in the Tony Award
Tony Award
winning musical 1776, a stage production about the debates over, and eventual adoption of, the Declaration of Independence; the popular performance was later turned into the 1972 film More recently, several of the Founding Fathers - Hamilton, Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Laurens and Burr - were reimagined in Hamilton, an acclaimed production about the life of Alexander Hamilton, with music, lyrics and book by Lin-Manuel Miranda.The show was inspired by the 2004 biography Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
by historian Ron Chernow. The rap musical won 11 Tony Awards.[92] Children's books[edit] In their 2015 children's book, The Founding Fathers author Jonah Winter and illustrator Barry Blitt categorized 14 leading patriots into two teams based on their contributions to the formation of America - the Varsity Squad (Washington, Franklin, Jefferson, John Adams, Madison, Jay, and Hamilton) and the Junior Varsity Squad (Sam Adams, Hancock, Henry, Morris, Marshall, Rush, and Paine).[93] See also[edit]

United States
United States
portal

List of national founders
List of national founders
(worldwide) History of the United States
United States
Constitution Rights of Englishmen Patriot (American Revolution) Sons of Liberty Military leadership in the American Revolutionary War

Notes[edit]

^ "American Revolution: Key to Declaration of Independence". Retrieved April 6, 2017.  ^ Richard B. Morris, Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries (New York: Harper & Row, 1973). ^ Kettler, Sarah. "The Founding Fathers: Who Were They Really?". Biography. Retrieved April 5, 2017.  ^ "About America, The Constitution of the United States" (PDF). World Book. Retrieved September 17, 2017.  ^ PBS NewsHour. "Forgotten Founding Father".  ^ "Signers of the Declaration". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 7, 2017.  ^ National Archives. "Meet the Framers of the Constitution".  ^ US Constitution Online. "The Framers".  ^ Carl G. Karsch. "The First Continental Congress: A Dangerous Journey Begins". Carpenter's Hall. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2017.  ^ Stanfield, Jack. America's Founding Fathers: Who Are They? Thumbnail Sketches of 164 Patriots (Universal-Publishers, 2001). ^ Parham, C. P. "From Great Wilderness to Seaway Towns: A Comparative History of Cornwall, Ontario, and Massena, New York, 1784-2001". SUNY Press, 2012 (chapter 1, page 7). Retrieved 20 November 2017. The founding fathers of Cornwall and ....  ^ Jill Lepore, The Whites of Their Eyes: The Tea Party’s Revolution and the Battle American History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), 16. ^ Burnett, Continental Congress, 64–67. ^ Fowler, Baron of Beacon Hill, 189. ^ "Signers of the Declaration". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. p. Biography #54. Retrieved April 24, 2014.  ^ "Confederation Congress". Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved October 23, 2010.  ^ Calvin C. Jillson (2009). American Government: Political Development and Institutional Change (5th ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-203-88702-8.  ^ See Brown (19764); Martin (19739); "Data on the Framers of the Constitution," at [1] ^ Brown (1976); Harris (1969) ^ "The Alma Maters of Our Founding Fathers". Retrieved April 7, 2017.  ^ "A Brief History of Columbia". Columbia University. 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-14.  ^ "The University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
Story James Wilson". Retrieved March 26, 2018.  ^ " Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Rush
(1746 - 1813) access-date=April 9, 2017". Penn University Archives and Records Center.  ^ "George Wythe". Colonial Williamsburg. Retrieved April 9, 2017.  ^ Greene (1973) ^ Brown (1976) ^ Caroline Robbins, "Decision in '76: Reflections on the 56 Signers" Proceedings of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Historical Society Vol. 89 (1977), pp. 72-87 online quoting page 83. ^ Greene (1973). ^ William R. Davie, Blackwell P. Robinson. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1957. ^ Martin (1973); Greene (1973) ^ a b Lambert, Franklin T. (2003). The Founding Fathers and the Place of Religion in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
Princeton University
Press (published 2006). ISBN 978-0691126029.  ^ Letter to Alexander von Humboldt, December 6, 1813 "History, I believe, furnishes no example of a priest-ridden people maintaining a free civil government," ^ Letter to Horatio G. Spafford, March 17, 1814 "In every country and in every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own." ^ The Religion of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Archived November 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved July 9, 2011 ^ Quoted in The New England
England
Currant (July 23, 1722), "Silence Dogood, No. 9; Corruptio optimi est pessima." "And it is a sad Observation, that when the People too late see their Error, yet the Clergy still persist in their Encomiums on the Hypocrite; and when he happens to die for the Good of his Country, without leaving behind him the Memory of one good Action, he shall be sure to have his Funeral Sermon stuff'd with Pious Expressions which he dropt at such a Time, and at such a Place, and on such an Occasion; than which nothing can be more prejudicial to the Interest of Religion, nor indeed to the Memory of the Person deceas'd. The Reason of this Blindness in the Clergy is, because they are honourably supported (as they ought to be) by their People, and see nor feel nothing of the Oppression which is obvious and burdensome to every one else." ^ Frazer, Gregg L. (2012). The Religious Beliefs of America's Founders: Reason, Revelation, and Revolution. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0700620214.  ^ a b Annette Gordon-Reed, Engaging Jefferson: Blacks and the Founding Father, The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Jan., 2000), pp. 171-182 ^ "The Founders and Slavery: John Jay
John Jay
Saves the Day". The Economist. Retrieved April 5, 2017.  ^ a b Wright, William D. (2002). Critical Reflections on Black History. West Port, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. p. 125.  ^ The Selected Papers of John Jay, Columbia University, http://www.columbia.edu/cu/libraries/inside/dev/jay/JaySlavery.html ^ Horton, James O. (2004). "Alexander Hamilton: Slavery and Race in a Revolutionary Generation". New York Journal of American History. New York Historical Society (3). Retrieved October 29, 2016.  ^ Magness, Phillip. "Alexander Hamilton's Exaggerated Abolitionism". Retrieved April 6, 2017.  ^ "The Founding Fathers and Slavery". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 9, 2017.  ^ a b c d Freehling, William W. (February 1972). "The Founding Fathers and Slavery". The American Historical Review. 77 (1): 87. doi:10.2307/1856595. JSTOR 1856595.  ^ a b The Cambridge History of Law in America. 2008. p. 278.  ^ Freehling, William W. (February 1972). "The Founding Fathers and Slavery". The American Historical Review. 77 (1): 88. doi:10.2307/1856595. JSTOR 1856595.  ^ Freehling, William W. (February 1972). "The Founding Fathers and Slavery". The American Historical Review. 77 (1): 85. doi:10.2307/1856595. JSTOR 1856595.  ^ See the discussion of the Convention in Clinton L. Rossiter, 1787: The Grand Convention (New York: Macmillan, 1966; reprint ed., with new foreword by Richard B. Morris, New York: W. W. Norton, 1987). ^ a b Griswold, Rufus (1855), The Republican Court, or, American Society in the Days of Washington, D. Appleton & Co. ^ Staar (January 2009). "Our Founding Fathers". Huffington Post. Retrieved 22 February 2012.  ^ George Washington's Mount Vernon. "Father of His Country". Retrieved April 6, 2017.  ^ National Archives. "America's Founding Documents". Retrieved April 6, 2017.  ^ "Articles of Confederation". Library of Congress. Retrieved April 10, 2017.  ^ Martin (1973) ^ Andrlik, Todd. "How Old Were the Leaders of the American Revolution on July 4, 1776?".  ^ History. " Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and John Adams
John Adams
Die".  ^ Elizabeth Fox-Genovese; Eugene D. Genovese (2005). The Mind of the Master Class: History and Faith in the Southern Slaveholders' Worldview. Cambridge University Press. p. 278. ISBN 9780521850650.  ^ a b c d e Encyclopædia Britannica. Founding fathers: the essential guide to the men who made America (John Wiley and Sons, 2007). ^ McWilliams, J. (1976). "The Faces of Ethan Allen: 1760-1860". The New England
England
Quarterly. 49 (2): 257–282. doi:10.2307/364502. JSTOR 364502.  ^ Newman, Richard. Freedom's Prophet: Bishop Richard Allen, the AME Church, and the Black Founding Fathers (NYU Press, 2009). ^ Jane Goodall (27 August 2013). Seeds of Hope: Wisdom and Wonder from the World of Plants. Grand Central Publishing. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-1-4555-1321-5. ^ Ballenas, Carl. Images of America: Jamaica (Arcadia Publishing, 2011). ^ Holmes, David. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. (Oxford University Press US, 2006). ^ Wood, Gordon S. Revolutionary Characters, What Made the Founding Fathers Different. (New York: Penguin Books, 2007) 225–242. ^ a b c d e f g h i Buchanan, John. "Founding Fighters: The Battlefield Leaders Who Made American Independence (review)". The Journal of Military History (Volume 71, Number 2, April 2007), pp. 522–524. ^ a b c d e R. B. Bernstein, The Founding Fathers Reconsidered (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009). ^ Stephen Yafa (2006). Cotton: The Biography of a Revolutionary Fiber. Penguin. p. 75. ISBN 9780143037224.  ^ a b c d e Dungan, Nicholas. Gallatin: America's Swiss Founding Father (NYU Press 2010). ^ Roberts, Cokie. "Founding Mothers: The Women Who Raised Our Nation". Harper Perennial, 2005 ^ Roberts, Cokie. "Ladies of Liberty: The Women Who Shaped Our Nation". Harper, 2008 ^ Broadwater, Jeff (2006). George Mason, Forgotten Founder. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3053-6. OCLC 67239589.  ^ LaGumina, Salvatore. The Italian American experience: an encyclopedia, page 361 (Taylor & Francis, 2000). ^ Unger, Harlow (2009). James Monroe: The Last Founding Father. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81808-6.  ^ Kann, Mark E. (1999). The Gendering of American Politics: Founding Mothers, Founding Fathers, and Political Patriarchy. ABC-CLIO. p. xi. ISBN 978-0-275-96112-1.  ^ "Founding Father Thomas Paine: He Genuinely Abhorred Slavery". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (48): 45. 2005. doi:10.2307/25073236 (inactive 2017-01-15).  ^ David Braff, "Forgotten Founding Father: The Impact of Thomas Paine," in Joyce Chumbley. ed., Thomas Paine: In Search of the Common Good (2009) pp. 39–43 ^ Burstein, Andrew. "Politics and Personalities: Garry Wills takes a new look at a forgotten founder, slavery and the shaping of America", Chicago Tribune (November 09, 2003): "Forgotten founders such as Pickering and Morris made as many waves as those whose faces stare out from our currency." ^ a b Rafael, Ray. The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Founding Fathers: And the Birth of Our Nation (Penguin, 2011). ^ "Founding Fathers: Virginia". FindLaw Constitutional Law Center. 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-14.  ^ Schwartz, Laurens R. Jews and the American Revolution: Haym Solomon and Others, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co., 1987. ^ Kendall, Joshua. The Forgotten Founding Father: Noah Webster's Obsession and the Creation of an American Culture (Penguin 2011). ^ Wright, R. E. (1996). " Thomas Willing
Thomas Willing
(1731-1821): Philadelphia Financier and Forgotten Founding Father". Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
History. 63 (4): 525–560. doi:10.2307/27773931 (inactive 2017-01-15). JSTOR 27773931.  ^ "A Patriot of Early New England", New York Times
New York Times
(December 20, 1931). This book review referred to Wingate as one of the "Fathers" of the United States, per the book title. ^ The New Yorker, Volume I, page 398 (September 10, 1836): "'The Last of the Romans' — This was said of Madison at the time of his decease, but there is one other person who seems to have some claims to this honorable distinction. Paine Wingate
Paine Wingate
of Stratham, N.H. still survives." ^ "THE FOUNDING OF THE SOCIETY, 1783–1784". Society of the Cincinnati. Retrieved April 9, 2017.  ^ "History:The Society of the Cincinnati
Society of the Cincinnati
in the State of Connecticut".  ^ Joseph J. Ellis; Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams. (2001) p. 214. ^ Jennifer Schuessler. "Up From the Family Basement, a Little-Seen Hamilton Trove". The New York Times.  ^ Joanne B. Freeman. "The Long History of Political Idiocy". The New York Times.  ^ Joanne B. Freeman. "How Hamilton Uses History: What Lin-Manuel Miranda Included in His Portrait of a Heroic, Complicated Founding Father—and What He Left Out". Slate. Retrieved April 9, 2017.  ^ Chris Bray. "Tip and Gip Sip and Quip-The politics of never". The Baffler. Retrieved April 11, 2017.  ^ Robert Viagas. "Hamilton Tops Tony Awards With 11 Wins". Playbill. Retrieved April 9, 2017.  ^ Winter, Jonah and Blitt, Barry, The Founding Fathers!Those Horse-Ridin', Fiddle-Playin', Book-Readin', Gun-Totin' Gentlemen Who Started America Simon and Schuster, New York (2015)

References[edit]

American National Biography Online, (2000). Bernard Bailyn, To Begin the World Anew Knopf, 2003. Richard B. Bernstein, Are We to Be a Nation? The Making of the Constitution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
Harvard
University Press, 1987. R. B. Bernstein, The Founding Fathers Reconsidered (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009). Richard D. Brown. "The Founding Fathers of 1776 and 1787: A Collective View," William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 33, No. 3 (Jul. 1976), pp. 465–480 online at JSTOR. Henry Steele Commager, "Leadership in Eighteenth-Century America and Today," Daedalus 90 (Fall 1961): 650–673, reprinted in Henry Steele Commager, Freedom and Order (New York: George Braziller, 1966). Joseph J. Ellis. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000), winner of the Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
for History. Joseph J. Ellis. The Quartet: Orchestrating the Second American Revolution, 1783-1789 (New York: First Vintage Books Edition, May 2016). Joanne B. Freeman, Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic. New Haven, CT: Yale
Yale
University Press, 2001. Steven K. Green, Inventing a Christian America: The Myth of the Religious Founding. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2015. Jack P. Greene. "The Social Origins of the American Revolution: An Evaluation and an Interpretation," Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 88, No. 1 (Mar. 1973), pp. 1–22 online in JSTOR. P.M.G. Harris, "The Social Origins of American Leaders: The Demographic Foundations, " Perspectives in American History 3 (1969): 159–364. Mark E. Kann; The Gendering of American Politics: Founding Mothers, Founding Fathers, and Political Patriarchy (New York: Frederick Praeger, 1999). Adrienne Koch; Power, Morals, and the Founding Fathers: Essays in the Interpretation of the American Enlightenment
American Enlightenment
(Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1961). K. M. Kostyal. Founding Fathers: The Fight for Freedom and the Birth of American Liberty (2014) Franklin T. Lambert, The Founding Fathers and the Place of Religion in America. (Princeton, NJ Princeton University
Princeton University
Press, 2003). James Kirby Martin, Men in Rebellion: Higher Governmental Leaders and the coming of the American Revolution, (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1973; reprint, New York: Free Press, 1976). Richard B. Morris, Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries (New York: Harper & Row, 1973). Robert Previdi; "Vindicating the Founders: Race, Sex, Class, and Justice in the Origins of America," Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 29, 1999 Rakove, Jack. Revolutionaries: A New History of the Invention of America(Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; 2010) 487 pages; scholarly study focuses on how the Founders moved from private lives to public action, beginning in the 1770s Cokie Roberts. Founding Mothers: The Women Who Raised Our Nation. New York: William Morrow, 2005. Gordon S. Wood. Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different (New York: Penguin Press, 2006)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Founding Fathers of the United States.

Founders Online: Correspondence and Other Writings of Six Major Shapers of the United States Debunks – along with other fact finding sites – the Internet Myth of "What Happened to The Signers of the Declaration of Independence" (retrieved 01-30-15) "What Would the Founding Fathers Do Today?" at the Wayback Machine (archived January 14, 2007) "Founding Father Quotes, Biographies, and Writings"

Founding Fathers and their related articles

v t e

John Adams

2nd President of the United States, 1797–1801 1st Vice President of the United States, 1789–1797 U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, 1785–1788 U.S. Ambassador to the Netherlands, 1782–1788 Delegate, Second Continental Congress, 1775–1778 Delegate, First Continental Congress, 1774

Founding of the United States

Braintree Instructions (1765) Boston Massacre defense Continental Association Novanglus; A History of the Dispute with America, From Its Origin in 1754 to the Present Time (1775) Thoughts on Government
Thoughts on Government
(1776) Declaration of Independence

May 15 preamble Committee of Five

Model Treaty

Treaty of Amity and Commerce Treaty of Alliance

Board of War Chairman of the Marine Committee, 1775-1779

Continental Navy

Staten Island Peace Conference

Conference House

Constitution of Massachusetts (1780) Treaty of Paris, 1783

Presidency

Inauguration Quasi War with France

XYZ Affair Commerce Protection Act United States
United States
Marine Corps Convention of 1800

Alien and Sedition Acts

Naturalization Act of 1798

Navy Department Library Treaty of Tellico Treaty of Tripoli Midnight Judges Act

Marbury v. Madison

State of the Union Address (1797 1798 1799 1800) Cabinet Federal judiciary appointments

Other writings

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Historical Society holdings

Adams Papers Editorial Project

Life and homes

Early life and education Adams National Historical Park

John Adams
John Adams
Birthplace Family home and John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
birthplace Peacefield Presidential Library

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Hall, Harvard
Harvard
University Presidents House, Philadelphia Co-founder and second president, American Academy of Arts and Sciences United First Parish Church and gravesite

Elections

United States
United States
presidential election 1788–1789 1792 1796 1800

Legacy

Adams House at Harvard
Harvard
University John Adams
John Adams
Building U.S. Postage stamps Adams Memorial

Popular culture

Profiles in Courage (1964 series) American Primitive (1969 play) 1776 (1969 musical 1972 film) The Adams Chronicles (1976 miniseries) Liberty! (1997 documentary series) Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
(2002 animated series) John Adams
John Adams
(2001 book 2008 miniseries) Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
(2015 miniseries)

Related

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Federalist Era First Party System republicanism

American Philosophical Society Gazette of the United States The American Museum American Revolution

patriots

Family

Abigail Adams

wife Quincy family

Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams
Smith (daughter) John Quincy Adams

son presidency

Charles Adams (son) Thomas Boylston Adams (son) George W. Adams (grandson) Charles Adams Sr. (grandson) John Adams
John Adams
II (grandson) John Q. Adams (great-grandson) Henry Adams
Henry Adams
(great-grandson) Brooks Adams
Brooks Adams
(great-grandson) John Adams
John Adams
Sr. (father) Susanna Boylston (mother) Elihu Adams (brother) Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams
(second cousin) Louisa Adams

daughter-in-law First Lady

← George Washington Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

Category

v t e

Samuel Adams

4th Governor of Massachusetts, 1794—1797 Second Continental Congress, 1775—1781 First Continental Congress, 1774 Clerk of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
House of Representatives, 1766—1774

United States founding events

The Independent Advertiser Boston Caucus 1764 Sugar Act response

protests

1768 Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Circular Letter Probable author, 1768–1769 "Journal of Occurrences" Arranged Christopher Seider
Christopher Seider
funeral, 1770 Co-author, 1772 Boston Pamphlet Boston Committee of Correspondence, 1772 Hutchinson Letters Affair Co-inspired and publicized, Boston Tea Party Signed, 1774 Continental Association Massachusetts
Massachusetts
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Declaration of Independence Signed, Articles of Confederation 1788 Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Compromise

Life

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(2002 animated series) John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries) Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
(2015 miniseries)

Family

John Adams
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(second cousin)

v t e

John Dickinson

5th President of Pennsylvania, 1782–1785 5th President of Delaware, 1781–1783 Second Continental Congress, 1775–1776, 1779–1781 First Continental Congress, 1774 Stamp Act Congress, 1765

Founding of the United States

Declaration of Rights and Grievances (1765) Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(1767, 1768) "The Liberty Song" (1768 United we stand, divided we fall) Petition to the King
Petition to the King
(1774) Signee, Continental Association
Continental Association
(1774) Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Committee of Correspondence (1774–1776) Letter to the inhabitants of the Province of Quebec (1774) Olive Branch Petition
Olive Branch Petition
(1775) Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms (co-wrote, 1775) Committee of Secret Correspondence (1775–1776) Model Treaty committee (1776) Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
and perpetual Union (1776) President, Annapolis Convention (1786) Delegate, Constitutional Convention (1787)

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Brigadier General, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
militia Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
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Delaware
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Philemon Dickinson
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Pennsylvania
State University John Dickinson
John Dickinson
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(2008 miniseries) Sons of Liberty
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v t e

Benjamin Franklin

January 6, 1706 – April 17, 1790 President of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(1785–1788), Ambassador to France (1779–1785) Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
(1775–1776)

Founding of the United States

Join, or Die
Join, or Die
(1754 political cartoon) Albany Plan
Albany Plan
of Union

Albany Congress

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Pennsylvania
Provincial Assembly Postmaster General Founding Fathers

Inventions, other events

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111th Infantry Regiment

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Pennsylvania
Hospital Academy and College of Philadelphia

University of Pennsylvania

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Pennsylvania
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Writings

Silence Dogood
Silence Dogood
letters (1722) A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain (1725) The Busy-Body
The Busy-Body
letters (1729) Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Gazette (1729–1790) Poor Richard's Almanack
Poor Richard's Almanack
(1732–1758) The Drinker's Dictionary (1737) "Advice to a Friend on Choosing a Mistress" (1745) "The Speech of Polly Baker" (1747) Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc. (1751) Experiments and Observations on Electricity
Experiments and Observations on Electricity
(1751) Birch letters (1755) The Way to Wealth
The Way to Wealth
(1758) Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Chronicle (1767) Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One (1773) Proposed alliance with the Iroquois (1775) A Letter To A Royal Academy (1781) Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America
North America
(1784) The Morals of Chess (1786) An Address to the Public (1789) A Plan for Improving the Condition of the Free Blacks (1789) The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(1771–90, pub. 1791) Bagatelles and Satires
Bagatelles and Satires
(pub. 1845) Franklin as a journalist

Legacy

Franklin Court Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
House Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Institute of Technology Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
National Memorial Franklin Institute Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Medal Depicted in The Apotheosis of Washington Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
statue, Washington D.C. In popular culture

Ben and Me (1953 short) Ben Franklin in Paris
Ben Franklin in Paris
(1964 musical play) 1776 (1969 musical 1972 film) Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(1974 miniseries) Liberty! (1997 documentary series) Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
(2002 animated series) Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(2002 documentary series) John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries) Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
(2015 miniseries) Sons of Ben (supporters group for the Philadelphia Union soccer club

Refunding Certificate Franklin half dollar One-hundred dollar bill Washington-Franklin stamps

other stamps

Cities, counties, schools named for Franklin Franklin Field State of Franklin Ships named USS Franklin Ben Franklin effect

Related

Age of Enlightenment American Enlightenment The New- England
England
Courant The American Museum magazine American Revolution

patriots

Syng inkstand

Family

Deborah Read
Deborah Read
(wife) Sarah Franklin Bache
Sarah Franklin Bache
(daughter) Francis Franklin (son) William Franklin
William Franklin
(son) Richard Bache Jr. (grandson) Benjamin F. Bache (grandson) Louis F. Bache (grandson) William Franklin
William Franklin
(grandson) Andrew Harwood (great-grandson) Alexander Bache (great-grandson) Josiah Franklin (father) Jane Mecom (sister) James Franklin (brother) Mary Morrell Folger (grandmother) Peter Folger (grandfather) Richard Bache
Richard Bache
(son-in-law) Ann Smith Franklin (sister-in-law)

v t e

Alexander Hamilton

Senior Officer of the United States
United States
Army, 1799–1800 1st Secretary of the Treasury, 1789–1795 Delegate, Congress of the Confederation, 1782–1783, 1788–1789

United States founding events

A Full Vindication of the Measures of Congress (1774) The Farmer Refuted (1775) Delegate, 1786 Annapolis Convention Delegate, 1787 Constitutional Convention Initiated, main author, The Federalist Papers

written by Hamilton

Founding Father

Secretary of the Treasury

First Bank of the United States Revenue Marine ( United States
United States
Coast Guard) United States
United States
Customs Service Hamiltonian economic program Residence Act

Compromise of 1790

"First Report on the Public Credit", 1790 Funding Act of 1790 "Operations of the Act Laying Duties on Imports", 1790 "Second Report on Public Credit", a.k.a. "Report on a National Bank", 1790 "Report On Manufactures", 1791 Tariff of 1790 Tariff of 1792 Coinage Act of 1792

United States
United States
Mint

Whiskey Rebellion Jay Treaty

Military career

New York Provincial Company of Artillery In the Revolutionary War Battles: Harlem Heights White Plains Trenton General Washington's Aide-de-Camp Princeton Brandywine Germantown Monmouth Siege of Yorktown

Other events

Burr–Hamilton duel Founder, Federalist Party

Federalist Era

Founder, Bank of New York Bank of North America Advisor, George Washington's Farewell Address President-General of the Society of the Cincinnati Founder, New-York Evening Post Hamilton–Reynolds sex scandal Rutgers v. Waddington Relationship with slavery

Depictions and memorials

Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(Fraser statue) Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(Ceracchi bust) Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(Conrads statue) Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(Trumbull portrait) Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
Bridge Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
High School (Los Angeles) Fort Hamilton Hamilton Grange National Memorial Hamilton Hall (Columbia University) Hamilton Hall (Salem, Massachusetts) Hamilton Heights, Manhattan Hamilton, Ohio Hamilton-Oneida Academy Postage stamps Trinity Church Cemetery United States
United States
ten-dollar bill

Media and popular culture

Hamilton (2015 musical) Hamilton (1917 play) Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(1931 film) Liberty! (1997 documentary series) Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
(2002 animated series) John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries)

Related

Age of Enlightenment American Enlightenment American Philosophical Society Liberty Hall (New Jersey) New York Manumission
Manumission
Society

African Free School

"American System" economic plan

American School

American Revolution

patriots

Family

Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton

wife Schuyler family

Philip Hamilton
Philip Hamilton
(oldest son) Angelica Hamilton
Angelica Hamilton
(daughter) Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
Jr. (son) James Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
(son) John Church Hamilton
John Church Hamilton
(son) William S. Hamilton (son) Eliza Hamilton Holly
Eliza Hamilton Holly
(daughter) Philip Hamilton
Philip Hamilton
(youngest son) Schuyler Hamilton
Schuyler Hamilton
(grandson) Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
Jr. (grandson) Allan McLane Hamilton
Allan McLane Hamilton
(grandson) Robert Ray Hamilton (great-grandson)

v t e

John Hancock

1st and 3rd Governor of Massachusetts, 1780–1785, 1787–1793 President, 2nd Continential Congress, 1775–1777 Boston Board of Selectmen, 1766–1775

United States Founding events

HMS Liberty confiscation Sons of Liberty Co-inspired, Boston Tea Party 1774 Massacre Day speech President, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Provincial Congress Chairman, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Committee of Safety Presided over, signed, United States
United States
Declaration of Independence

signing Dunlap broadside

Signed, Articles of Confederation

Life

Early life Hancock-Clarke House Hancock Manor Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Hall, Harvard
Harvard
University Boston Cadets Co-founder, American Academy of Arts and Sciences United States
United States
presidential election, 1788–89 Granary Burying Ground

Related

American Revolution

patriots

Founding Father Syng inkstand

Legacy

USS Hancock, 1775 USS Hancock, 1776 Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
(2002 animated series) John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries) Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
(2015 miniseries) John Hancock
John Hancock
Center John Hancock
John Hancock
Tower

Family

Dorothy Quincy
Dorothy Quincy
(wife) John Hancock
John Hancock
Jr. (father) Thomas Hancock (uncle) John Hancock, Sr.
John Hancock, Sr.
(grandfather) Edmund Quincy (father-in-law)

v t e

Thomas Jefferson

3rd President of the United States
President of the United States
(1801–1809) 2nd U.S. Vice President (1797–1801) 1st U.S. Secretary of State (1790–1793) U.S. Minister to France (1785–1789) 2nd Governor of Virginia
Virginia
(1779–1781) Delegate, Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
(1775–1776)

Founding documents of the United States

A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774) Initial draft, Olive Branch Petition
Olive Branch Petition
(1775) Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms (1775) 1776 Declaration of Independence

Committee of Five authored physical history "All men are created equal" "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness" "Consent of the governed"

1786 Virginia
Virginia
Statute for Religious Freedom

freedom of religion

French Revolution

Co-author, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(1789)

Presidency

Inaugural Address (1801 1805) Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark Expedition

Corps of Discovery timeline Empire of Liberty

Red River Expedition Pike Expedition Cumberland Road Embargo Act of 1807

Chesapeake–Leopard affair Non-Intercourse Act of 1809

First Barbary War Native American policy Marbury v. Madison West Point Military Academy State of the Union Addresses (texts 1801 1802 1805) Cabinet Federal judicial appointments

Other noted accomplishments

Early life and career Founder, University of Virginia

history

Land Ordinance of 1784

Northwest Ordinance 1787

Anti-Administration party Democratic-Republican Party Jeffersonian democracy

First Party System republicanism

Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measure of the United States
United States
(1790) Kentucky and Virginia
Virginia
Resolutions A Manual of Parliamentary Practice (1801)

Jeffersonian architecture

Barboursville Farmington Monticello

gardens

Poplar Forest University of Virginia

The Rotunda The Lawn

Virginia
Virginia
State Capitol White House
White House
Colonnades

Other writings

Notes on the State of Virginia
Virginia
(1785) 1787 European journey memorandums Indian removal letters Jefferson Bible
Jefferson Bible
(1895) Jefferson manuscript collection at the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Historical Society The Papers of Thomas Jefferson

Related

Age of Enlightenment American Enlightenment American Philosophical Society American Revolution

patriots

Member, Virginia
Virginia
Committee of Correspondence Committee of the States Founding Fathers of the United States Franco-American alliance Jefferson and education Religious views Jefferson and slavery Jefferson and the Library of Congress Jefferson disk Jefferson Pier Pet mockingbird National Gazette Residence Act

Compromise of 1790

Sally Hemings

Jefferson–Hemings controversy Betty Hemings

Separation of church and state Swivel chair The American Museum magazine Virginia
Virginia
dynasty

Elections

United States
United States
Presidential election 1796 1800 1804

Legacy

Bibliography Jefferson Memorial Mount Rushmore Birthday Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Building Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Center for the Protection of Free Expression Jefferson Lecture Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Star for Foreign Service Jefferson Lab Monticello
Monticello
Association Jefferson City, Missouri Jefferson College Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
School of Law Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
University Washington and Jefferson National Forests Other placenames Currency depictions

Jefferson nickel Two-dollar bill

U.S. postage stamps

Popular culture

Ben and Me (1953 short) 1776 (1969 musical 1972 film) Jefferson in Paris
Jefferson in Paris
(1995 film) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1997 film) Liberty! (1997 documentary series) Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
(2002 animated series) John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries) Jefferson's Garden (2015 play) Hamilton (2015 musical) Jefferson–Eppes Trophy Wine bottles controversy

Family

Peter Jefferson
Peter Jefferson
(father) Jane Randolph Jefferson
Jane Randolph Jefferson
(mother) Lucy Jefferson Lewis (sister) Randolph Jefferson (brother) Isham Randolph (grandfather) William Randolph
William Randolph
(great-grandfather) Martha Jefferson
Martha Jefferson
(wife) Martha Jefferson
Martha Jefferson
Randolph (daughter) Mary Jefferson Eppes (daughter) Harriet Hemings
Harriet Hemings
(daughter) Madison Hemings
Madison Hemings
(son) Eston Hemings
Eston Hemings
(son) Thomas J. Randolph (grandson) Francis Eppes (grandson) George W. Randolph
George W. Randolph
(grandson) John Wayles Jefferson
John Wayles Jefferson
(grandson) Thomas Mann Randolph Jr.
Thomas Mann Randolph Jr.
(son-in-law) John Wayles Eppes (son-in-law) John Wayles (father-in-law) Dabney Carr
Dabney Carr
(brother-in-law) Dabney Carr
Dabney Carr
(nephew)

← John Adams James Madison
James Madison

Category

v t e

James Madison

4th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1809–1817) 5th U.S. Secretary of State (1801–1809) United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
(1789–1797) Congress of the Confederation
Congress of the Confederation
(1781–1783) Virginia
Virginia
House of Delegates (1776–1779, 1784–1786)

"Father of the Constitution"

Co-wrote, 1776 Virginia
Virginia
Constitution 1786 Annapolis Convention 1787 Constitutional Convention

Virginia
Virginia
Plan Constitution of the United States Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787

The Federalist Papers

written by Madison No. 10 No. 51

Virginia
Virginia
Ratifying Convention United States
United States
Bill of Rights

27th amendment

Constitution drafting and ratification timeline Founding Fathers

Presidency

First inauguration Second inauguration Tecumseh's War

Battle of Tippecanoe

War of 1812

origins Burning of Washington The Octagon House Treaty of Ghent Seven Buildings
Seven Buildings
residence results

Second Barbary War Era of Good Feelings Second Bank of the United States State of the Union Address (1810 1814 1815 1816) Cabinet Federal judiciary appointments

Other noted accomplisments

Co-founder, American Whig Society Supervised the Louisiana Purchase Anti-Administration party Residence Act

Compromise of 1790

Democratic-Republican Party

First Party System republicanism

Library of Congress Virginia
Virginia
and Kentucky Resolutions Report of 1800

Other writings

The Papers of James Madison

Life

Early life and career Belle Grove Plantation, birthplace Montpelier

Elections

U.S. House of Representatives election, 1789 1790 1792 1794 U.S. presidential election, 1808 1812

Legacy and popular culture

James Madison
James Madison
Memorial Building James Madison
James Madison
University James Madison
James Madison
College Madison, Wisconsin Madison Square Madison River Madison Street U.S. postage stamps James Madison
James Madison
Memorial Fellowship Foundation James Madison
James Madison
Freedom of Information Award James Madison
James Madison
Award James Madison
James Madison
Institute A More Perfect Union (1989 film) Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
(2002 miniseries) Hamilton (2015 musical)

Related

Age of Enlightenment American Enlightenment Marbury v. Madison National Gazette Paul Jennings Madisonian Model American Philosophical Society The American Museum magazine Virginia
Virginia
dynasty

Family

Dolley Madison
Dolley Madison
(wife) John Payne Todd
John Payne Todd
(stepson) James Madison, Sr.
James Madison, Sr.
(father) Nelly Conway Madison
Nelly Conway Madison
(mother) William Madison (brother) Ambrose Madison (paternal grandfather) James Madison
James Madison
(cousin) George Madison
George Madison
(paternal second-cousin) Thomas Madison (paternal second-cousin) John Madison (great-grandfather) Lucy Washington (sister-in-law)

← Thomas Jefferson James Monroe
James Monroe

Category

v t e

George Mason

United States Founding events

Drafted, 1769 Virginia
Virginia
Association resolutions Primary author, 1774 Fairfax Resolves Primary author, 1776 Virginia
Virginia
Declaration of Rights

"All men are created equal" Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness Freedom of the press Freedom of religion Consent of the governed Baseless search and seizure Cruel and unusual punishment Speedy trial

1776 Virginia
Virginia
Constitution 1785 Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Conference 1787 Constitutional Convention Virginia
Virginia
Ratifying Convention Co-father, United States
United States
Bill of Rights

history

Founding Father

Writings inspired

1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(France) 1789 United States
United States
Bill of Rights

Life

Chopawamsic plantation Gunston Hall On slavery Ohio Company

Legacy

George Mason
George Mason
Memorial George Mason
George Mason
University

George Mason
George Mason
Stadium

George Mason
George Mason
Memorial Bridge George Mason
George Mason
High School 18-cent postage stamp

Related

Age of Enlightenment American Enlightenment American Revolution

patriots

Wilson v. Mason Hollin Hall Woodbridge plantation Mason's Island

Family

George Mason
George Mason
V (son) William Mason (son) Thomson Mason (son) John Mason (son) Thomas Mason (son) George Mason
George Mason
III (father) Thomson Mason (brother) George Mason
George Mason
II (grandfather)

v t e

Robert Morris

United States
United States
Senator, Pennsylvania, 1789–1795 Superintendent of Finance of the United States, 1781–1784 Second Continental Congress, 1775–1778

United States Founding events

Financier of the American Revolution Signed, Declaration of Independence Signed, Articles of Confederation Signed, United States
United States
Constitution 1776 Model Treaty Committee of Secret Correspondence, Second Continental Congress Chairman, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Committee of Safety U.S. Superintendent of Finance

Agent of the Marine Bank of North America

Philadelphia as U.S. capital city, 1790–1800

Residence Act President's House

Other events

Willing, Morris & Co. (Slavery) Use of the dollar sign Newburgh Conspiracy Empress of China merchant ship

Old China Trade

Phelps and Gorham Purchase

Life

Early life Summerseat home 1788 U.S. Senate election Panic of 1796–97 Christ Church, Philadelphia, burial site

Legacy

Robert Morris University, Pennsylvania Robert Morris University, Illinois Robert Morris statue, Philadelphia Depicted in The Apotheosis of Washington Heald Square Monument, Chicago Mount Morris, New York

village dam

Morrisville, Pennsylvania

Related

Founding Fathers Thomas Willing USS Alfred

Family

Thomas Morris (son) Bishop William White (brother-in-law)

v t e

Thomas Paine

Writings

Common Sense (January 1776) The American Crisis
The American Crisis
(December 1776) Rights of Man
Rights of Man
(March 1791, February 1792) The Age of Reason
The Age of Reason
(1794, 1795, 1807) Agrarian Justice
Agrarian Justice
(1797)

Life

1792 Rights of Man
Rights of Man
trial Wearmouth Bridge Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Cottage

Legacy

Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
National Historical Association Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Monument, New Rochelle, New York Institute of Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Studies In Lambeth Liberty! A New World: A Life of Thomas Paine

Related

Headstrong Club

v t e

George Washington

1st President of the United States, 1789–1797 Senior Officer of the Army, 1798–1799 Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Continental Army, 1775–1783 Second Continental Congress, 1775 First Continental Congress, 1774

Military career Revolutionary War

Military career French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen Battle of Fort Necessity Forbes Expedition

Washington and the American Revolution Commander-in-chief, Continental Army Aides-de-camp Washington's headquarters Boston campaign

Siege of Boston

New York and New Jersey
New Jersey
campaign

Delaware
Delaware
River crossing Battle of Trenton

Philadelphia campaign

Battle of Brandywine Battle of Germantown Battle of White Marsh Valley Forge Battle of Monmouth

Battles of Saratoga Sullivan Expedition Yorktown campaign

Siege of Yorktown

Culper spy ring Newburgh Conspiracy

Newburgh letter

Resignation as commander-in-chief Badge of Military Merit

Purple Heart

Washington Before Boston Medal Horses: Nelson and Blueskin

Other U.S. founding events

1769 Virginia
Virginia
Association

Continental Association

1774 Fairfax Resolves Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture 1785 Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Conference Chairman, 1787 Constitutional Convention

Presidency

United States
United States
presidential election, 1788–89 1792 First inauguration

inaugural bible

Second inauguration Title of "Mr. President" Cabinet of the United States

Secretary of State Attorney General Secretary of the Treasury Secretary of War

Judiciary Act of 1789 Nonintercourse Act Whiskey Rebellion

Militia Acts of 1792

Coinage Act of 1792

United States
United States
Mint

Proclamation of Neutrality

Neutrality Act of 1794

Jay Treaty Pinckney's Treaty Slave Trade Act of 1794 Residence Act Thanksgiving Proclamation Farewell Address State of the Union Address 1790 1791 1792 1793 1796 Cabinet Federal judicial appointments

Views and public image

Presidential library The Washington Papers Religious views Washington and slavery Town Destroyer Legacy

Life and homes

Early life Birthplace Ferry Farm
Ferry Farm
boyhood home Mount Vernon

Gristmill Woodlawn Plantation

Samuel Osgood House, First Presidential Mansion Alexander Macomb House, Second Presidential Mansion President's House, Philadelphia Germantown White House Custis estate Potomac Company James River and Kanawha Canal Mountain Road Lottery Congressional Gold Medal Thanks of Congress President-General of the Society of the Cincinnati Washington College Washington and Lee University Electoral history of George Washington

Memorials and depictions

Washington, D.C. Washington state Washington Monument Mount Rushmore Washington's Birthday Purple Heart The Apotheosis of Washington George Washington
George Washington
(Houdon) George Washington
George Washington
(Ceracchi) George Washington
George Washington
(Trumbull) Washington Crossing the Delaware General George Washington
George Washington
at Trenton Washington at Verplanck's Point General George Washington
George Washington
Resigning His Commission Unfinished portrait Lansdowne portrait The Washington Family
The Washington Family
portrait Washington at Princeton
Washington at Princeton
painting Point of View sculpture George Washington
George Washington
University Washington University Washington Masonic National Memorial George Washington
George Washington
Memorial Parkway George Washington
George Washington
Bridge Washington and Jefferson National Forests Washington Monument, Baltimore Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
statue List of memorials U.S. Postage stamps

Washington-Franklin Issues 1932 bicentennial

Currency

Washington quarter Washington dollar Silver bullion coins

Cultural depictions George Washington
George Washington
(1984 miniseries 1986 sequel)

Related

Bibliography Founding Fathers of the United States Republicanism Federalist Party

Federalist Era

Virginia
Virginia
dynasty Coat of arms Cherry-tree anecdote River Farm Washington's Crossing 1751 Barbados trip Category Syng inkstand General of the Armies American Philosophical Society American Revolution

patriots

Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association

Ancestry and family

Martha Washington
Martha Washington
(wife) John Parke Custis
John Parke Custis
(stepson) George Washington
George Washington
Parke Custis (step-grandson, adopted son) Eleanor Parke Custis (step-granddaughter, adopted daughter) Augustine Washington
Augustine Washington
(father) Mary Ball (mother) Lawrence Washington (half-brother) Augustine Washington
Augustine Washington
Jr. (half-brother) Betty Washington Lewis (sister) Samuel Washington
Samuel Washington
(brother) John A. Washington (brother) Charles Washington (brother) Lawrence Washington (grandfather) John Washington
John Washington
(great-grandfather) Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington
(nephew)

John Adams
John Adams

Category

v t e

Historical documents of the United States

Constitution

Preamble & Articles

Preamble I II III IV V VI VII

Amendments

Ratified

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Pending

Congressional Apportionment Titles of Nobility Corwin (State Domestic Institutions) Child Labor

Unsuccessful

Equal Rights District of Columbia Voting Rights

See also

List of Constitutional Amendments Bill of Rights (Amendments 1–10) Reconstruction Amendments
Reconstruction Amendments
(Amendments 13–15) Amendment proposals in Congress Conventions to propose amendments State ratifying conventions

Formation

History Articles of Confederation Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Conference Annapolis Convention Philadelphia Convention

Virginia
Virginia
Plan New Jersey
New Jersey
Plan Connecticut
Connecticut
Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise Committee of Detail Signing Independence Hall Syng inkstand

The Federalist Papers Anti-Federalist Papers Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Compromise Virginia
Virginia
Ratifying Convention Hillsborough Convention Drafting and ratification timeline

Clauses

Appointments Appropriations Assistance of Counsel Bill of credit Case or Controversy Citizenship Commerce Compact Compulsory Process Confrontation Contract Copyright and Patent Double Jeopardy Due Process Equal Protection Establishment Exceptions Excessive Bail Ex post facto Extradition Free Exercise Free Speech Fugitive Slave Full Faith and Credit General Welfare Guarantee Impeachment Import-Export Ineligibility (Emolument) Militia Natural-born citizen Necessary and Proper New States No Religious Test Oath or Affirmation Origination Petition Postal Presentment Privileges and Immunities Privileges or Immunities Recommendation Self-Incrimination Speech or Debate Speedy Trial State of the Union Supremacy Suspension Take Care Takings Taxing and Spending Territorial Title of Nobility Treaty Trial by Jury Vesting Vicinage War Powers List of clauses

Interpretation

Concurrent powers Congressional enforcement Constitutional law Criminal procedure Criminal sentencing Dormant Commerce Clause Enumerated powers Equal footing Executive privilege Incorporation of the Bill of Rights Judicial review Nondelegation doctrine Preemption Saxbe fix Separation of church and state Separation of powers Taxation power Unitary executive theory

Signatories

Convention President

George Washington

New Hampshire

John Langdon Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts

Nathaniel Gorham Rufus King

Connecticut

William Samuel Johnson Roger Sherman

New York

Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey

William Livingston David Brearley William Paterson Jonathan Dayton

Pennsylvania

Benjamin Franklin Thomas Mifflin Robert Morris George Clymer Thomas Fitzsimons Jared Ingersoll James Wilson Gouverneur Morris

Delaware

George Read Gunning Bedford Jr. John Dickinson Richard Bassett Jacob Broom

Maryland

James McHenry Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer Daniel Carroll

Virginia

John Blair James Madison

North Carolina

William Blount Richard Dobbs Spaight Hugh Williamson

South Carolina

John Rutledge Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Charles Pinckney Pierce Butler

Georgia

William Few Abraham Baldwin

Convention Secretary

William Jackson

Display and legacy

National Archives

Charters of Freedom
Charters of Freedom
Rotunda

Independence Mall Constitution Day Constitution Gardens National Constitution Center Scene at the Signing of the Constitution (painting) A More Perfect Union (film) Worldwide influence

Declaration of Independence

Primary author

Thomas Jefferson

Signatories

President of Congress

John Hancock
John Hancock
(Massachusetts)

New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett William Whipple Matthew Thornton

Massachusetts

Samuel Adams John Adams Robert Treat Paine Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island

Stephen Hopkins William Ellery

Connecticut

Roger Sherman Samuel Huntington William Williams Oliver Wolcott

New York

William Floyd Philip Livingston Francis Lewis Lewis Morris

New Jersey

Richard Stockton John Witherspoon Francis Hopkinson John Hart Abraham Clark

Pennsylvania

Robert Morris Benjamin Rush Benjamin Franklin John Morton George Clymer James Smith George Taylor James Wilson George Ross

Delaware

George Read Caesar Rodney Thomas McKean

Maryland

Samuel Chase William Paca Thomas Stone Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Virginia

George Wythe Richard Henry Lee Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Harrison Thomas Nelson Jr. Francis Lightfoot Lee Carter Braxton

North Carolina

William Hooper Joseph Hewes John Penn

South Carolina

Edward Rutledge Thomas Heyward Jr. Thomas Lynch Jr. Arthur Middleton

Georgia

Button Gwinett Lyman Hall George Walton

See also

Virginia
Virginia
Declaration of Rights Lee Resolution Committee of Five Document's history

signing portrait

Second Continental Congress "All men are created equal" "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" "Consent of the governed" Independence Hall

Syng inkstand

American Revolution

Articles of Confederation

Signatories

Primary drafter

John Dickinson

New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett John Wentworth Jr.

Massachusetts

John Hancock Samuel Adams Elbridge Gerry Francis Dana James Lovell Samuel Holten

Rhode Island

William Ellery Henry Marchant John Collins

Connecticut

Roger Sherman Samuel Huntington Oliver Wolcott Titus Hosmer Andrew Adams

New York

James Duane Francis Lewis William Duer Gouverneur Morris

New Jersey

John Witherspoon Nathaniel Scudder

Pennsylvania

Robert Morris Daniel Roberdeau Jonathan Bayard Smith William Clingan Joseph Reed

Delaware

Thomas McKean John Dickinson Nicholas Van Dyke

Maryland

John Hanson Daniel Carroll

Virginia

Richard Henry Lee John Banister Thomas Adams John Harvie Francis Lightfoot Lee

North Carolina

John Penn Cornelius Harnett John Williams

South Carolina

Henry Laurens William Henry Drayton John Mathews Richard Hutson Thomas Heyward Jr.

Georgia

John Walton Edward Telfair Edward Langworthy

See also

Continental Congress Congress of the Confederation American Revolution Perpetual Union

Continental Association

Signatories

President of Congress

Peyton Randolph

New Hampshire

John Sullivan Nathaniel Folsom

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay

Thomas Cushing Samuel Adams John Adams Robert Treat Paine

Rhode Island

Stephen Hopkins Samuel Ward

Connecticut

Eliphalet Dyer Roger Sherman Silas Deane

New York

Isaac Low John Alsop John Jay James Duane Philip Livingston William Floyd Henry Wisner Simon Boerum

New Jersey

James Kinsey William Livingston Stephen Crane Richard Smith John De Hart

Pennsylvania

Joseph Galloway John Dickinson Charles Humphreys Thomas Mifflin Edward Biddle John Morton George Ross

The Lower Counties

Caesar Rodney Thomas McKean George Read

Maryland

Matthew Tilghman Thomas Johnson, Junr William Paca Samuel Chase

Virginia

Richard Henry Lee George Washington Patrick Henry, Junr Richard Bland Benjamin Harrison Edmund Pendleton

North Carolina

William Hooper Joseph Hewes Richard Caswell

South Carolina

Henry Middleton Thomas Lynch Christopher Gadsden John Rutledge Edward Rutledge

See also

Virginia
Virginia
Association First Continental Congress Carpenters' Hall Declaration and Resolves of the First Co

.