Fortaleza ([foʁtaˈlezɐ], locally [fɔɦtaˈlezɐ], Portuguese for
Fortress) is the state capital of Ceará, located in Northeastern
Brazil. It belongs to the Metropolitan mesoregion of
microregion of Fortaleza. Located 2285 km (1420 miles) from
Brasilia, the federal capital, the city has developed on the banks of
the creek Pajeú, and its name is an allusion to Fort Schoonenborch,
which gave rise to the city, built by the Dutch during their second
stay in the area between 1649 and 1654. The motto of Fortaleza,
present in its coat of arms is the
Latin word Fortitudine, which means
Fortaleza was the twelfth richest city in the country in GDP
and second in the Northeast, with 49 billion reais (US$21 billion). It
also has the third richest metropolitan area in the North and
Northeast regions. It is an important industrial and commercial center
of Brazil, the eighth nation's largest municipal purchasing power.
According to the Ministry of Tourism, the city reached the marks of
second most desired destination of
Brazil and fourth Brazilian city
that receives more tourists. The BR-116, the most important highway of
the country, starts in Fortaleza. The municipality is part of the
Common Market of
Mercosur Cities, and also the Brazilian capital which
is closest to Europe, 5608 km (3484 miles) from Lisbon,
To the north of the city lies the Atlantic Ocean; to the south are the
municipalities of Pacatuba, Eusébio,
Maracanaú and Itaitinga; to the
east is the municipality of
Aquiraz and the Atlantic Ocean; and to the
west is the municipality of Caucaia. Residents of the city are known
Fortaleza is one of the three leading cities in the
Northeast region together with
Recife and Salvador.
The city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup.
1.1 Colonial period
1.2 Imperial period
1.3 Republican period
2.3 Ecology and environment
6.1 Museums, theatres and cultural spaces
6.2 Literature and cinema
7.1 Urban beaches
10.1 International Airport
10.4 Bus stations
10.5 Bike lanes
10.6 Public Transportation Statistics
12 Notable people
13 International relations
13.1 Twin towns – Sister cities
14 See also
17 External links
Portuguese Empire 1630–1815
Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company 1649–1654
United Kingdom of PBA 1815–1822
Plan of Fort Schoonenborch in 1649
Fortaleza in 1910
Timeline of Fortaleza and History of Brazil
Fortaleza's history began on February 2, 1500, when
Pinzón landed in Mucuripe's cove and named the new land Santa Maria
de la Consolación. Because of the Treaty of Tordesillas, the
discovery was never officially sanctioned. Colonisation began in 1603,
when the Portuguese Pero Coelho de Souza constructed the Fort of São
Tiago and founded the settlement of Nova
Lisbon). After a victory over the French in 1612,
Martins Soares Moreno expanded the Fort of São Tiago and changed its
name to Forte de São Sebastião.
In 1630 the Dutch invaded the
Brazilian Northeast and in 1637 they
took the Fort of São Sebastião and ruled over Ceará. In battles
with the Portuguese and natives in 1644 the fort was destroyed.
Under captain Matthias Beck the
Dutch West Indies Company
Dutch West Indies Company built a new
fortress by the banks of river Pajeú. Fort Schoonenborch ("graceful
stronghold") officially opened on August 19, 1649. After the
Pernambuco in 1654, the Dutch handed over this
fortress to the Portuguese, who renamed it
Fortaleza da Nossa Senhora
de Assunção ("Fort of Our Lady of the Assumption"), after which the
Fortaleza takes its name.
Fortaleza was officially founded as a village 1726, becoming the
Ceará state in 1799.
During the 19th century,
Fortaleza was consolidated as an urban centre
in Ceará, supported by the cotton industry. With the transformation
of the city into a regional export center and with the increase of
direct navigation to Europe, the Customs of
Fortaleza was built in
1812. Silva Paulet played an important role in the structural
evolution of the city, erecting works like the Fortress of Our Lady of
the Assumption in 1812, in the place of what remained of the Fort of
Our Lady of the Assumption, and the Public Walk in 1820, besides
having been The author of the first urban plan of the city, from 1812.
In 1824, the city was targeted by the revolutionaries of Confederation
of the Equator. Especially in the second half of the century, as a
result of the fertile cotton era, the city was seized by a great
period of urban development and construction of remarkable equipment,
such as the Lyceum of
Ceará and the Lighthouse of Mucuripe in 1845,
Santa Casa de Misericórdia
Santa Casa de Misericórdia In 1861, the Prainha Seminary in 1864, the
water supply system in 1866, the Public Library in 1867, the Public
Chain in 1870, the
Ceará Railroad Network, the
Fortaleza Port on the
Metallic Bridge, textile factories, intellectual centers and
Communication vehicles, for example. The period was marked as the
belle époque of Fortaleza, representing a time of economic
consecration that was reflected in areas such as architecture, culture
and intellectual production. Between the years 1846 and 1877, the city
went through a period of enrichment, economic and infrastructural
In order to discipline the growth of the city, Adolpho Herbster
continued the urban planning scheme conceived by Silva Paulet in 1818,
characterized by the tracing of chess roads, and, inspired by the
reforms carried out in Paris by Baron Haussman, designed the
Topographic Plan of the Fortress and Suburbs, in 1875, definitive
landmark of municipal urbanism. In the 1870s and 1880s, the Ceará
Abolitionist Movement and the republican ideals that culminated in the
liberation of the slaves in
Ceará on March 25, 1884, four years
Golden Law came into being and were strengthened. The main
event of the abolitionist cause of
Ceará in the capital was the
popular uprising, between January 27 and 31, 1881, led by the
Dragon-headed raiders, who ended the slave trade in the capital,
fueling the state libertarian impetus and National level. The
intellectuals of the literary movement of the Spiritual Bakery, which
emerged in 1892, greatly contributed to the diffusion of progressive
ideas in Fortaleza.
Ferreira Square in 1920
In the twentieth century,
Fortaleza underwent significant urban
changes, with improvements and the rural exodus to the city, with
growth mostly towards the end of the decade of 1910, this made the
city the seventh most populated city in Brazil. In 1922, Fortaleza
reached its first hundred thousand inhabitants with the annexation of
the cities of Messejana and Parangaba, now important districts of the
city. In 1954, the first university in the city was created, the
Universidade Federal do Ceará(UFC) .
Tram in Floriano Peixoto St., 1930
In 1983 DIF I started to integrate the territory of the new city of
Maracanaú, which, just some years ago, was made again part of the
Fortaleza (the city's Metropolitan area). In the 1980s,
Recife in population terms, becoming the second
most populous city in Northeastern Brazil, with 2,571,896
During the political awakening that followed the military regime, the
people elected the city's first woman mayor, Maria Luíza Fontenele of
the Brazilian Workers' Party, which meant that the city administration
was controlled by a party of the centre-left. At the end of the
twentieth century, the administration of the city hall and the city
underwent a range of structural changes with the opening of several
avenues, hospitals, cultural spaces and it became one of the main
tourist destinations in the Northeast and in Brazil.
Aerial view of Iracema Beach
Fortaleza has a typical tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet
and dry climate, with high temperatures and relative humidity
throughout the year. However, these conditions are usually relieved by
pleasant winds blowing from the ocean. Average temperatures are not
much different throughout the year. December is the warmest month,
with a high of 30.7 °C (87.3 °F) and low of
24.6 °C (76.3 °F). The rainy season spans from January
to June, with rainfall particularly prodigious in March and April.
The average annual temperature is 26.6 °C (79.9 °F).
The relative humidity in
Fortaleza is 79%, with average annual
rainfall of 1,608.4 millimetres (63.32 in). There is usually
rain during the first seven months of the year from January to July.
During this period, relative humidity is high. Fortaleza's climate is
usually very dry from August to December, with very little
Rainfall is like all of Northeastern
Brazil among the most variable in
the world, comparable (for similar average annual rainfalls) to
Queensland cities like Townsville and Mackay. In the
notorious drought year of 1877 as little as 468 millimetres or 18.43
inches fell, and in 1958 only 518 millimetres or 20.39 inches, but in
the Nordeste’s record wet year of 1985
Fortaleza received 2,841
millimetres or 111.85 inches.
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days (≥ ≥ 1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology
Fortaleza there are some remaining areas of mangrove in preserved
areas. The municipality contains the 3,320 hectares (8,200
Pedra da Risca do Meio Marine State Park
Pedra da Risca do Meio Marine State Park created in 1997 to
support an offshore area of reefs of ecological and tourist
Ecology and environment
Cocó Park, considered one of the largest urban parks in Latin
America, is the most important green area of the city.
The vegetation of
Fortaleza is typically coastal. The restinga areas
are found in dune regions near the mouths of the Ceará, Cocó and
Pacoti rivers, in the beds of which there is still a mangrove forest.
In other green areas of the city, there is no longer native
vegetation, constituting of varied vegetation, fruit trees more
commonly. The city is home to seven environmental conservation
units. These are the Sabiaguaba Dunes Municipal Natural Park, the
Sabiaguaba Environmental Protection Area, the Maraponga Lagoon
Ecological Park, the Cocó Ecological Park, the
Ceará River Estuary
Environmental Protection Area, the Environmental Protection Area of
the Rio Pacoti and the Pedra da Risca do Meio Marine State Park.
There is also, in the city, the Area of Relevant Ecological Interest
of Sírio Curió, that protects the last enclave of
Atlantic Forest in
the urban zone.
The Cocó River is part of the river basin of the east coast of Ceará
and has a total length of about 50 km in its main area. The park
is inserted in the area of greater environmental sensitivity of the
city, where it is possible to identify geoenvironmental formations
such as coastal plain, fluvial plain and surface of the coastal trays.
The Cocó river mangrove is home to mollusks, crustaceans, fish,
reptiles, birds and mammals. The park has a structure of visitation,
with guides, ecological trails and equipment and events of
environmental education and ecotourism. The Coaçu River, affluent of
the river Cocó, forms in its bed the lagoon of the Precabura.
The Rio Pacoti provides much of the water supply for Fortaleza. At
the municipal boundary with Caucaia, the estuary of the Rio
covered by an environmental protection area (APA), which was set up in
See also: Largest Cities of Northeast Region, Brazil
View of Fortaleza's coast
According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 2,315,116 people
residing in the city of Fortaleza. The census revealed the
following numbers: 1,403,292
Pardo (multiracial) people (57.2%),
901,816 White people (36.8%), 110,811 Black people (4.5%), 33,161
Asian people (1.4%), 3,071 Amerindian people (0.1%).
In 2010, the city of
Fortaleza was the 5th most populous city proper
in Brazil, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and
In 2010, the city had 433,942 opposite-sex couples and 1,559 same-sex
couples. The population of
Fortaleza was 53.2% female and 46.8%
The following cities are included in the metropolitan area of
Fortaleza (ordered by population): Fortaleza, Caucaia, Maracanaú,
Maranguape, Aquiraz, Pacatuba, Pacajus, Horizonte, São Gonçalo do
Amarante, Itatinga, Guaiúba and Chorozinho.
According to a genetic study from 2011, 'pardos' and whites' from
Fortaleza, which comprise the largest share of the population, showed
up a degree of European ancestry of about 70%, being the rest
basically divided between Native American and African ancestries.
A 2015 study, however, found out the following composition in
Fortaleza: 48,9% of European contribution, 35,4% of Native American
input and 15,7% of African ancestry.
View of Fortaleza
Church of Our Lady of Lebanon, one of the four Melkite Greek Catholic
Church in Brazil.
Metropolitan Cathedral of Fortaleza, the country's third
The prevailing religion of
Fortaleza is the Roman Catholic branch of
Christianity, due to the influence of Portuguese settlers and
missionaries during the colonial rule of Brazil.
Source: IBGE 2000.
According to the census of 2010, 1,664,521 people, 67.88% of the
population, followed Roman Catholicism, 523,456 (21.35%) were
Protestant, 31 691 (1.29%) represented
Spiritism and 162 985 (6.65%)
had no religion whatsoever. Other religions, such as Umbanda,
Afro-Brazilian religions, Spiritualism, Judaism,
Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, other Eastern religions,
other Christian churches like
Mormon had a smaller number of
Entrance of the Bispo Palace, seat of the municipal executive power.
Edson Ramalho Palace, seat of the Ceará's Economy Secretariat.
The administration of the municipality is made from the executive and
legislative branches. Roberto Cláudio, of the PDT, won 650,607
votes in the 2012 election, and was elected mayor. Legislative
power rests with the City Council of Fortaleza, composed of 43 city
councilors, elected for four-year terms, responsible for drafting
municipal laws and supervising the executive. The municipality is,
in addition, governed by organic law. In January 2015, there were 1
659 091 voters in
Fortaleza (26,457% of the total state),
distributed in thirteen electoral zones. The number of persons
directly and indirectly employed in the municipal public
administration in 2013 was respectively 31 318 and 4 950.
The city also houses the seat of state executive power, the Abolition
Palace, occupied by governor Camilo Santana, of the PT, elected in the
general elections in
Brazil in 2014. historically headquarters of
the Iracema Club, which was Ceded to the Municipal Hall and now houses
municipal executive bodies. In the city, there is the
Administrative Center Governor Virgílio Távora.
Fortaleza is also the regional headquarters of several federal
government institutions. Among the military institutions present in
the city, are located in the
Fortaleza Air Base, an important military
aviation milestone during World War II, a Port Authority of Ceará, a
School of Apprentice Sailors of
Ceará and the Command of the Tenth
Military Region. The city also has units of the International
Committee of the
Red Cross and UNICEF. Since 1996, a city is part
of the Common Market of Cities of Mercosur.
See also: Economy of Brazil
Shopping mall in Fortaleza
Central Bank of
Brazil em Fortaleza.
Commercial Association of Ceará.
At the beginning of the decade of 2000, among the capitals of the
Fortaleza had the third largest Gross Domestic Product
(GDP), being surpassed by
Recife and Salvador. In 2012, the GDP of
Fortaleza reached the value of 43.4 billion Reais, the tenth highest
of the country. In the same year, the value of taxes on products
net of subsidies at current prices was R $6,612,822,000 and the
municipality's GDP per capita was R$17.359,53. The city's booming
economy is reflected in purchasing power, the country's eighth
largest, with estimated consumption potential at 42 billion reais in
The main economic source of the municipality is centered in the
tertiary sector, with its diversified segments of commerce and service
rendering. Next, the secondary sector stands out, with the industrial
complexes. In 2012, the percentage contribution of each sector to
the municipal economy was 0.07%, 15.8% and 68.8% of the primary,
secondary and tertiary sectors, respectively. The wealth of the
capital is largely due to activities coming from all over the
metropolitan region, whose economy is the third strongest in the North
and Northeast regions and whose population is almost four million. In
2012, the city had 69,605 units and 64,674 companies and active
commercial establishments, in addition to 873,746 employees and
786,521 salaried employees. Wages, together with other types of
remuneration, amounted to 17,103,562 reais and the average income of
the municipality was 2.7 minimum wages.
Inner front of the Theatro José de Alencar.
The art with colored sand, originating in Ceará, is one of the most
present items in the city's craft centers.
According to the Master Plan of Fortaleza, the
Special Areas for the
Preservation of Historic, Cultural and Archaeological Heritage are the
regions of the Center, Parangaba, Alagadiço Novo/José de Alencar,
Benfica, Porangabuçu and
Praia de Iracema. Properties of conservation
interest. The architectural heritage of
Fortaleza in the form of
fallen goods, however, is predominantly concentrated in the center of
the city. The Mucuripe Lighthouse is unfortunately in ruins
Fortaleza were part of the pioneering group of
states and cities to adopt public policies to protect the living
intangible heritage of their culture, through the Masters of Culture
Museums, theatres and cultural spaces
The cultural life of
Fortaleza is diverse and fruitful. Many artists,
writers, painters and singers use the city's busiest stages and
squares to stimulate regional culture. Among the theaters, the largest
and most popular are Theatro José de Alencar, the stage of the main
local and universal culture shows, the São José Theater, the São
Luiz Cinema Theater, Teatro RioMarand Teatro Via Sul. The Ceará
Museum houses numerous artifacts from the memory of Fortaleza, among
pieces of paleontology, archeology and indigenous anthropology,
furniture, items of struggles and popular revolts, of religiosity and
about the intellectual production and irreverence of Ceará. The
Dragão do Mar Center of Art and Culture
Dragão do Mar Center of Art and Culture is the main cultural space of
Fortaleza. In this center are the
Ceará Museum of Culture, the Museum
of Contemporary Art of Ceará, theaters, a planetarium, cinemas, shops
and spaces for public presentations, as well as housing the Public
Library Governador Menezes Pimentel, Oporto Iracema of the Arts and
the School of Arts and Crafts Thomaz Pompeu Sobrinho. The Casa de
Jose Alencar is one of the Brazilian museums recognised as dealing
with Brazilian literature. It was opened in 1964 and houses art
collections, a gallery, a library and the ruins of the first steam
power plant in Ceará. In the different SERs of the city, the
complexes of the CUCA Network are spread, which are great facilities
dedicated to art, leisure and education, especially for young
Freemasonry is represented by the Grand Masonic Lodge of
the Great State East of Ceará. There are also service clubs in the
city, such as the
Lions Club and Rotary International.
Ceará handicraft has its main market and showcase in Fortaleza.
In the city, there are several specific places for trade in handicraft
products, such as the
Ceará Craft Center (CeArt),
Center (Emcetur), Crafts Fair of Beira-Mar, and on Avenida Monsenhor
Literature and cinema
Rachel de Queiroz, the first immortal of the Brazilian Academy of
Letters and first winner of the Camões Prize.
Ceará Palace, former seat of the Cearense Academy of Letters.
The main literary manifestation of Fortaleza's history emerged at the
end of the 19th century, in the cafes of Praça do Ferreira, known as
the Spiritual Bakery, a pioneer in the dissemination of modern ideas
Brazilian literature that would only be adopted nationally in the
following century, in the Modern Art Week. The most important
historical entities of high culture still present in the city are the
Ceará Institute and the
Ceará Academy of Letters, the first academy
of letters created in Brazil, founded in 1887 and 1894 respectively.
Ceará Institute has helped launch important names in national
historiography and philosophy, such as
Farias Brito and Capistrano de
Abreu. Among the writers who are members of the Cearense Academy
of Letters and members or patrons of the Brazilian Academy of Letters,
are Gustavo Barroso, Araripe Júnior, José de Alencar, Heráclito
Graça, Franklin Tavora, Clóvis Beviláqua and Rachel de Queiroz, the
first woman to Be part of the entity. The Casa de Juvenal Galeno is
another historical cultural institution of Fortaleza, named after one
of the greatest poets born in the city, Juvenal Galeno. The house
became well known for its festivals of poetry and seminaries.
pt:Dragão Fashion Brasil.
In cinema, the most well known name is Zelito Viana, director of films
like Villa-Lobos: A Life of Passion and Life and Death of Severina.
Karim Aïnouz has directedMadame Satã, Suely in the
Sky and Futuro Beach, and script of Lower City, Cinema, Aspirins and
Vultures and Behind the Sun. Another current exponent of cinema born
Fortaleza is Halder Gomes, director and screenwriter of Holliúdy
Cinema. New filmmakers in the city have gained in recent years
prominent exhibitions such as at the
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro International Film
Festival. The most traditional cinema event in
Fortaleza is the
Ceará (Ibero-American Film Festival), considered one of the main
festivals of the country.
The main fashion name in the city is the Lino Villaventura, who, from
Fortaleza, designed himself nationally and internationally and today
is one of the main names of
São Paulo Fashion Week, besides being one
of the founding designers of this fashion week. There are major
events in the city, such as the Dragão Fashion Brasil, considered the
largest fashion event in the Northeast and the third largest in the
Much of the clothing that is produced in
Ceará flows through
Fortaleza, which in turn is recognized as one of the most important
textile centers of the country, giving the garment industry great
weight in the metropolitan economy. Brands of the city like
Santana Textiles and headquarters of brands like Esplanada and Otoch
have considerable regional influence.
Aviões do ForróAviões do Forró, the biggest forró band in the
Alberto Nepomuceno, o "father" of nationalism of the Brazilian erudite
Forró is the most popular musical genre in the city. Bands
originating in Fortaleza, such as Mastruz with Leite and Aviões do
Forró, were responsible for the popularization of electronic forró,
which promoted the revaluation of the accordion in the genre and
brought it closer to pop music. The forró pé-de serra, however,
still holds great cultural influence and commercial prominence in the
In Música popular brasileira, some of the names from
Fagner, Ednardo, Belchior (from Sobral but was lived in Fortaleza) and
Amelinha. The musical tradition of Fortaleza, however, goes back
to the composer Alberto Nepomuceno, one of the greatest names in
classical music in Brazil, a pioneer in the development of the
country's musical nationalism, and therefore considered the "founder
of Brazilian music". The
Alberto Nepomuceno Conservatory is one of the
city's leading music schools.
Main article: Brazilian Carnival
Carnival season is not as famous as that in other
northeastern cities like Salvador or Recife, as the local population
prefer to spend the holiday at others beach cities of Ceará. Through
the streets of Fortaleza, the
Carnival brings the samba together with
festivities as a celebration of Fortaleza's past and diverse culture.
It is particularly notable for its unique style of maracatu known as
The Baião de dois a typical dish from Ceará.
The gastronomy of
Fortaleza is very close to the typical Northeastern
cuisine, and, traditional include the baião de dois, usually
accompanied by barbecue of mutton or meat of sun, and "tapioca" which
is a pancake made from the starch of cassava. The seafood is another
ingredient of typical dishes of fortalezeense cuisine, such as the
steak moqueca and the mackerel and snapper fish.
The fruit of the sea identity of the coast of the state is the crab.
Shrimp and lobster are also widely used delicacies in dishes such as
shrimp rice or shrimp dumplings.
Acquario Ceará, the third largest aquarium in the world, is under
construction on the edge of the city. Attractions such as the
Beach Park theme park, located in the Great Fortaleza, Avenida Beira
Mar and its bars, restaurants and music clubs, the beaches of Futuro
and Iracema and Pirata Bar have placed
Fortaleza among the Brazilian
destinations preferred by Europeans.
Scuba diving is possible in the area of Pedra da Risca do Meio Marine
State Park, a marine protected area located about 10 nautical miles
from the shoreline of Fortaleza.
Historic Centre of Fortaleza
Aerial view of the city
Boats and skyscrapers in the litoral. Most five-stars and four-star
Beach Park, the largest water park in
Praia do Futuro" redirects here. For the Brazilian film, see
Fortaleza has about 25 kilometres (16 mi) of urban beaches. From
North to South, the urban beaches of
Fortaleza are Iracema, Meireles,
Praia do Futuro. Each beach has its own
Iracema is the Bohemian beach, with bars and nightclubs;
Mucuripe is the place where jangadas can be found. Still used by
fishermen to go into high seas, jangadas can be seen along the way
during the afternoon and evenings, and returning from the sea in the
morning; part of the catch of the day is sold in an old style fish
In 2016 the Federal University of
Ceará located in
classified as the 10th best university in Brazil, 1st in the North and
Northeast regions and the best university in Ceará.
In 2010, the level of the education factor of the Strengthening Human
Development Index was medium, despite its great advance, which went
from 0.367 to 0.695 between 1991 and 2010. According to data from the
2010 Human Development Atlas of Brazil, Fortaleza's adult education
levels were divided as follows: 8.57% did not complete primary school
or were illiterate, 62.43% had completed elementary education, 45.93%
had completed high school and 13.73% had completed higher education;
All indices above the Brazilian average. The average strength was
10.04 years expected from the study, more than the estimate from
Ceará, 9.82. According to the same study, 4.14% of children aged 5
and 6 were not in school.
Santa Casa de Misericórdia
Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Fortaleza, first public hospital built
in the city, on 1861.
São Mateus Hospital, private institution founded in 1993.
The health indexes of the
Fortaleza population are better than the
Brazilian average. According to data from 2010, the infant mortality
rate up to one year old was 15.8% in Fortaleza, against a Brazilian
average of 16.7%. By 2013, 90.6% of children under one year of age
had their immunization records up to date. In 2012, 37,577 live births
were registered, and the infant mortality rate up to five years of age
was 13.2%. Of the total number of children under two years old weighed
by the Family Health Program in 2013, 0.8% were malnourished.
Fortaleza had a total of 35 general hospitals, of which 11
were public, 21 were private, two were philanthropic, and one was a
trade union. The Doctor José Frota Institute is the largest hospital
administered by the Municipal Government, and the General Hospital of
Fortaleza is the largest hospital administered by the State
Government. In addition, it had 54 specialized
hospitals and eight polyclinics. The total number of physicians
working in the health network of the municipality was 13,604,
approximately 5.4 per thousand inhabitants.
Fortaleza has 117
units of health posts, three UPAs (pt) administered by the
municipality and six administered by the state. The first
hospital built in
Fortaleza was the Santa Casa de Misericórdia,
founded in 1861. Among the most important public health
institutions in the city, the most important is the Dr. José Frota
Institute, the largest hospital administered by the Municipal
Government, and the General Hospital of Fortaleza, the largest
hospital administered by the State Government. Among the private
institutions, the largest are the Unimed
Fortaleza Regional Hospital,
Antônio Prudente Hospital, Monte Klinikum Hospital and São Mateus
Hospital. There are also, in Fortaleza, three units of the Popular
Pharmacy of Brazil.
One of the most important basic health programs in
Fortaleza is the
Family Health Program, within which the city is in third place in the
country in extension of coverage, with hundreds of teams distributed
in dozens of care units. The Emergency Mobile Care Service (SAMU)
is the municipality's health care service, which serves an average of
200 daily occurrences.
Fortaleza is endowed with several medical courses, but the best and
most traditional of them is that of the Faculty of Medicine of the
Federal University of Ceará, created in 1948, which manages a large
structure of specialized health institutions between hospitals and
clinics, Among them the University Hospital Walter Cantídio, leader
Latin America in liver transplantation. The Faculty of Medicine
of the UFC is the 13th best medical school in Brazil, 2nd best medical
school in the North and Northeast regions and the best medical school
in Ceará. UFC's medical degree is still one of the most popular in
Pinto Martins International Airport
Pinto Martins International Airport (FOR)
The Pinto Martins –
Fortaleza International Airport, located in the
center of Fortaleza, was built between 1996 and 1998, when it came to
be classified as International. The airport is now undergoing an
expansion process, from which the number of boarding bridges will
increase from seven to sixteen and the passenger terminal will be
expanded from 38,000 m² to 133,000 m². In 2014, the airport was
capable of serving 6.2 million passengers per year, but after
expansion, capacity would be 11.2 million.
Pinto Martins Airport is the third busiest airport in the Northeast
Region and one of the busiest in the country, receiving on average
1,500 international aircraft and 65,000 domestic aircraft per year. In
2013, it received more than 5.9 million passengers.
BR-116 in Fortaleza, Ceará, the longest highway in the country, with
4,385 km (2,725 mi) of extension.
Fortaleza had 908,074 vehicles, of which 511,109 were cars,
and 229 154 motorcycles. Traffic density at peak times in the
city is rated as the fourth largest in the country, with 48% of
congested roads. The cycle network of
Fortaleza is composed of
116.4 km, of which 78.8 km are cycle paths and 37.6 km are cycle
paths. The municipality also has a public bicycle system, Bicicletar,
which had 40 stations and 400 units in April 2015. In 2015, the
municipal taxi fleet was composed of 4 886 vehicles, including common,
adapted and special use vehicles.
The land access to the municipality is made by highways BR-116,
BR-020, BR-22], CE-090, CE-085, CE-065, CE-060, CE-040 and CE-025. The
city's road transport system is regulated by the
Transportation Company (ETUFOR), an agency of the Municipality of
Fortaleza, while the transit of vehicles is supervised by the
Municipal Authority of Transit, Public Services and Citizenship (AMC).
The collective transport carried out by buses is called the Integrated
Transportation System (SIT-FOR), and its operation began in 1992. The
system provides the user with options of transportation and access to
the different zones of the city through the integration of single
tariff in terminals Regional authorities. The SIT-FOR network is based
on three types of lines: those that integrate neighborhood-terminal,
those that integrate the terminal to the center of the city or to
The system of traffic monitoring is known by the acronym CTAFOR,
which stands for "Controle de Tráfego em Área de Fortaleza" (Traffic
Control of the Area of Fortaleza).
Benfica metro station.
Fortaleza Metro is operated by Companhia Cearense de Transportes
Metropolitanos (Metrofor). Founded on May 2, 1997, the company is
responsible for administration, construction and metro planning in
Fortaleza and its metropolitan region. The system is headed by the
Government of the State of
Ceará and has as current president Eduardo
Fortaleza Metro started on October 1, 2014. As of 2014 18 of the
20 stations planned for the South Line are in operation, along with 9
stations of the West Line.
MetroFor is the 43 kilometres (27 mi) rapid transit system for
the city of Fortaleza.
Engenheiro João Tomé
Bus station is the
Fortaleza Bus terminal
official name. Was Contstructed in 1973. It carries a daily average of
over 8,000 passengers. 35 Bus companies and close to 200 bus lines.
The bus station is centrally located within the city limits. Only 3
kilometres (1.9 mi) from the city centre and 5 kilometres
(3.1 mi) from
Praia de Iracema
Praia de Iracema Beach.
Fortaleza bus station is
accessible by at least 2 city bus lines: Av. Borges de Melo I and Av.
Borges de Melo II.
Fortaleza has multiple Bus Rapid Transit, or BRT,
lines throughout the city and has plans to extend this network of
Fortaleza officially has 116.4 kilometres (72.3 mi) of bike
Public Transportation Statistics
The average person in
Fortaleza spends 89 minutes riding public
transit on a weekday, and 30% of public transit riders ride for more
than 2 hours every day. People typically wait 24 minutes at a stop or
station for public transit; on average, 52% of riders wait for over 20
minutes every day. The average distance people usually ride in a
single trip with public transit is 6.8 km, while 10% travel for
over 12 km in a single direction.
The main games of the
Ceará State Championship are played in
Fortaleza. There are several association football clubs in the city,
Fortaleza EC and Ferroviário AC. It was one of
the host cities of the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and 2014 FIFA
World Cup.
Internal view of Arena Castelão
Kitesurfing at Futuro Beach
External view of Arena Castelão
Rachel de Queiroz
Rachel de Queiroz in Fortaleza.
Mausoleum of Marshal Castelo Branco, former President and dictator of
José de Alencar, prominent writer of the Brazilian Empire.
José de Alencar, famous writer from the 19th century
Alberto Nepomuceno, famous composer from the 19th century
Rachel de Queiroz, first female writer in Academia Brasileira de
André Diamant, international chess grandmaster
Casimiro Montenegro Filho, founder of the Brazilian Air Force
Aeronautical Technologic Institute - ITA
Maurício Peixoto, mathematician, one of the founders of IMPA
Gilberto Câmara, former director of Brazil's National Institute for
Space Research (INPE)
Hélder Câmara, Roman Catholic Archbishop nominated for the Nobel
Castelo Branco, former president (1964–67)
Karim Aïnouz, film director
Ed Lincoln, musician and composer
Shelda Bede, beach volleyball player and olympic medalist
Raffael, professional footballer
Ronny Araújo, professional footballer
Mário Jardel, retired professional footballer
Marcus Aurélio, mixed martial arts professional
Wilson Gouveia, mixed martial arts professional
Thiago Alves, mixed martial arts professional
Hermes França, mixed martial arts professional
Jorge Gurgel, mixed martial arts professional
Heloneida Studart, writer, politician, women's rights advocate
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Brazil
Twin towns – Sister cities
Fortaleza is twinned with:
Housing in Fortaleza, Brazil
Fortaleza é a quinta capital mais populosa e lidera a sétima
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See also: Bibliography of the history of Fortaleza
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