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The University of Fort Hare is a public university in Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa. It was a key institution of higher education for black Africans from 1916 to 1959. It offered a Western-style academic education to students from across sub-Saharan Africa, creating a black African elite. Fort Hare alumni were part of many subsequent independence movements and governments of newly independent African countries. In 1959, the university was subsumed by the apartheid system, but it is now part of South Africa's post-apartheid public higher education system.

Contents

1 History 2 University

2.1 University of Fort Hare Strategic Plans

3 Notable alumni 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit]

"Union Hall" at the University of Fort Hare.

Originally, Fort Hare was a British fort in the wars between British settlers and the Xhosa of the 19th century. Some of the ruins of the fort are still visible today, as well as graves of some of the British soldiers who died while on duty there. During the 1830s, the Lovedale Missionary
Missionary
Institute was built near Fort Hare.[2]:419 James Stewart, one of its missionary principals, suggested in 1878 that an institution for higher education of black students needed to be created.[2]:419 However, he did not live to see his idea created into reality [2]:419 when, in 1916, Fort Hare was established with Alexander Kerr as its first principal. D.D.T Jabavu was its first black staff member who lectured in Latin and black languages.[2]:419 In accord with its Christian principles, fees were low and heavily subsidised. Several scholarships were also available for indigent students. Fort Hare had many associations over the years before it became a university in its own right. It was initially the South African Native College attached to the University of South Africa.[2]:419 Then as the University College of Fort Hare associated with Rhodes University.[2]:419 In 1959, with the passing of the Promotion of Bantu Self Government Act, higher educational institutions would be strictly segregated along racial lines and saw Fort Hare becoming a black university in its own right in 1970, strictly controlled by the state government.[2]:419

Centenary logo in 2016

It was a key institution in higher education for black Africans from 1916 to 1959. It offered a Western-style academic education to students from across sub-Saharan Africa, creating a black African elite. Fort Hare alumni were part of many subsequent independence movements and governments of newly independent African countries.[3]

Liberation movement archives

Several leading opponents of the apartheid regime attended Fort Hare, among them Nelson Mandela, Govan Mbeki
Govan Mbeki
and Oliver Tambo
Oliver Tambo
of the African National Congress, Mangosuthu Buthelezi
Mangosuthu Buthelezi
of the Inkatha Freedom Party, Robert Sobukwe
Robert Sobukwe
of the Pan Africanist Congress, Desmond Tutu, and others African country presidents Kenneth Kaunda, Seretse Khama, Yusuf Lule, Julius Nyerere, Robert Mugabe
Robert Mugabe
and Joshua Nkomo. Mandela who studied Latin and physics there for almost two years in the 1940s, left the institution as a result of a conflict with a college leader. He later wrote in his autobiography that “For young black South Africans like myself, it was Oxford and Cambridge, Harvard and Yale, all rolled into one.”[3] During the apartheid years, the school was nationalized and segregated along racial and tribal lines; blacks had previously gone to classes with Indians, coloureds and a few white students.[3] It became part of the Bantu education system and teaching in African languages rather than English was encouraged.[3] After the end of apartheid, Oliver Tambo
Oliver Tambo
became chancellor of the University in 1991.[3] University[edit]

Faculty of Law

See also: Rankings of universities in South Africa
South Africa
and Rankings of business schools in South Africa The University's main campus is located in Alice, near the Tyhume River. It is in the Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
Province about 50 km west of King William's Town, in a region that for a while was known as the "independent" state of Ciskei. In 2011, the Alice campus had some 6400 students. A second campus at the Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
provincial capital of Bhisho
Bhisho
was built in 1990 and hosts a few hundred students, while the campus in East London, acquired through incorporation in 2004, has some 4300 students. The University has five faculties (Education, Law, Management & Commerce, Science & Agriculture, Social Sciences & Humanities) all of which offer qualifications up to the doctoral level. University of Fort Hare Strategic Plans[edit] Following a period of decline in the 1990s, Professor Derrick Swarts was appointed Vice-Chancellor
Vice-Chancellor
with the task of re-establishing the University on a sound footing. The programme launched by Swarts was the UFH Strategic Plan 2000. The plan was meant to address the university's financial situation and academic quality standards simultaneously. The focus of the university was narrowed and consequently 5 faculties remained:

Education Science & Agriculture Social Sciences & Humanities Management & Commerce Law

Sports grounds & swimming pool

Fort Hare De Beers Art Gallery

Further narrowing the focus, 14 institutes were founded to deal with specific issues, such as the UNESCO Oliver Tambo
Oliver Tambo
Chair of Human Rights. Through their location the institutes have excellent access to poor rural areas, and consequently emphasis is placed on the role of research in improving quality of life and economic growth (and especially sustainable job creation). Among the outreach programmes, the Telkom Centre of Excellence maintains a "living laboratory" of 4 schools at Dwesa on the Wild Coast, which have introduced computer labs and internet access to areas that until 2005 did not even have electricity. The projects at Dwesa focus research on Information and Communication for Development (ICD). Incorporation of Rhodes University's former campus in East London in 2004 gave the University an urban base and a coastal base for the first time. Subsequent growth and development on this campus have been rapid. Initial developments of the new multi-campus university were guided by a three-year plan; currently the University is following the new "Strategic Plan 2009-2016", set to take the institution to its centennial year. Notable alumni[edit]

Name DoB - DoD Notes

Z. K. Matthews 1901 – 1968 Lectured at Fort Hare from 1936 to 1959

Archibald Campbell Jordan 30 October 1906–1968 Novelist, pioneer of African studies

Govan Mbeki 9 July 1910 – 30 August 2001 South African politician

Yusuf Lule 1912 - 21 January 1985 Interim president of Uganda
Uganda
1979

Cedric Phatudi 27 May 1912 – 7 October 1987 Former Chief Minister of Lebowa
Lebowa
1972–1987

Kaiser Matanzima 15 June 1915 - 15 June 2003 President of bantustan Transkei

Mary Malahlela 2 May 1916 – 8 May 1981 First female black doctor in South Africa

Oliver Tambo 27 October 1917 – 24 April 1993 African National Congress
African National Congress
activist, expelled while doing his second degree

Nelson Mandela 18 July 1918 - 5 December 2013 Former President of South Africa; expelled and later attended the University of the Witwatersrand
University of the Witwatersrand
but did not graduate

Lionel Ngakane 17 July 1920 – 26 November 2003 South African film maker

Seretse Khama 1 July 1921 – 13 July 1980 First President of Botswana

Julius Nyerere 19 July 1922 – 14 October 1999 First President of Tanzania

Herbert Chitepo 15 June 1923 – 18 March 1975 ZANU
ZANU
leader

Robert Sobukwe 1924 - 27 February 1978 Founder of the Pan Africanist Congress

Robert Mugabe 21 February 1924 - Former President of Zimbabwe, attended 1949–1951

Kenneth Kaunda 28 April 1924 - First President of Zambia

Allan Hendrickse 22 October 1927 – 16 March 2005 Politician, preacher, and teacher

Mangosuthu Buthelezi 27 August 1928 - Leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party, never graduated but transferred to University of Natal. Leader of KwaZulu
KwaZulu
Bantustan
Bantustan
in apartheid South Africa

Leepile Moshweu Taunyane 14 December 1928 – 30 October 2013 Life President of Premier Soccer League, President of the South African Professional Educators Union

Desmond Tutu 7 October 1931 - Archbishop
Archbishop
Emeritus, South African peace activist, Chaplain at Fort Hare in 1960

Frank Mdlalose 29 November 1931 - First Premier of KwaZulu-Natal

Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri 18 September 1937 – 6 April 2009 Minister of Communications, South Africa

Manto Tshabalala-Msimang 9 October 1940 – 16 December 2009 Minister of Health of South Africa

Chris Hani 28 June 1942 – 10 April 1993 Leader of the South African Communist Party
South African Communist Party
- Expelled, later graduated at Rhodes University.

Wiseman Nkuhlu 5 February 1944 - economic advisor to former President Thabo Mbeki, Head of NEPAD

Makhenkesi Arnold Stofile 27 December 1944 - 15 August 2016 former Minister of Sport of South Africa

Sam Nolutshungu 15 April 1945 – 12 August 1997 South African scholar

Nyameko Barney Pityana 7 August 1945 - lawyer and theologian, former Vice-Chancellor
Vice-Chancellor
of the University of South Africa

Bulelani Ngcuka 2 May 1954 - South Africa's former Director of Public Prosecutions

Loyiso Nongxa 1954- Vice-Chancellor
Vice-Chancellor
of the University of the Witwatersrand

Joseph Diescho 1955 - Namibian novelist

John Hlophe 1 January 1959 – Judge President of the Cape Provincial Division of the High Court

Charles Mugane Njonjo 1920-, former Kenyan Attorney General and Minister for Constitutional Affairs Munyua Waiyaki former Kenyan Minister for Foreign Affairs See also[edit]

List of universities in South Africa A History of The University College of Fort Hare, South Africa
South Africa
- The 1950s, The Waiting Years by Donovan Williams; New York 2001 ISBN 0-7734-7398-X

References[edit]

^ "University of Fort Hare appoints Prof Sakhela Buhlungu as new vice chancellor" (Times Media Group). Time Live. Retrieved 9 November 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g Maaba, Brown Bavusile (2001). "The Archives of the Pan Africanist Congress and the Black Consciousness-Orientated Movements". History in Africa. 28: 417–438. doi:10.2307/3172227. JSTOR 3172227. (Registration required (help)).  ^ a b c d e Samuel G. Freedman (27 December 2013) Mission Schools Opened World to Africans, but Left an Ambiguous Legacy New York Times. Retrieved 27 December 2013

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to University of Fort Hare, South Africa.

Official website

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University of Fort Hare

People

Chancellor: Thembile Skweyiya Vice-chancellor: Sakhela Buhlungu Notable academics Notable alumni

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South African universities

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Public

Traditional universities

Cape Town Fort Hare Free State KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo North-West Pretoria Rhodes SMU Stellenbosch Western Cape Witwatersrand

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Johannesburg Nelson Mandela Unisa Venda Walter Sisulu Zululand

Universities of technology

Cape Peninsula Central Durban Mangosuthu Mpumalanga Sol Plaatje Tshwane Vaal

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AFDA Inscape Design College The Open Window School of Visual Communication

Theological seminaries

College of the Transfiguration Auckland Park Theological Seminary Baptist Theological College of Southern Africa Doxa Deo School of Divinity George Whitefield College South African Theological Seminary

Universities and colleges

Akademia CIDA City Campus CTI Education Group Damelin IMM Graduate School of Marketing Institute for Heritage Science and Conservation Midrand Graduate Institute Monash Regenesys Business School St Augustine College of South Africa Stenden South Africa TSiBA Education

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