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Forestry
Forestry
is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.[1] Forestry
Forestry
is practiced in plantations and natural stands. The science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, physical, social, political and managerial sciences.[2] Modern forestry generally embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber, fuel wood, wildlife habitat, natural water quality management, recreation, landscape and community protection, employment, aesthetically appealing landscapes, biodiversity management, watershed management, erosion control, and preserving forests as 'sinks' for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Other terms are used a verderer and a silviculturalist being common ones. Silviculture
Silviculture
is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is often used synonymously with forestry. Forest
Forest
ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere,[3] and forestry has emerged as a vital applied science, craft, and technology. Forestry
Forestry
is an important economic segment in various industrial countries. For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area,[4] wood is the most important renewable resource, and forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year.[5]

A deciduous beech forest in Slovenia

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 Early modern forestry development 1.3 Forest
Forest
conservation and early globalization 1.4 Mechanization 1.5 Early journals which are still present

2 Forestry
Forestry
today 3 Foresters 4 Forestry
Forestry
plans 5 Forestry
Forestry
as a science 6 Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity
in forestry 7 Education

7.1 History of forestry education 7.2 Forestry
Forestry
education today

8 See also 9 References

9.1 Notes 9.2 Further reading

10 External links

History[edit] Background[edit] The preindustrial age has been dubbed by Werner Sombart
Werner Sombart
and others as the 'wooden age', as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy, construction and housing. The development of modern forestry is closely connected with the rise of capitalism, economy as a science and varying notions of land use and property.[6] Roman Latifundiae, large agricultural estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood that was necessary for the Roman Empire.[7] Large deforestations came with respectively after the decline of the Romans.[7] However already in the 5th century, monks in the then Byzantine Romagna
Romagna
on the Adriatic
Adriatic
coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide fuelwood and food.[8] This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his 1308 poem Divine Comedy.[8] Similar sustainable formal forestry practices were developed by the Visigoths
Visigoths
in the 7th century when, faced with the ever-increasing shortage of wood, they instituted a code concerned with the preservation of oak and pine forests.[8] The use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China
China
as well, dating back to the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
and taking place under the landowning gentry. A similar approach was used in Japan. It was also later written about by the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
Chinese scholar Xu Guangqi
Xu Guangqi
(1562–1633). In Europe, land usage rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests and pastures. Plant
Plant
litter and resin extraction were important, as pitch (resin) was essential for the caulking of ships, falking and hunting rights, firewood and building, timber gathering in wood pastures, and for grazing animals in forests. The notion of "commons" (German "Allmende") refers to the underlying traditional legal term of common land. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times. However, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like fox hunting. Early modern forestry development[edit]

Timber
Timber
harvesting in Finland

Hans Carl von Carlowitz

Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber began in Portugal in the 13th century when Afonso III of Portugal planted the Pinhal do Rei near Leiria
Leiria
to prevent coastal erosion and soil degradation, and as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction.[9] His successor Dom Dinis continued the practice and the forest exists still today.[10] Forest
Forest
management also flourished in the German states in the 14th century, e.g. in Nuremberg,[11] and in 16th-century Japan.[12] Typically, a forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; the harvest of timber was planned with an eye to regeneration. As timber rafting allowed for connecting large continental forests, as in south western Germany, via Main, Neckar, Danube and Rhine with the coastal cities and states, early modern forestry and remote trading were closely connected. Large firs in the black forest were called „Holländer“, as they were traded to the Dutch ship yards. Large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs. The crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries, ovens and livestock stables.[13] Timber
Timber
rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe
Europe
and is still of importance in Finland. Starting with the sixteenth century, enhanced world maritime trade, a boom in housing construction in Europe
Europe
and the success and further Berggeschrey
Berggeschrey
(rushes) of the mining industry increased timber consumption sharply. The notion of 'Nachhaltigkeit', sustainability in forestry, is closely connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz (1645–1714), a mining administrator in Saxony. His book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht (1713) was the first comprehensive treatise about sustainable yield forestry. In the UK, and, to an extent, in continental Europe, the enclosure movement and the clearances favored strictly enclosed private property.[14] The Agrarian reformers, early economic writers and scientists tried to get rid of the traditional commons.[15] At the time, an alleged tragedy of the commons together with fears of a Holznot, an imminent wood shortage played a watershed role in the controversies about cooperative land use patterns.[16] The practice of establishing tree plantations in the British Isles
British Isles
was promoted by John Evelyn, though it had already acquired some popularity. Louis XIV's minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert's oak Forest
Forest
of Tronçais, planted for the future use of the French Navy, matured as expected in the mid-19th century: "Colbert had thought of everything except the steamship," Fernand Braudel observed.[17] In parallel, schools of forestry were established beginning in the late 18th century in Hesse, Russia, Austria-Hungary, Sweden, France
France
and elsewhere in Europe. Forest
Forest
conservation and early globalization[edit] Further information: forest conservation During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, forest preservation programs were established in British India, the United States, and Europe. Many foresters were either from continental Europe
Europe
(like Sir Dietrich Brandis), or educated there (like Gifford Pinchot). Sir Dietrich Brandis is considered the father of tropical forestry, European concepts and practices had to be adapted in tropical and semi arid climate zones. The development of plantation forestry was one of the (controversial) answers to the specific challenges in the tropical colonies. The enactment and evolution of forest laws and binding regulations occurred in most Western nations in the 20th century in response to growing conservation concerns and the increasing technological capacity of logging companies. Tropical forestry is a separate branch of forestry which deals mainly with equatorial forests that yield woods such as teak and mahogany. Mechanization[edit] Forestry
Forestry
mechanization was always in close connection to metal working and the development of mechanical tools to cut and transport timber to its destination. Rafting belongs to the earliest means of transport. Steel saws came up in the 15th century. The 19th century widely increased the availability of steel for whipsaws and introduced Forest railways and railways in general for transport and as forestry customer. Further human induced changes, however, came since World War II, respectively in line with the '1950s-syndrome'.[18] The first portable chainsaw was invented in 1918 in Canada, but large impact of mechanization in forestry started after World War II. Forestry harvesters are among the most recent developments. Although drones, planes, laser scanning, satellites and robots also play a part in forestry. Early journals which are still present[edit]

Sylwan first published in 1820[19] Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen first published in 1850.[19][20] The Indian Forester
Forester
first published in 1875.[19][21] Šumarski list ( Forestry
Forestry
Review, Croatia) was published in 1877 by Croatian Forestry
Forestry
Society.[19][22] Montes (Forestry, Spain) first published in 1877.[19][23] Revista pădurilor
Revista pădurilor
(Journal of Forests, Romania, 1881–1882; 1886–present), the oldest extant magazine in Romania[19][24] Forestry
Forestry
Quarterly, first published in 1902 by the New York State College of Forestry. Šumarstvo[25] (Forestry, Serbia) first published in 1948 by the Ministry of Forestry
Forestry
of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, and since 1951 by Organ of Society of Forestry
Forestry
Engineers and Technicians of the Republic of Serbia (succeeding the former Šumarski glasnik published from 1907-1921)[26]

Forestry
Forestry
today[edit]

A modern sawmill

Today a strong body of research exists regarding the management of forest ecosystems and genetic improvement of tree species and varieties. Forestry
Forestry
also includes the development of better methods for the planting, protecting, thinning, controlled burning, felling, extracting, and processing of timber. One of the applications of modern forestry is reforestation, in which trees are planted and tended in a given area. Trees provide numerous environmental, social and economic benefits for people.[27] In many regions the forest industry is of major ecological, economic, and social importance. Third-party certification systems that provide independent verification of sound forest stewardship and sustainable forestry have become commonplace in many areas since the 1990s. These certification systems were developed as a response to criticism of some forestry practices, particularly deforestation in less developed regions along with concerns over resource management in the developed world. Some certification systems are criticized for primarily acting as marketing tools and lacking in their claimed independence. In topographically severe forested terrain, proper forestry is important for the prevention or minimization of serious soil erosion or even landslides. In areas with a high potential for landslides, forests can stabilize soils and prevent property damage or loss, human injury, or loss of life. Public perception of forest management has become controversial, with growing public concern over perceived mismanagement of the forest and increasing demands that forest land be managed for uses other than pure timber production, for example, indigenous rights, recreation, watershed management, and preservation of wilderness, waterways and wildlife habitat. Sharp disagreements over the role of forest fires, logging, motorized recreation and other issues drives debate while the public demand for wood products continues to increase. Foresters[edit] Main article: Forester

Foresters of the Austral University of Chile
Austral University of Chile
in the Valdivian forests of San Pablo de Tregua, Chile

Foresters work for the timber industry, government agencies, conservation groups, local authorities, urban parks boards, citizens' associations, and private landowners. The forestry profession includes a wide diversity of jobs, with educational requirements ranging from college bachelor's degrees to PhDs for highly specialized work. Industrial foresters plan forest regeneration starting with careful harvesting. Urban foresters manage trees in urban green spaces. Foresters work in tree nurseries growing seedlings for woodland creation or regeneration projects. Foresters improve tree genetics. Forest
Forest
engineers develop new building systems. Professional foresters measure and model the growth of forests with tools like geographic information systems. Foresters may combat insect infestation, disease, forest and grassland wildfire, but increasingly allow these natural aspects of forest ecosystems to run their course when the likelihood of epidemics or risk of life or property are low. Increasingly, foresters participate in wildlife conservation planning and watershed protection. Foresters have been mainly concerned with timber management, especially reforestation, maintaining forests at prime conditions, and fire control.[28]

Forestry
Forestry
plans[edit] Foresters develop and implement forest management plans relying on mapped resource inventories showing an area's topographical features as well as its distribution of trees (by species) and other plant cover. Plans also include landowner objectives, roads, culverts, proximity to human habitation, water features and hydrological conditions, and soils information. Forest
Forest
management plans typically include recommended silvicultural treatments and a timetable for their implementation. Application of digital maps in Geographic Informations systems (GIS) that extracts and integrates different information about forest terrains, soil type and tree covers, etc. using, e.g. laser scanning, enhances forest management plans in modern systems. Forest
Forest
management plans include recommendations to achieve the landowner's objectives and desired future condition for the property subject to ecological, financial, logistical (e.g. access to resources), and other constraints. On some properties, plans focus on producing quality wood products for processing or sale. Hence, tree species, quantity, and form, all central to the value of harvested products quality and quantity, tend to be important components of silvicultural plans. Good management plans include consideration of future conditions of the stand after any recommended harvests treatments, including future treatments (particularly in intermediate stand treatments), and plans for natural or artificial regeneration after final harvests. The objectives of landowners and leaseholders influence plans for harvest and subsequent site treatment. In Britain, plans featuring "good forestry practice" must always consider the needs of other stakeholders such as nearby communities or rural residents living within or adjacent to woodland areas. Foresters consider tree felling and environmental legislation when developing plans. Plans instruct the sustainable harvesting and replacement of trees. They indicate whether road building or other forest engineering operations are required. Agriculture
Agriculture
and forest leaders are also trying to understand how the climate change legislation will affect what they do. The information gathered will provide the data that will determine the role of agriculture and forestry in a new climate change regulatory system.[28] Forestry
Forestry
as a science[edit] Over the past centuries, forestry was regarded as a separate science. With the rise of ecology and environmental science, there has been a reordering in the applied sciences. In line with this view, forestry is a primary land-use science comparable with agriculture.[29] Under these headings, the fundamentals behind the management of natural forests comes by way of natural ecology. Forests
Forests
or tree plantations, those whose primary purpose is the extraction of forest products, are planned and managed utilizing a mix of ecological and agroecological principles.[30] Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity
in forestry[edit] The provenance of forest reproductive material used to plant forests has great influence on how the trees develop, hence why it is important to use forest reproductive material of good quality and of high genetic diversity.[31] The term, genetic diversity describe differences in DNA sequence between individuals as distinct from variation caused by environmental influences. The unique genetic composition of an individual (its genotype) will determine its performance (its phenotype) at a particular site.[32] Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity
is needed to maintain the vitality of forests and to provide resilience to pests and diseases. Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity
also ensures that forest trees can survive, adapt and evolve under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, genetic diversity is the foundation of biological diversity at species and ecosystem levels. Forest
Forest
genetic resources are therefore important to consider in forest management.[31] Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity
in forests is threatened by forest fires, pests and diseases, habitat fragmentation, poor silvicultural practices and inappropriate use of forest reproductive material. Furthermore, the marginal populations of many tree species are facing new threats due to climate change.[31] Most countries in Europe
Europe
have recommendations or guidelines for selecting species and provenances that can be used in a given site or zone.[32] Education[edit] History of forestry education[edit] See also: List of historic schools of forestry The first dedicated forestry school was established by Georg Ludwig Hartig at Hungen
Hungen
in the Wetterau, Hesse, in 1787, though forestry had been taught earlier in central Europe, including at the University of Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt. In Spain, the first forestry school was the Forest
Forest
Engineering School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes), founded in 1844. The first in North America, the Biltmore Forest
Forest
School was established near Asheville, North Carolina, by Carl A. Schenck
Carl A. Schenck
on September 1, 1898, on the grounds of George W. Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate. Another early school was the New York State College of Forestry, established at Cornell University
Cornell University
just a few weeks later, in September 1898. Early 19th century North American foresters went to Germany to study forestry. Some early German foresters also emigrated to North America. In South America
South America
the first forestry school was established in Brazil, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, in 1962, and moved the next year to become a faculty at the Federal University of Paraná, in Curitiba.[33] Forestry
Forestry
education today[edit] See also: List of forestry universities and colleges
List of forestry universities and colleges
and List of forestry technical schools

Prescribed burning
Prescribed burning
is used by foresters to reduce fuel loads

Today, forestry education typically includes training in general biology, botany, genetics, soil science, climatology, hydrology, economics and forest management. Education in the basics of sociology and political science is often considered an advantage. In India, forestry education is imparted in the agricultural universities and in Forest
Forest
Research
Research
Institutes (deemed universities). Four year degree programmes are conducted in these universities at the undergraduate level. Masters and Doctorate degrees are also available in these universities. In the United States, postsecondary forestry education leading to a Bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
or Master's degree is accredited by the Society of American Foresters.[34] In Canada
Canada
the Canadian Institute of Forestry
Forestry
awards silver rings to graduates from accredited university BSc programs, as well as college and technical programs.[35] In many European countries, training in forestry is made in accordance with requirements of the Bologna Process
Bologna Process
and the European Higher Education Area. The International Union of Forest
Forest
Research
Research
Organizations is the only international organization that coordinates forest science efforts worldwide.[36] See also[edit]

Forestry
Forestry
portal Trees portal Plants portal

Main article: Outline of forestry

Afforestation Agroforestry Close to nature forestry Community forestry Deforestation Deforestation
Deforestation
and climate change Dendrology Forest
Forest
dynamics Forest
Forest
farming Forest
Forest
informatics Forestry
Forestry
literature History of the forest in Central Europe International Year of Forests List of forest research institutes List of forestry journals Lumberjack Nonindustrial private forests Sustainable forest management Silviculture Silvology

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "SAFnet Dictionary Definition For [forestry]". Dictionaryofforestry.org. 2008-10-22. Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2014-03-15.  ^ Young, Raymond A. (1982). Introduction to Forest
Forest
Science. John Wiley & Sons. p. ix. ISBN 0-471-06438-6.  ^ "ecosystem part of biosphere". Tutorvista.com. Archived from the original on 2013-11-11. Retrieved 2014-03-15.  ^ Bundeswaldinventur 2002 Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine., Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV), retrieved, 17 January 2010 ^ Unternehmen Wald, forests as an enterprise, German private forestry association website Archived 2016-09-18 at the Wayback Machine. ^ compare Joachim Radkau
Joachim Radkau
Wood: A History, 2011 ^ a b The Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History, by Alfred Thomas Grove, Oliver Rackham, Yale University Press, 2003, review at Yale university press Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History (review) Brian M. Fagan, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 32, Number 3, Winter 2002, pp. 454-455 Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c T. Mirov, Nicholas; Hasbrouck, Jean (1976). "6". The story of pines. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press. p. 111. ISBN 0-253-35462-5.  ^ H. V. Livermore (2004). Portugal: A Traveller's History. Boydell Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-84383-063-4. Archived from the original on 2017-12-11.  ^ http://www.icnf.pt/portal/florestas/gf/pgf/publicitacoes/drf-centro/2011/pgf-mn-leiria ^ Buttinger, Sabine (2013). "Idee der Nachhaltigkeit" [The Idea of Sustainability]. Damals
Damals
(in German). 45 (4): 8.  ^ " Forestry
Forestry
in Yashino". City of Nara, Nara. Archived from the original on 2011-06-28. Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ Beschreibung eines großen Rheinfloßes Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Radkau, Joachim. Nature and Power. A Global History of the Environment. Cambridge University Press. 2008. ^ Nature and Power, A Global History of the Environment, by Joachim Radkau, 2008, p. 72 ^ The end of the commons as a watershed' The Age of Ecology, Joachim Radkau, John Wiley & Sons, 03.04.2014,[clarification needed] p. 15 ff ^ Braudel, Fernand (1979). The Wheels of Commerce: Civilization and Capitalism: 15th-18th Century (Volume II). University of California Press. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-520-08115-4.  ^ Christian Pfister (Hrsg.), Das 1950er Syndrom: Der Weg in die Konsumgesellschaft, Bern 1995 ^ a b c d e f Petru-Ioan Becheru (Aug 2012). "Revista pădurilor online". Rev. pădur. (in Romanian). 127 (4): 46–53. ISSN 1583-7890. 16819. Retrieved 2012-10-21. [permanent dead link](webpage has a translation button) ^ szf-jfs.org ^ "indianforester.org". indianforester.org. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2014-03-15.  ^ Šumarski list ( Forestry
Forestry
Review), with full digital archive since 1877 ^ "Revista Montes, with 12.944 free downloadable digital files from 1868". Revistamontes.net. Archived from the original on 2013-11-27. Retrieved 2014-03-15.  ^ Victor Giurgiu (Nov 2011). " Revista pădurilor
Revista pădurilor
(Journal of forests) 125 years of existence". Rev. pădur. 126 (6): 3–7. ISSN 1583-7890. Retrieved 2012-04-06. [permanent dead link](webpage has a translation button) ^ "Časopis". SCIndeks. Archived from the original on 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2014-03-15.  ^ "Udruženje šumarskih inženjera i tehničara Srbije - Istorijat". Srpskosumarskoudruzenje.org.rs. Archived from the original on 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2014-03-15.  ^ "Department of environmental conservation". New York State Department. Archived from the original on 2015-02-21. Retrieved 2014-11-29.  ^ a b "PowerSearch Logout". Find.galegroup.com. Archived from the original on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2014-03-15.  ^ Wojtkowski, Paul A. (2002) Agroecological Perspectives in Agronomy, Forestry
Forestry
and Agroforestry. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, NH, 356p. ^ Wojtkowski, Paul A. (2006) Undoing the Damage: Silviculture
Silviculture
for Ecologists and Environmental Scientists. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, NH, 313p. ^ a b c de Vries, S.M.G., Alan, M., Bozzano, M., Burianek, V., Collin, E., Cottrell, J., Ivankovic, M., Kelleher, C.T., Koskela, J., Rotach, P., Vietto, L. and Yrjänä, L. (2015). "Pan-European strategy for genetic conservation of forest trees and establishment of a core network of dynamic conservation units" (PDF). European Forest
Forest
Genetic Resources Programme, Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.: xii + 40 p. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-01-31. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Konnert, M., Fady, B., Gömöry, D., A’Hara, S., Wolter, F., Ducci, F., Koskela, J., Bozzano, M., Maaten, T. and Kowalczyk, J. (2015). "Use and transfer of forest reproductive material in Europe
Europe
in the context of climate change" (PDF). European Forest
Forest
Genetic Resources Programme, Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.: xvi and 75 p. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-04. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "News of the world". Unasylva. FAO. 23 (3). 1969. Archived from the original on 2010-04-27. Retrieved 2010-10-12.  ^ "SAF Accredited and Candidate Forestry
Forestry
Degree Programs" (PDF) (Press release). Society of American Foresters. 2008-05-19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-02-26. The Society of American Foresters
Society of American Foresters
grants accreditation only to specific educational curricula that lead to a first professional degree in forestry at the bachelor's or master's level.  ^ "Canadian Institute of Forestry
Forestry
- Silver Ring Program". Cif-ifc.org. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-03-15.  ^ "Discover IUFRO:The Organization". IUFRO. Archived from the original on 2010-07-08. Retrieved 2010-10-12. 

Further reading[edit]

Eyle, Alexandra. 1992. Charles Lathrop Pack: Timberman, Forest Conservationist, and Pioneer in Forest
Forest
Education. Syracuse, NY: ESF College Foundation and College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Distributed by Syracuse University Press. Available: Google books. Hammond, Herbert. 1991. Seeing the Forest
Forest
Among the Trees. Winlaw/Vancouver: Polestar Press, 1991. Hart, C. 1994. Practical Forestry
Forestry
for the Agent and Surveyor. Stroud. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-86299-962-6 Hibberd, B.G. (Ed). 1991. Forestry
Forestry
Practice. Forestry
Forestry
Commission Handbook 6. London. HMSO. ISBN 0-11-710281-4 Kimmins, Hammish. 1992. Balancing Act: Environmental Issues in Forestry. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Maser, Chris. 1994. Sustainable Forestry: Philosophy, Science, and Economics. DelRay Beach: St. Lucie Press. Miller, G. Tyler. 1990. Resource Conservation and Management. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing. Nyland, Ralph D. 2007. Silviculture: Concepts and Applications. 2nd ed. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press. Radkau, Joachim Wood: A History, ISBN 978-0-7456-4688-6, November 2011, Polity Stoddard, Charles H. 1978. Essentials of Forestry. New York: Ronald Press. [1]. Vira, B. et al. 2015. Forests
Forests
and Food: Addressing Hunger and Nutrition Across Sustainable Landscapes. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers.

External links[edit]

Media related to Forestry
Forestry
at Wikimedia Commons Works related to Forestry
Forestry
at Wikisource Forestry
Forestry
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

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