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Belize
Belize
maintains 14 embassies to foreign countries, one consulate, and three missions to international organizations.[1] In 1990, Belize became a member of the Organization of American States.

Contents

1 Africa 2 Americas 3 Asia 4 Europe 5 Oceania 6 Belize
Belize
and the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations 7 Multilateral membership 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes

 Algeria 28 November 2001

Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 28, 2001.[2]

 Botswana 28 February 2008

Both countries established diplomatic relations on February 28, 2008.[3]

 Morocco 3 May 2001

Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 3, 2001.[4]

 Seychelles 11 September 1991

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 September 1991.[5]

 South Africa 14 May 1997

Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 14, 1997.[6] Belize
Belize
does not have any representation in South African.[7] South African is represented in Belize
Belize
by its High Commission in Kingston, Jamaica.[8]

 Tunisia

Both countries have passed a number of bilateral agreements.[9]

Americas[edit] To strengthen its potential for economic and political development Belize
Belize
has sought to build closer ties with the Spanish-speaking countries of Central America to complement its historical ties to the English-speaking Caribbean
Caribbean
states. Recent foreign policy initiatives include joining with the other Central American countries in signing the CONCAUSA Agreement on regional sustainable development and becoming a full member of the Central American Integration System (SICA) Belize
Belize
is a member of CARICOM
CARICOM
which was founded in 1973.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes

 Argentina 8 January 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 January 1992.[10] In 2013 both countries have an agreement on Technical cooperation.[11] Argentina
Argentina
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Mexico City.[12]

 Brazil 1 March 1983

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 March 1983.[13]

 Canada

Canada
Canada
is represented by the High Commission of Canada
Canada
to Belize, located in Guatemala
Guatemala
City.[14] Belize
Belize
is represented in Canada
Canada
through an embassy in Washington, D.C. and a consulate in Calgary.[15] Both countries are member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
and of the Organization of American States.

 Colombia 15 February 1982

On February 15, 1982, formal relations were established. Colombia's embassy in Belize
Belize
closed in 2002 in order to cut down on costs though the embassy of Colombia
Colombia
in El Salvador
El Salvador
is also concurrent to Belize. On April 17, 2013, the Prime Minister and Foreign Minister met with the Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs of Colombia
Colombia
in order to strengthen relations.[16]

 Cuba 1995

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1995.[17]

 Dominican Republic

Belize
Belize
has an embassy in Santo Domingo. The Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
is represented in Belize
Belize
through a non-resident ambassador in Santo Domingo and an honorary consulate in Belmopan. Both countries are members of the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Group of 77.

 Dominica 21 September 1981

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 21 September 1981.[18][19] Both countries are full members of both Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
and Association of Caribbean
Caribbean
States.

 Guatemala

See Belize– Guatemala
Guatemala
relations Belize's principal external concern has been the dispute involving the Guatemalan claim to Belizean territory. Initially a dispute between formerly Spanish Guatemala
Guatemala
and the United Kingdom's colony of British Honduras, Guatemala
Guatemala
continued its claim after Belizean independence in 1981; it recognized its neighbour's independence one decade later, in 1991. The dispute remains unresolved.

 Mexico 1981 See Belize– Mexico
Mexico
relations Diplomatic relations between Mexico
Mexico
and Belize
Belize
were established in 1981.

Mexico
Mexico
has an embassy in Belmopan.[20] Belize
Belize
has an embassy in Mexico
Mexico
City.[21] Both countries are members of the Association of Caribbean
Caribbean
States and the Organization of American States.

 Nicaragua 1981

Diplomatic relations between Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Belize
Belize
were established in 1981.

Nicaragua
Nicaragua
has an embassy in Belize
Belize
City. Belize
Belize
is represented in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
by its embassy in Guatemala
Guatemala
City. Both countries are members of the Association of Caribbean
Caribbean
States, Central American Integration System
Central American Integration System
and the Organization of American States.

 Panama 1 December 1981

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 December 1981.[22]

 Saint Lucia 21 September 1981

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 21 September 1981.[23] Both countries are full members of both Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
and Association of Caribbean
Caribbean
States.

 Saint Kitts and Nevis 21 September 1981

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 21 September 1981.[24] Both countries are full members of both Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
and Association of Caribbean
Caribbean
States.

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 21 September 1981

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 21 September 1981.[25] Both countries are full members of both Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
and Association of Caribbean
Caribbean
States.

 United States

See Belize– United States
United States
relations Belize- United States
United States
relations have traditionally been close and cordial. The United States
United States
is Belize's principal trading partner and major source of investment funds. It is also home to the largest Belizean community outside Belize, estimated to be 70,000 strong. Because Belize's economic growth and accompanying democratic political stability are important U.S. objectives, Belize
Belize
benefits from the U.S. Caribbean
Caribbean
Basin Initiative. As a member of CARICOM
CARICOM
Belize
Belize
strongly backed efforts by the United States to implement United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
Resolution 940 designed to facilitate the departure of Haiti's de facto authorities from power. The country agreed to contribute military personnel to the Multinational Task Force which restored the democratically elected Government of Haiti
Haiti
in October 1994 and to the United Nations
United Nations
Mission in Haiti
Haiti
(UNMIH). Belize
Belize
is also a member of the International Criminal Court
International Criminal Court
with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the American military (as covered under Article 98). International crime issues dominate the agenda of bilateral relations between the United States
United States
and Belize. The United States
United States
is working closely with the Government of Belize
Belize
to fight illicit narcotics trafficking, and both governments seek to control the flow of illegal migrants to the United States
United States
through Belize. Belize
Belize
and the United States brought into force a stolen vehicle treaty, an extradition treaty, and a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty between 2001 and 2003. The United States
United States
is the largest provider of economic assistance to Belize, contributing $2.5 million in various bilateral economic and military aid programs to Belize
Belize
in FY 2006. Of this amount, nearly $500,000 was provided by the U.S. Military Liaison Office. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) closed its Belize
Belize
office in August 1996 after a 13-year program during which USAID provided $110 million worth of development assistance to Belize. Belize still benefits from USAID regional programs. In addition, during the past 42 years, almost 2,000 Peace Corps
Peace Corps
volunteers have served in Belize. As of April 2007, the Peace Corps
Peace Corps
had 58 volunteers working in Belize. Until the end of 2002, Voice of America
Voice of America
operated a medium-wave radio relay station in Punta Gorda that broadcast to the neighboring countries of Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador. The U.S. military has a diverse and growing assistance program in Belize
Belize
that included the construction and renovation of several schools and youth hostels, medical assistance programs, and drug reduction programs. Private North American investors continue to play a key role in Belize's economy, particularly in the tourism sector.

Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes

 Armenia 12 February 1999

Both countries established diplomatic relation on February 12, 1999.[26]

 East Timor 15 April 2003

Both countries established diplomatic relations on April 15, 2003[27].

 Georgia 1 October 2015

Both countries established diplomatic relation on October 1, 2015.

 India

See Belize– India
India
relations

India
India
has an honorary consulate in Belize
Belize
City.[28] Belize
Belize
maintains an honorary consulate in New Delhi.[29]

 Indonesia 11 July 2014

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 July 2014.[30]

 Iran 24 November 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 November 1992.[31]

 Israel 1983

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1983.[32] Belize
Belize
is represented in Israel
Israel
through its embassy in London.[33] Israeli is represented in Israel
Israel
through its embassy in San Salvador.[34] Since 2011, both countries have an AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL AND THE GOVERNMENT OF BELIZE ON VISA EXEMPTION FOR HOLDERS OF DIPLOMATIC, SERVICE AND NATIONAL PASSPORTS.[35]

 Japan November 1982

Both countries established diplomatic relation in November 1982.[36] Japan
Japan
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Kingston, Jamaica.[37]

 Kazakhstan 7 November 2013

Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 7, 2013.[38]

 Kuwait 5 September 2006

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 September 2006.[39]

 Maldives 11 February 2000

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 2000.[40] Both countries are full members of Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations.

 Oman 3 March 2006

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 March 2006.[41]

 Pakistan 21 October 2015

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 October 2015.[42] Both countries are member of the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations.

 Palestine

Under the previous premiership of Said Musa, Belize
Belize
remained a staunch supporter of Palestinian rights and shunned relations with Israel
Israel
due to the latter's military and intelligence support for Guatemala.[43] Since the election of Dean Barrow
Dean Barrow
in 2008, however, relations with Israel
Israel
have improved considerably. In June 2011, Foreign Minister Wilfred Elrington
Wilfred Elrington
met with Israeli envoy Danny Ayalon
Danny Ayalon
to discuss an upcoming resolution in September aimed at recognising a Palestinian state. Following the meeting, Ayalon claimed that he had gained the support of Belize
Belize
in opposing the resolution. However, on September 9, the Belizean Foreign Ministry issued an official statement recognizing the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
with the borders prior to the Six Day War.

 Singapore 23 August 1995

Both countries established diplomatic relations on August 23, 1995[44][45].

 South Korea 14 April 1987

The establishment of diplomatic relations between South Korea
South Korea
and Belize
Belize
started on April 14, 1987.[46]

 Taiwan 1989 See Belize– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations Belize
Belize
recognizes the Republic of China (ROC, commonly known as Taiwan)[47] as the sole legitimate government of China. Relations were established between Belize
Belize
and the ROC in 1989.

 Turkey

The Turkish Embassy in Mexico City
Mexico City
is accredited to Belize
Belize
and Turkey has an Honorary Consul in Belize
Belize
City.[48] Belize
Belize
has an Honorary Consulate in Izmir.[49]

 Turkmenistan 11 September 1996

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 September 1996.[50]

 Vietnam 4 January 1995

Both countries established diplomatic relation on January 4, 1995.[51]

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes

 Bulgaria 15 February 1994

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 15 February 1994.[52] Bulgaria
Bulgaria
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Mexico City.[53]

 Croatia 23 January 1996

Both countries established diplomatic relations on January 23, 1996.[54][55]

 Cyprus 21 July 2000

Both countries established diplomatic relations on July 21, 2000.[56] Cyprus
Cyprus
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Mexico.[57] Both countries are members of Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations.

 Czech Republic 15 February 1994

The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Mexico
Mexico
City[58] and has an honorary consulate.[59] Belize
Belize
has an honorary consulate in Prague.[60]

 Estonia 5 May 1999

Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 5, 1999.[61] Estonia
Estonia
has an honorary consulate in Belize.[62]

 Finland 19 June 1997

Both countries established diplomatic relations on June 19, 1997.[63] Finland
Finland
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Mexico
Mexico
City and an honorary consulate in Belize
Belize
City.[64]

 France

France
France
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in San Salvador, El Salvador.[65]

 Germany 1982

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1982.[66] Germany
Germany
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Guatemala.[67]

 Greece 4 September 1986

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 4 September 1986.[68] Belize's Embassy in Mexico
Mexico
has parallel accreditation for Greece. Belize
Belize
has an Honorary Consulate in Athens
Athens
since 1992.[69][70] Greece
Greece
does not have any representation in Belize, its embassy in Mexico
Mexico
is also accredited to Belize.[71]

 Hungary 15 February 1994

Hungary
Hungary
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Mexico City.[72]

 Iceland 7 July 2004

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 7 July 2004.[73][74]

 Ireland 21 July 2000

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 July 2000.[75]

 Italy 1 October 1982

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 1 October 1982.[76] Belize
Belize
has 2 honorary consulates in Palermo
Palermo
and Milano.[77] Italy
Italy
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Mexico City
Mexico City
and an honorary consulate.[78]

 Kosovo 30 April 2016

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 April 2016.[79]

 Latvia 3 February 2005

Both countries established diplomatic relations on February 3, 2005.[80]

 Lithuania 30 December 2004

Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 30, 2004.[81]

 Macedonia 25 January 1996

Both countries established diplomatic relations on January 25, 1996.[82]

 Malta 1 October 2004

Both countries established diplomatic relations on October 1, 2004.[83]

 Norway

Since 2011, Belize
Belize
and Norway
Norway
have an Agreement concerning the exchange of information relating to tax matters they had signed in 2010.[84]

 Romania 25 March 1993

Both countries established diplomatic relation on March 25, 1993.[85]

 Russia 25 June 1991

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on June 25, 1991. Belize
Belize
immediately recognized Russia
Russia
as the USSR's successor after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Russia
Russia
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Mexico City
Mexico City
and an honorary consulate in Belize
Belize
City.

 Slovakia

Slovakia
Slovakia
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Mexico City.[86]

 Slovenia

Belize
Belize
is represented in Slovenia
Slovenia
through its embassy in Vienna.[87]

 Sweden

Sweden
Sweden
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Stockholm
Stockholm
and an honorary consulate in Belmopan.[88]

  Switzerland 1988

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1988.[89] Switzerland
Switzerland
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Mexico City and since 1996 an honorary consulate in Belize
Belize
City.[90]

 Ukraine 1 October 1999

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 1 October 1999.[91]

 United Kingdom

Belize
Belize
is a member of the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
and was granted independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1981. Formerly known as British Honduras, the British maintained a garrison in Belize
Belize
well into the 1990s, until Guatemala, which has always claimed sovereignty of the country, signed a treaty recognizing Belize's independence. The United Kingdom maintains a training center for the army in Belize. On March 3, 2012, Prince Harry
Prince Harry
visited Belize
Belize
on a tour of Commonwealth
Commonwealth
countries in the region as the Queen's representative in her Diamond Jubilee, making this his first solo royal tour. There he renamed Zennia Boulevard (also known as Cohune Walk Boulevard) in the capital to "Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
Boulevard", in honour of his grandmother.[92] The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has a High Commission in Belmopan, whilst Belize also has one in London.

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes

 Australia

Australia
Australia
is represented in Belize
Belize
by its High Commission in Trinidad and Tobago.[93] Both countries are members of Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations.

 New Zealand

New Zealand
New Zealand
is represented in Belize
Belize
through its embassy in Mexico City.[94]

Belize
Belize
and the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations[edit] Belize
Belize
has been a member state of the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
since 1981, when it became an independent Commonwealth
Commonwealth
realm. Multilateral membership[edit] Belize
Belize
is a member of the following multilateral bodies.

African, Caribbean
Caribbean
and Pacific Group of States (ACP) The Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean
Caribbean
(OPANAL) Caribbean
Caribbean
Community (Caricom) Caribbean
Caribbean
Development Bank (CDB) Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations Food and Agricultural Organization
Food and Agricultural Organization
(FAO) Group of 77
Group of 77
(G-77) Inter-American Development Bank
Inter-American Development Bank
(IADB) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(IBRD) International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO) International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
(ICFTU) International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
(ICRM) International Development Association
International Development Association
(IDA) International Fund for Agricultural Development
International Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD) International Finance Corporation
International Finance Corporation
(IFC) International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
(ILO) International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) International Maritime Organization
International Maritime Organization
(IMO) Intelsat
Intelsat
(nonsignatory user) Interpol International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) International Organization for Migration
International Organization for Migration
(IOM) (observer) International Telecommunications Union
International Telecommunications Union
(ITU) Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) Latin American Economic System
Latin American Economic System
(LAES) The United Nations
The United Nations
(UN) United Nations
United Nations
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC) United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(UNCTAD) United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) United Nations Industrial Development Organization
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
(UNIDO) Universal Postal Union
Universal Postal Union
(UPU) World Confederation of Labour
World Confederation of Labour
(WCL) World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO)

See also[edit]

List of diplomatic missions in Belize List of diplomatic missions of Belize North American Free Trade Agreement Free Trade Area of the Americas Third Border Initiative Caribbean
Caribbean
Basin Initiative (CBI) Caribbean
Caribbean
Basin Trade Partnership Act Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative

References[edit]

^ " Belize
Belize
embassy". www.mfa.gov.bz. Retrieved March 7, 2014.  ^ [1] ^ [2] ^ [3] ^ [4] ^ [5] ^ http://www.dirco.gov.za/foreign/forrep/forb.htm#beli ^ [6] ^ [7] ^ [8] ^ [9] ^ [10] ^ [11] ^ http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/guatemala/bilateral_relations_bilaterales/canada_belize.aspx?lang=eng ^ http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/guatemala/bilateral_relations_bilaterales/canada_belize.aspx?lang=eng ^ "Belice" (in Spanish). Retrieved March 7, 2014.  ^ http://www.radiorebelde.cu/english/news/cuba-and-belize-celebrate-fifteenth-anniversary-of-diplomatic-relations-20100623/ ^ [12] ^ [13] ^ Embassy of Mexico
Mexico
in Belmopan ^ Ministry of foreign affairs of Belize
Belize
(in English only). ^ [14] ^ [15] ^ [16] ^ [17] ^ [18] ^ [19] ^ Indian Honorary Consulate in Belize ^ Belize
Belize
Honorary Consulate in India ^ http://www.guardian.bz/index.php?option=com_content&id=8103:belize-establishes-diplomatic-relations-with-indonesia-and-palestine ^ [20] ^ http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/pressroom/2010/pages/belize_foreign_minister_visits_israel_5_may_2010.aspx ^ [21] ^ [22] ^ [23] ^ [24] ^ [25] ^ [26] ^ http://www.kuna.net.kw/ArticlePrintPage.aspx?id=1657377&language=en ^ [27] ^ http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WL0603/S01725/cablegate-belize-relations-established-with-oman.htm ^ http://www.sanpedrosun.com/government/2015/10/23/belize-and-pakistan-establish-diplomatic-relations/ ^ Madsen, Wayne (July 18, 2011). "Israeli Math". Opinion Maker. Retrieved 2011-08-01.  ^ [28] ^ [29] ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/latinamerica/countries/20070803/1_24581.jsp?menu=m_30_30 ^ In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
to the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
(CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the People's Republic. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan
Taiwan
(alongside the territories currently under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations
United Nations
gave the China seat to the PRC instead of the ROC: most states recognize the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan
Taiwan
as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan
Taiwan
advocates Taiwan
Taiwan
independence. The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly Chinese Taipei. ^ [30] ^ [31] ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2014.  ^ [32] ^ [33] ^ [34] ^ [35] ^ [36] ^ [37] ^ [38] ^ [39] ^ [40] ^ [41] ^ [42] ^ [43] ^ [44] ^ [45] ^ [ http://www.ambafrance-sv.org/] ^ http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/EN/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/01-Nodes/Belize_node.html ^ [46] ^ [47] ^ [48] ^ [49] ^ [50] ^ [51] ^ [52] ^ http://www.iceland.is/iceland-abroad/un/nyc/embassy ^ [53] ^ [54] ^ [55] ^ [56] ^ http://www.mfa-ks.net/?page=2,217,3391 ^ [57] ^ [58] ^ [59] ^ [60] ^ [61] ^ [62] ^ [63] ^ [64] ^ [65] ^ [66] ^ [67] ^ [68] ^ "Festivities for Prince Harry
Prince Harry
in Belmopan". BelmopanCityOnline.com. February 27, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2012.  ^ [69] ^ [70]

External links[edit]

Belizean High Commission in London, United Kingdom British High Commission in Belmopan Embassy of Belize
Belize
in Guatemala
Guatemala
City, Guatemala Embassy of Belize
Belize
in Washington, D.C. Embassy of Republic of China (Taiwan) in Belize
Belize
City United States
United States
Embassy in Belmopan GAR Other Documents Submission of Belize/ Guatemala
Guatemala
Case to ICJ in 2009 Summary of Legal Opinion of 25 November 2008 Belize/ Guatemala
Guatemala
ICJ Compromis Signed at OAS in Washington, D.C. on 8 December 2008 Compromis Videos Photographs Belize
Belize
Leading Counsel of 19 December 2008

Dominican Republic

Address of the Belizean embassy in Santo Domingo

Russia

Bilateral treaties of Belize
Belize
[pdf]

Belize

Belize
Belize
tourism

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States
United States
Department of State website http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm (Background Notes).

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since 1981

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