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Football
Football
is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal. Unqualified, the word football is understood to refer to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears. Sports commonly called football in certain places include: association football (known as soccer in some countries); gridiron football (specifically American football
American football
or Canadian football); Australian rules football; rugby football (either rugby league or rugby union); and Gaelic football.[1][2] These different variations of football are known as football codes. Various forms of football can be identified in history, often as popular peasant games. Contemporary codes of football can be traced back to the codification of these games at English public schools during the nineteenth century.[3][4] The expanse of the British Empire allowed these rules of football to spread to areas of British influence outside the directly controlled Empire.[5] By the end of the nineteenth century, distinct regional codes were already developing: Gaelic football, for example, deliberately incorporated the rules of local traditional football games in order to maintain their heritage.[6] In 1888, The Football League
The Football League
was founded in England, becoming the first of many professional football competitions. During the twentieth century, several of the various kinds of football grew to become some of the most popular team sports in the world.[7]

Contents

1 Common elements 2 Etymology 3 Early history

3.1 Ancient
Ancient
games 3.2 Medieval and early modern Europe 3.3 Calcio Fiorentino 3.4 Official disapproval and attempts to ban football

4 Establishment of modern codes

4.1 English public schools 4.2 Firsts

4.2.1 Clubs 4.2.2 Competitions 4.2.3 Modern balls 4.2.4 Modern ball passing tactics

4.3 Cambridge rules 4.4 Sheffield
Sheffield
rules 4.5 Australian rules 4.6 Football
Football
Association 4.7 Rugby football 4.8 North American football
American football
codes 4.9 Gaelic football 4.10 Schism in Rugby football 4.11 Globalisation of association football 4.12 Further divergence of the two rugby codes

5 Use of the word "football" 6 Popularity 7 Football
Football
codes board

7.1 Football
Football
codes development tree

8 Present day codes and families

8.1 Association football
Association football
and descendants 8.2 Rugby school football and descendants 8.3 Irish and Australian varieties 8.4 Surviving medieval ball games

8.4.1 Inside the UK 8.4.2 Outside the UK

8.5 Surviving UK school games 8.6 Recent inventions and hybrid games

8.6.1 Based on FA rules 8.6.2 Based on rugby 8.6.3 Hybrid games

8.7 Tabletop games, video games and other recreations

8.7.1 Based on Association football 8.7.2 Based on American football 8.7.3 Based on Australian football 8.7.4 Based on Rugby League football

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

Common elements

Play media

Men kicking footballs

The various codes of football share certain common elements: Players in American football, Canadian football, rugby union and rugby league take up positions in a limited area of the field at the start of the game.[8] They tend to use throwing and running as the main ways of moving the ball, and only kick on certain limited occasions. Body tackling is a major skill, and games typically involve short passages of play of 5–90 seconds.[8] Association football
Association football
and Gaelic football
Gaelic football
tend to use kicking to move the ball around the pitch, with handling more limited. Body tackles are less central to the game, and players are freer to move around the field (offside laws are typically less strict).[8] Common rules among the sports include:[9]

Two teams of usually between 11 and 18 players; some variations that have fewer players (five or more per team) are also popular. A clearly defined area in which to play the game. Scoring goals or points by moving the ball to an opposing team's end of the field and either into a goal area, or over a line. Goals or points resulting from players putting the ball between two goalposts. The goal or line being defended by the opposing team. Players being required to move the ball—depending on the code—by kicking, carrying, or hand-passing the ball. Players using only their body to move the ball.

In all codes, common skills include passing, tackling, evasion of tackles, catching and kicking.[8] In most codes, there are rules restricting the movement of players offside, and players scoring a goal must put the ball either under or over a crossbar between the goalposts. Etymology Main article: Football
Football
(word) There are conflicting explanations of the origin of the word "football". It is widely assumed that the word "football" (or the phrase "foot ball") refers to the action of the foot kicking a ball.[10] There is an alternative explanation, which is that football originally referred to a variety of games in medieval Europe, which were played on foot. There is no conclusive evidence for either explanation. Early history Ancient
Ancient
games

A painting depicting Emperor Taizu of Song
Emperor Taizu of Song
playing cuju (i.e. Chinese football) with his prime minister Zhao Pu (趙普) and other ministers, by the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
artist Qian Xuan
Qian Xuan
(1235–1305)

A Chinese game called Cuju
Cuju
(蹴鞠), Tsu' Chu, or Zuqiu (足球) has been recognised by FIFA
FIFA
as the first version of the game with regular rules.[11] It existed during the Han dynasty, the second and third centuries BC.[citation needed] The Japanese version of cuju is kemari (蹴鞠), and was developed during the Asuka period.[12] This is known to have been played within the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto
Kyoto
from about 600 AD. In kemari several people stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball drop to the ground (much like keepie uppie). The Ancient
Ancient
Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet. The Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as "ἐπίσκυρος" (Episkyros)[13][14] or "φαινίνδα" (phaininda),[15] which is mentioned by a Greek playwright, Antiphanes (388–311 BC) and later referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
(c. 150 – c. 215 AD). These games appear to have resembled rugby football.[16][17][18][19][20] The Roman politician Cicero (106–43 BC) describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games already knew the air-filled ball, the follis.[21][22] Episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA.[23] There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games, played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world. For example, in 1586, men from a ship commanded by an English explorer named John Davis, went ashore to play a form of football with Inuit
Inuit
(Eskimo) people in Greenland.[24] There are later accounts of an Inuit
Inuit
game played on ice, called Aqsaqtuk. Each match began with two teams facing each other in parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team's line and then at a goal. In 1610, William Strachey, a colonist at Jamestown, Virginia recorded a game played by Native Americans, called Pahsaheman.[citation needed] On the Australian continent
Australian continent
several tribes of indigenous people played kicking and catching games with stuffed balls which have been generalised by historians as Marn Grook ( Djab Wurrung
Djab Wurrung
for "game ball"). The earliest historical account is an anecdote from the 1878 book by Robert Brough-Smyth, The Aborigines of Victoria, in which a man called Richard Thomas is quoted as saying, in about 1841 in Victoria, Australia, that he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing the game: "Mr Thomas describes how the foremost player will drop kick a ball made from the skin of a possum and how other players leap into the air in order to catch it." Some historians have theorised that Marn Grook
Marn Grook
was one of the origins of Australian rules football. The Māori in New Zealand played a game called Ki-o-rahi
Ki-o-rahi
consisting of teams of seven players play on a circular field divided into zones, and score points by touching the 'pou' (boundary markers) and hitting a central 'tupu' or target.[citation needed] Games played in Mesoamerica with rubber balls by indigenous peoples are also well-documented as existing since before this time, but these had more similarities to basketball or volleyball, and no links have been found between such games and modern football sports. Northeastern American Indians, especially the Iroquois
Iroquois
Confederation, played a game which made use of net racquets to throw and catch a small ball; however, although it is a ball-goal foot game, lacrosse (as its modern descendant is called) is likewise not usually classed as a form of "football."[citation needed] These games and others may well go far back into antiquity. However, the main sources of modern football codes appear to lie in western Europe, especially England.

Ancient
Ancient
Greek football player balancing the ball. Depiction on an Attic Lekythos, Piraeus, 400-375 BC.

A Song dynasty
Song dynasty
painting by Su Hanchen (c. 1130-1160), depicting Chinese children playing cuju.

Paint of a Mesoamerican ballgame
Mesoamerican ballgame
player of the Tepantitla murals in Teotihuacan.

A revived version of kemari being played at the Tanzan Shrine, Japan.

An illustration from the 1850s of Australian Aboriginal hunter gatherers. File:Children in the background are playing a football game, possibly Woggabaliri.[25]

A group of aborigines playing football in Guiana.

Medieval and early modern Europe Further information: Medieval football The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football matches throughout Europe, particularly in England. An early reference to a ball game played in Britain comes from the 9th century Historia Brittonum, which describes "a party of boys ... playing at ball".[26] References to a ball game played in northern France known as La Soule
La Soule
or Choule, in which the ball was propelled by hands, feet, and sticks,[27] date from the 12th century.[28]

An illustration of so-called "mob football"

The early forms of football played in England, sometimes referred to as "mob football", would be played between neighbouring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams who would clash en masse,[29] struggling to move an item, such as inflated animal's bladder[30] to particular geographical points, such as their opponents' church, with play taking place in the open space between neighbouring parishes.[31] The game was played primarily during significant religious festivals, such as Shrovetide, Christmas, or Easter,[30] and Shrovetide games have survived into the modern era in a number of English towns (see below). The first detailed description of what was almost certainly football in England was given by William FitzStephen in about 1174–1183. He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday:

After lunch all the youth of the city go out into the fields to take part in a ball game. The students of each school have their own ball; the workers from each city craft are also carrying their balls. Older citizens, fathers, and wealthy citizens come on horseback to watch their juniors competing, and to relive their own youth vicariously: you can see their inner passions aroused as they watch the action and get caught up in the fun being had by the carefree adolescents.[32]

Most of the very early references to the game speak simply of "ball play" or "playing at ball". This reinforces the idea that the games played at the time did not necessarily involve a ball being kicked. An early reference to a ball game that was probably football comes from 1280 at Ulgham, Northumberland, England: "Henry... while playing at ball.. ran against David".[33] Football
Football
was played in Ireland in 1308, with a documented reference to John McCrocan, a spectator at a "football game" at Newcastle, County Down
Newcastle, County Down
being charged with accidentally stabbing a player named William Bernard.[34] Another reference to a football game comes in 1321 at Shouldham, Norfolk, England: "[d]uring the game at ball as he kicked the ball, a lay friend of his... ran against him and wounded himself".[33] In 1314, Nicholas de Farndone, Lord Mayor of the City of London
Lord Mayor of the City of London
issued a decree banning football in the French used by the English upper classes at the time. A translation reads: "[f]orasmuch as there is great noise in the city caused by hustling over large foot balls [rageries de grosses pelotes de pee][35] in the fields of the public from which many evils might arise which God forbid: we command and forbid on behalf of the king, on pain of imprisonment, such game to be used in the city in the future." This is the earliest reference to football. In 1363, King Edward III of England
Edward III of England
issued a proclamation banning "...handball, football, or hockey; coursing and cock-fighting, or other such idle games",[36] showing that "football" – whatever its exact form in this case – was being differentiated from games involving other parts of the body, such as handball. A game known as "football" was played in Scotland
Scotland
as early as the 15th century: it was prohibited by the Football
Football
Act 1424 and although the law fell into disuse it was not repealed until 1906. There is evidence for schoolboys playing a "football" ball game in Aberdeen
Aberdeen
in 1633 (some references cite 1636) which is notable as an early allusion to what some have considered to be passing the ball. The word "pass" in the most recent translation is derived from "huc percute" (strike it here) and later "repercute pilam" (strike the ball again) in the original Latin. It is not certain that the ball was being struck between members of the same team. The original word translated as "goal" is "metum", literally meaning the "pillar at each end of the circus course" in a Roman chariot race. There is a reference to "get hold of the ball before [another player] does" (Praeripe illi pilam si possis agere) suggesting that handling of the ball was allowed. One sentence states in the original 1930 translation "Throw yourself against him" (Age, objice te illi).

France circa 1750

King Henry IV of England
Henry IV of England
also presented one of the earliest documented uses of the English word "football", in 1409, when he issued a proclamation forbidding the levying of money for "foteball".[33][37] There is also an account in Latin
Latin
from the end of the 15th century of football being played at Cawston, Nottinghamshire. This is the first description of a "kicking game" and the first description of dribbling: "[t]he game at which they had met for common recreation is called by some the foot-ball game. It is one in which young men, in country sport, propel a huge ball not by throwing it into the air but by striking it and rolling it along the ground, and that not with their hands but with their feet... kicking in opposite directions" The chronicler gives the earliest reference to a football pitch, stating that: "[t]he boundaries have been marked and the game had started.[33] Other firsts in the mediæval and early modern eras:

"a football", in the sense of a ball rather than a game, was first mentioned in 1486.[37] This reference is in Dame Juliana Berners' Book of St Albans. It states: "a certain rounde instrument to play with ...it is an instrument for the foote and then it is calde in Latyn 'pila pedalis', a fotebal."[33] a pair of football boots was ordered by King Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII of England
in 1526.[38] women playing a form of football was first described in 1580 by Sir Philip Sidney
Philip Sidney
in one of his poems: "[a] tyme there is for all, my mother often sayes, When she, with skirts tuckt very hy, with girles at football playes."[39] the first references to goals are in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. In 1584 and 1602 respectively, John Norden
John Norden
and Richard Carew referred to "goals" in Cornish hurling. Carew described how goals were made: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foote asunder; and directly against them, ten or twelue [twelve] score off, other twayne in like distance, which they terme their Goales".[40] He is also the first to describe goalkeepers and passing of the ball between players. the first direct reference to scoring a goal is in John Day's play The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green (performed circa 1600; published 1659): "I'll play a gole at camp-ball" (an extremely violent variety of football, which was popular in East Anglia). Similarly in a poem in 1613, Michael Drayton
Michael Drayton
refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe".

Calcio Fiorentino

An illustration of the Calcio Fiorentino
Calcio Fiorentino
field and starting positions, from a 1688 book by Pietro di Lorenzo Bini.

Main article: Calcio Fiorentino In the 16th century, the city of Florence
Florence
celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent
Lent
by playing a game which today is known as "calcio storico" ("historic kickball") in the Piazza Santa Croce. The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of football. For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents. Blows below the belt were allowed. The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise. In 1580, Count Giovanni de' Bardi di Vernio wrote Discorso sopra 'l giuoco del Calcio Fiorentino. This is sometimes said to be the earliest code of rules for any football game. The game was not played after January 1739 (until it was revived in May 1930). Official disapproval and attempts to ban football Main article: Attempts to ban football games There have been many attempts to ban football, from the middle ages through to the modern day. The first such law was passed in England in 1314; it was followed by more than 30 in England alone between 1314 and 1667.[41]:6 Football
Football
faced armed opposition in the 18th Century when used as a cover for violent protest against the enclosure act. Women were banned from playing at English and Scottish Football
Football
League grounds in 1921, a ban that was only lifted in the 1970s. Female footballers still face similar problems in some parts of the world. Establishment of modern codes English public schools Main article: English public school football games While football continued to be played in various forms throughout Britain, its public schools (known as private schools in other countries) are widely credited with four key achievements in the creation of modern football codes. First of all, the evidence suggests that they were important in taking football away from its "mob" form and turning it into an organised team sport. Second, many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools. Third, it was teachers, students and former students from these schools who first codified football games, to enable matches to be played between schools. Finally, it was at English public schools that the division between "kicking" and "running" (or "carrying") games first became clear. The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools – mainly attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes – comes from the Vulgaria by William Herman in 1519. Herman had been headmaster at Eton and Winchester colleges and his Latin
Latin
textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde".[42] Richard Mulcaster, a student at Eton College
Eton College
in the early 16th century and later headmaster at other English schools, has been described as "the greatest sixteenth Century advocate of football".[43] Among his contributions are the earliest evidence of organised team football. Mulcaster's writings refer to teams ("sides" and "parties"), positions ("standings"), a referee ("judge over the parties") and a coach "(trayning maister)". Mulcaster's "footeball" had evolved from the disordered and violent forms of traditional football:

[s]ome smaller number with such overlooking, sorted into sides and standings, not meeting with their bodies so boisterously to trie their strength: nor shouldring or shuffing one an other so barbarously ... may use footeball for as much good to the body, by the chiefe use of the legges.[44]

In 1633, David Wedderburn, a teacher from Aberdeen, mentioned elements of modern football games in a short Latin
Latin
textbook called Vocabula. Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball ("strike it here"). There is a reference to "get hold of the ball", suggesting that some handling was allowed. It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players ("drive that man back").[45] A more detailed description of football is given in Francis Willughby's Book of Games, written in about 1660.[46] Willughby, who had studied at Bishop Vesey's Grammar School, Sutton Coldfield, is the first to describe goals and a distinct playing field: "a close that has a gate at either end. The gates are called Goals." His book includes a diagram illustrating a football field. He also mentions tactics ("leaving some of their best players to guard the goal"); scoring ("they that can strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win") and the way teams were selected ("the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness"). He is the first to describe a "law" of football: "they must not strike [an opponent's leg] higher than the ball".[citation needed] English public schools were the first to codify football games. In particular, they devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century.[47] In the earliest manifestations of these rules, players were "off their side" if they simply stood between the ball and the goal which was their objective. Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand. They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation. However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, Rugby, Harrow and Cheltenham, during between 1810 and 1850.[47] The first known codes – in the sense of a set of rules – were those of Eton in 1815 [48] and Aldenham
Aldenham
in 1825.[48]) During the early 19th century, most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day. They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force. Feast day
Feast day
football played on the streets was in decline. Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules. Football
Football
was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils. Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried (as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham), while others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted (as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse). The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played. For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloisters, making it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games.[citation needed]

Rugby School

William Webb Ellis, a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time [emphasis added], first took the ball in his arms and ran with it, thus creating the distinctive feature of the rugby game." in 1823. This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football, but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal. The act of 'taking the ball in his arms' is often misinterpreted as 'picking the ball up' as it is widely believed that Webb Ellis' 'crime' was handling the ball, as in modern soccer, however handling the ball at the time was often permitted and in some cases compulsory,[49] the rule for which Webb Ellis showed disregard was running forward with it as the rules of his time only allowed a player to retreat backwards or kick forwards. The boom in rail transport in Britain during the 1840s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before. Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. However, it was difficult for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules. The solution to this problem was usually that the match be divided into two halves, one half played by the rules of the host "home" school, and the other half by the visiting "away" school. The modern rules of many football codes were formulated during the mid- or late- 19th century. This also applies to other sports such as lawn bowls, lawn tennis, etc. The major impetus for this was the patenting of the world's first lawnmower in 1830. This allowed for the preparation of modern ovals, playing fields, pitches, grass courts, etc.[50] Apart from Rugby football, the public school codes have barely been played beyond the confines of each school's playing fields. However, many of them are still played at the schools which created them (see Surviving UK school games below). Public schools' dominance of sports in the UK began to wane after the Factory Act of 1850, which significantly increased the recreation time available to working class children. Before 1850, many British children had to work six days a week, for more than twelve hours a day. From 1850, they could not work before 6 a.m. (7 a.m. in winter) or after 6 p.m. on weekdays (7 p.m. in winter); on Saturdays they had to cease work at 2 p.m. These changes mean that working class children had more time for games, including various forms of football. Firsts Clubs Main article: Oldest football clubs Sports clubs dedicated to playing football began in the 18th century, for example London's Gymnastic Society which was founded in the mid-18th century and ceased playing matches in 1796.[51][52] The first documented club to bear in the title a reference to being a 'football club' were called "The Foot-Ball Club" who were located in Edinburgh, Scotland, during the period 1824–41.[53][54] The club forbade tripping but allowed pushing and holding and the picking up of the ball.[54] In 1845, three boys at Rugby school were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school. These were the first set of written rules (or code) for any form of football.[55] This further assisted the spread of the Rugby game. Competitions Main article: Oldest football competitions One of the longest running football fixture is the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, contested between Melbourne Grammar School
Melbourne Grammar School
and Scotch College, Melbourne
Melbourne
every year since 1858. It is believed by many to also be the first match of Australian rules football, although it was played under experimental rules in its first year. The first football trophy tournament was the Caledonian Challenge Cup, donated by the Royal Caledonian Society of Melbourne, played in 1861 under the Melbourne Rules.[56] The oldest football league is a rugby football competition, the United Hospitals Challenge Cup
United Hospitals Challenge Cup
(1874), while the oldest rugby trophy is the Yorkshire Cup, contested since 1878. The South Australian Football
Football
Association (30 April 1877) is the oldest surviving Australian rules football
Australian rules football
competition. The oldest surviving soccer trophy is the Youdan Cup
Youdan Cup
(1867) and the oldest national soccer competition is the English FA Cup (1871). The Football League
The Football League
(1888) is recognised as the longest running Association Football
Football
league. The first ever international football match took place between sides representing England and Scotland
Scotland
on March 5, 1870 at the Oval under the authority of the FA. The first Rugby international took place in 1871. Modern balls Main article: Football
Football
(ball)

Richard Lindon
Richard Lindon
(seen in 1880) is believed to have invented the first footballs with rubber bladders.

In Europe, early footballs were made out of animal bladders, more specifically pig's bladders, which were inflated. Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the balls to keep their shape.[57] However, in 1851, Richard Lindon
Richard Lindon
and William Gilbert, both shoemakers from the town of Rugby (near the school), exhibited both round and oval-shaped balls at the Great Exhibition
Great Exhibition
in London. Richard Lindon's wife is said to have died of lung disease caused by blowing up pig's bladders.[58] Lindon also won medals for the invention of the "Rubber inflatable Bladder" and the "Brass Hand Pump". In 1855, the U.S. inventor Charles Goodyear
Charles Goodyear
– who had patented vulcanised rubber – exhibited a spherical football, with an exterior of vulcanised rubber panels, at the Paris Exhibition Universelle. The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U.S.A.[59] The iconic ball with a regular pattern of hexagons and pentagons (see truncated icosahedron) did not become popular until the 1960s, and was first used in the World Cup in 1970. Modern ball passing tactics Main article: Passing (association football) The earliest reference to a game of football involving players passing the ball and attempting to score past a goalkeeper was written in 1633 by David Wedderburn, a poet and teacher in Aberdeen, Scotland.[60] Nevertheless, the original text does not state whether the allusion to passing as 'kick the ball back' ('Repercute pilam') was in a forward or backward direction or between members of the same opposing teams (as was usual at this time)[61] "Scientific" football is first recorded in 1839 from Lancashire[62] and in the modern game in Rugby football
Rugby football
from 1862[63] and from Sheffield
Sheffield
FC as early as 1865.[64][65] The first side to play a passing combination game was the Royal Engineers AFC
Royal Engineers AFC
in 1869/70[66][67] By 1869 they were "work[ing] well together", "backing up" and benefiting from "cooperation".[68] By 1870 the Engineers were passing the ball: "Lieut. Creswell, who having brought the ball up the side then kicked it into the middle to another of his side, who kicked it through the posts the minute before time was called"[69] Passing was a regular feature of their style[70] By early 1872 the Engineers were the first football team renowned for "play[ing] beautifully together"[71] A double pass is first reported from Derby school against Nottingham Forest
Nottingham Forest
in March 1872, the first of which is irrefutably a short pass: "Mr Absey dribbling the ball half the length of the field delivered it to Wallis, who kicking it cleverly in front of the goal, sent it to the captain who drove it at once between the Nottingham posts"[72] The first side to have perfected the modern formation was Cambridge University AFC[73][74][75] and introduced the 2–3–5 "pyramid" formation.[76][77] Cambridge rules Main article: Cambridge rules In 1848, at Cambridge University, Mr. H. de Winton and Mr. J.C. Thring, who were both formerly at Shrewsbury School, called a meeting at Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College, Cambridge
with 12 other representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury. An eight-hour meeting produced what amounted to the first set of modern rules, known as the Cambridge rules. No copy of these rules now exists, but a revised version from circa 1856 is held in the library of Shrewsbury School.[78] The rules clearly favour the kicking game. Handling was only allowed when a player catches the ball directly from the foot entitling them to a free kick and there was a primitive offside rule, disallowing players from "loitering" around the opponents' goal. The Cambridge rules were not widely adopted outside English public schools and universities (but it was arguably the most significant influence on the Football
Football
Association committee members responsible for formulating the rules of Association football). Sheffield
Sheffield
rules Main article: Sheffield
Sheffield
rules By the late 1850s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football. Sheffield Football
Football
Club, founded in 1857 in the English city of Sheffield
Sheffield
by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, was later recognised as the world's oldest club playing association football.[79] However, the club initially played its own code of football: the Sheffield
Sheffield
rules. The code was largely independent of the public school rules, the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule. The code was responsible for many innovations that later spread to association football. These included free kicks, corner kicks, handball, throw-ins and the crossbar.[80] By the 1870s they became the dominant code in the north and midlands of England. At this time a series of rule changes by both the London and Sheffield
Sheffield
FAs gradually eroded the differences between the two games until the adoption of a common code in 1877. Australian rules Main article: Australian rules football See also: Origins of Australian rules football

Tom Wills, widely regarded as the father of Australian football

There is archival evidence of "foot-ball" games being played in various parts of Australia throughout the first half of the 19th century. The origins of an organised game of football known today as Australian rules football
Australian rules football
can be traced back to 1858 in Melbourne, the capital city of Victoria. In July 1858, Tom Wills, an Australian-born cricketer educated at Rugby School
Rugby School
in England, wrote a letter to Bell's Life in Victoria & Sporting Chronicle, calling for a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.[81] This is considered by historians to be a defining moment in the creation of Australian rules football. Through publicity and personal contacts Wills was able to co-ordinate football matches in Melbourne
Melbourne
that experimented with various rules,[82] the first of which was played on July 31, 1858. One week later, Wills umpired a schoolboys match between Melbourne
Melbourne
Grammar School and Scotch College. Following these matches, organised football in Melbourne
Melbourne
rapidly increased in popularity.

Wood engraving of an Australian rules football
Australian rules football
match at the Richmond Paddock, Melbourne, 1866

Wills and others involved in these early matches formed the Melbourne Football
Football
Club (the oldest surviving Australian football club) on May 14, 1859. Club members Wills, William Hammersley, J. B. Thompson and Thomas H. Smith met with the intention of forming a set of rules that would be widely adopted by other clubs. The committee debated rules used in English public school games; Wills pushed for various rugby football rules he learnt during his schooling. The first rules share similarities with these games, and were shaped to suit to Australian conditions. H. C. A. Harrison, a seminal figure in Australian football, recalled that his cousin Wills wanted "a game of our own".[83] The code was distinctive in the prevalence of the mark, free kick, tackling, lack of an offside rule and that players were specifically penalised for throwing the ball. The Melbourne
Melbourne
football rules were widely distributed and gradually adopted by the other Victorian clubs. The rules were updated several times during the 1860s to accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs. A significant redraft in 1866 by H. C. A. Harrison's committee accommodated the Geelong Football
Football
Club's rules, making the game then known as "Victorian Rules" increasingly distinct from other codes. It soon adopted cricket fields and an oval ball, used specialised goal and behind posts, and featured bouncing the ball while running and spectacular high marking. The game spread quickly to other Australian colonies. Outside its heartland in southern Australia, the code experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown throughout Australia and in other parts of the world, and the Australian Football League
Australian Football League
emerged as the dominant professional competition. Football
Football
Association Main article: The Football
Football
Association

The first football international, Scotland
Scotland
versus England. Once kept by the Rugby Football Union
Rugby Football Union
as an early example of rugby football.

During the early 1860s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games. In 1862, J. C. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School
Uppingham School
and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" (these are also known as the Uppingham Rules). In early October 1863 another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster. At the Freemasons' Tavern, Great Queen Street, London on the evening of October 26, 1863, representatives of several football clubs in the London Metropolitan area met for the inaugural meeting of The Football Association (FA). The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members. Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association. All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham. In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December 1863. After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published. However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of 1863. The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with (carrying) the ball and hacking (kicking opposing players in the shins). The two contentious FA rules were as follows:

IX. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run. X. If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.[84]

At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. M. Campbell, the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected. He said: "hacking is the true football". However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA. After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the "Laws of Football", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football. The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association".[85] The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games (such as Australian football and rugby football): for instance, a player could make a fair catch and claim a mark, which entitled him to a free kick; and if a player touched the ball behind the opponents' goal line, his side was entitled to a free kick at goal, from 15 yards (13.5 metres) in front of the goal line. Rugby football Main article: History of rugby union

A rugby scrum in 1871

In Britain, by 1870, there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game. There were also "rugby" clubs in Ireland, Australia, Canada and New Zealand. However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until 1871, when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union
Rugby Football Union
(RFU). The first official RFU rules were adopted in June 1871. These rules allowed passing the ball. They also included the try, where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest. North American football
American football
codes Main articles: History of American football
American football
and Canadian football § History As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students. For example, students at Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football, a variant of the association football codes, as early as the 1820s.[86] They remained largely "mob football" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. Rules were simple, violence and injury were common.[87] The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. Yale University, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860, while Harvard University
Harvard University
followed suit in 1861.[87] In its place, two general types of football evolved: "kicking" games and "running" (or "carrying") games. A hybrid of the two, known as the "Boston game", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football
Football
Club. The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in 1862 by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.[87][88] The game began to return to American college campuses by the late 1860s. The universities of Yale, Princeton (then known as the College of New Jersey), Rutgers, and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time. In 1867, Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association.[87]

The "Tigers" of Hamilton, Ontario, circa 1906. Founded 1869 as the Hamilton Foot Ball Club, they eventually merged with the Hamilton Flying Wildcats to form the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, a team still active in the Canadian Football
Football
League.[89]

In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, 1861, at University College, University of Toronto (approximately 400 yards west of Queen's Park). One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school.[90] In 1864, at Trinity College, Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.[90] A "running game", resembling rugby football, was then taken up by the Montreal Football Club in Canada in 1868.[91] On November 6, 1869, Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules. It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football.[87][92] Modern North American football
American football
grew out of a match between McGill University of Montreal, and Harvard University
Harvard University
in 1874. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.[93][94][95] Within a few years, Harvard had both adopted McGill's rules and had persuaded other U.S. university teams to do the same. On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts, agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union
Rugby Football Union
rules, with some variations.[96]

Rutgers College Football
Football
Team, 1882

In 1880, Yale coach Walter Camp, who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations. Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby was replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.[96] American football
American football
still however remained a violent sport where collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death.[97] This led U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on October 9, 1905, urging them to make drastic changes.[98] One rule change introduced in 1906, devised to open up the game and reduce injury, was the introduction of the legal forward pass. Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.[99] Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game. In 1903, the Ontario Rugby Football Union
Rugby Football Union
adopted the Burnside rules, which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.[100] Canadian football then implemented the legal forward pass in 1929.[101] American and Canadian football
Canadian football
remain different codes, stemming from rule changes that the American side of the border adopted but the Canadian side has not. Gaelic football

The All-Ireland Football Final
All-Ireland Football Final
in Croke Park, 2004.

Main article: History of Gaelic football In the mid-19th century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid, remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry. One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees; and the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played, and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary. "Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, and carrying the ball were all allowed. By the 1870s, Rugby and Association football
Association football
had started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin
Trinity College, Dublin
was an early stronghold of Rugby (see the Developments in the 1850s section, above). The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely. Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in 1884. The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football. The first Gaelic football
Gaelic football
rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin
Maurice Davin
and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, 1887. Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football. The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule (an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football). Schism in Rugby football

An English cartoon from the 1890s lampooning the divide in rugby football which led to the formation of rugby league. The caricatures are of Rev. Frank Marshall, an arch-opponent of player payments, and James Miller, a long-time opponent of Marshall. The caption reads: Marshall: "Oh, fie, go away naughty boy, I don't play with boys who can’t afford to take a holiday for football any day they like!" Miller: "Yes, that's just you to a T; you’d make it so that no lad whose father wasn’t a millionaire could play at all in a really good team. For my part I see no reason why the men who make the money shouldn’t have a share in the spending of it."

Further information: History of rugby league The International Rugby Football
Football
Board (IRFB) was founded in 1886, but rifts were beginning to emerge in the code. Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the 1890s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union
Rugby Football Union
ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries. This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England. In 1895, following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield
Huddersfield
to form the Northern Rugby Football Union (NRFU). The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport. The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. Within a few years the NRFU rules had started to diverge from the RFU, most notably with the abolition of the line-out. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled. Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. The separate Lancashire
Lancashire
and Yorkshire competitions of the NRFU merged in 1901, forming the Northern Rugby League, the first time the name rugby league was used officially in England. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union. Globalisation of association football Main article: History of FIFA The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures. The English Football
Football
Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress. It fell to associations from seven other European countries: France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, to form an international association. The Fédération Internationale de Football
Football
Association (FIFA) was founded in Paris on May 21, 1904. Its first president was Robert Guérin. The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries. Further divergence of the two rugby codes Rugby league
Rugby league
rules diverged significantly from rugby union in 1906, with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In 1907, a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year. However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match. This situation endured until 1948, when at the instigation of the French league, the Rugby League International Federation (RLIF) was formed at a meeting in Bordeaux. During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In 1966, rugby league officials borrowed the American football
American football
concept of downs: a team was allowed to retain possession of the ball for four tackles (rugby union retains the original rule that a player who is tackled and brought to the ground must release the ball immediately). The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six (in 1971), and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule. With the advent of full-time professionals in the early 1990s, and the consequent speeding up of the game, the five metre off-side distance between the two teams became 10 metres, and the replacement rule was superseded by various interchange rules, among other changes. The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league. In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul, and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised. In 1995, rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players.[102] Although the original dispute between the two codes has now disappeared – and despite the fact that officials from both forms of rugby football have sometimes mentioned the possibility of re-unification – the rules of both codes and their culture have diverged to such an extent that such an event is unlikely in the foreseeable future.

A player takes a free kick, while the opposition form a "wall", in Association football

Use of the word "football" Further information: Football
Football
(word) The word football, when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above. Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football, primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world. Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region. So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it.

Players assemble at the line of scrimmage in an American football game.

In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier. In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union, but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football. The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football
Australian rules football
or rugby league, depending on local popularity (which largely conforms to the Barassi Line). In francophone Quebec, where Canadian football
Canadian football
is more popular, the Canadian code is known as le football while American football
American football
is known as le football américain and association football is known as le soccer.[103] Of the 45 national FIFA
FIFA
(Fédération Internationale de Football
Football
Association) affiliates in which English is an official or primary language, most currently use Football
Football
in their organisations' official names; the FIFA
FIFA
affiliates in Canada and the United States use Soccer in their names. A few FIFA
FIFA
affiliates have recently "normalised" to using "Football", including:

Australia's association football governing body changed its name in 2005 from using "soccer" to "football"[104] New Zealand's governing body also changed in 2007, saying "the international game is called football."[105] Samoa changed from "Samoa Football
Football
(Soccer) Federation" to "Football Federation Samoa" in 2009.[106][107]

Popularity Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world.[7] Globally, association football is played by over 250 million players in over 200 nations,[108] and has the highest television audience in sport,[109] making it the most popular in the world,[110] American football
American football
is the most popular sport in the United States,[111] with the annual Super Bowl
Super Bowl
game accounting for seven of the top eight of the most watched broadcasts in U.S. television history.[112] Australian rules football
Australian rules football
has the highest spectator attendance of all sports in Australia.[113][114] Similarly, Gaelic football
Gaelic football
is the most popular sport in Ireland in terms of match attendance,[115] and the All-Ireland Football Final
All-Ireland Football Final
is the most watched event of that nation's sporting year.[116] Football
Football
codes board

Football Cambridge rules (1848–1863) Association football
Association football
(1863–)

Indoor

Beach
Beach
(1992–)

Futsal
Futsal
(1930–)

Sheffield rules
Sheffield rules
(1857–1877)

Paralympic

Street

Rugby Union with minor modifications American football
American football
(1869[117]-) Flag football, Arena football
Arena football
(1987–)

Rugby rules[118]

Canadian football
Canadian football
(1861–) Flag football[119]

Rugby union
Rugby union
(1871–)

Rugby sevens
Rugby sevens
(1883–)

Rugby league
Rugby league
(1895–)

Nines

Rugby league
Rugby league
sevens

Touch football

Rugby rules and other English public school games[120] Australian rules (1859–) International rules (1967–)

Gaelic (1887–)

Football
Football
codes development tree

Football
Football
codes development tree

Football

Cambridge rules (1848-1863)

Sheffield rules
Sheffield rules
(1857-1877)

Rugby rules

Rugby rules and other English public school games

Association Football
Football
(1863-)

Australian rules (1859-)

Gaelic (1887-)

Rugby union
Rugby union
with minor modifications

Canadian football(1861-)

Rugby union
Rugby union
(1871-)

Int'l Rules (1967-)

American football
American football
(1869-)

Rugby league
Rugby league
(1895-)

Rugby sevens
Rugby sevens
(1883-)

Flag football

Arena football(1987-)

Flag football
Flag football
(Canadian)

Futsal
Futsal
(1930-)

Rugby league
Rugby league
nines

Rugby league
Rugby league
sevens

Touch football

Beach soccer
Beach soccer
(1992-)

Indoor soccer

Paralympic football

Street soccer

Notes:

Present day codes and families Association football
Association football
and descendants Main article: Variants of association football

An indoor soccer game at an open-air venue in Mexico. The referee has just awarded the red team a free kick.

Street football, Venice (1960)

These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands (by all players except the goalkeeper), unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball is allowed

Association football, also known as football, soccer, footy and footie Indoor/basketball court variants:

Five-a-side football
Five-a-side football
– played throughout the world under various rules including:

Futebol de Salão Futsal
Futsal
– the FIFA-approved five-a-side indoor game Minivoetbal – the five-a-side indoor game played in East and West Flanders
Flanders
where it is extremely popular Papi fut – the five-a-side game played in outdoor basketball courts (built with goals) in Central America.

Indoor soccer
Indoor soccer
– the six-a-side indoor game, the Latin
Latin
American variant (fútbol rápido, "fast football") is often played in open-air venues Masters Football – six-a-side played in Europe by mature professionals (35 years and older)

Paralympic football
Paralympic football
– modified game for athletes with a disability.[121] Includes:

Football
Football
5-a-side – for visually impaired athletes Football
Football
7-a-side – for athletes with cerebral palsy Amputee football
Amputee football
– for athletes with amputations Deaf football – for athletes with hearing impairments Powerchair football
Powerchair football
– for athletes in electric wheelchairs

Beach
Beach
soccer, beach football or sand soccer – variant modified for play on sand Street football
Street football
– encompasses a number of informal variants Rush goalie – a variation in which the role of the goalkeeper is more flexible than normal Headers and Volleys
Headers and Volleys
– where the aim is to score goals against a goalkeeper using only headers and volleys Crab football – players stand on their hands and feet and move around on their backs whilst playing Swamp soccer
Swamp soccer
– the game as played on a swamp or bog field Jorkyball Rushball

The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'. There are also motorsport variations of the game. Rugby school football and descendants These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper. They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked through a target.

Rugby football

Rugby union

Mini rugby a variety for children. Rugby sevens
Rugby sevens
and Rugby tens
Rugby tens
– variants for teams of reduced size.

Rugby sevens; Fiji v Wales at the 2006 Commonwealth Games
2006 Commonwealth Games
in Melbourne

Rugby league
Rugby league
– often referred to simply as "league", and usually known simply as "football" or "footy" in the Australian states of New South Wales and Queensland.

Rugby league
Rugby league
sevens and Rugby league
Rugby league
nines – variant for teams of reduced size.

Beach rugby
Beach rugby
– rugby played on sand Touch rugby
Touch rugby
– generic name for forms of rugby football which do not feature tackles, one variant has been formalised Tag Rugby
Tag Rugby
– non-contact variant in which a flag attached to a player is removed to indicate a tackle.

Gridiron football

American football
American football
– called "football" in the United States and Canada, and "gridiron" in Australia and New Zealand.

Nine-man football, eight-man football, six-man football – variants played primarily by smaller high schools that lack enough players to field full teams. Street football/backyard football – played without equipment or official fields and with simplified rules Touch football – non-tackle variants

Canadian football
Canadian football
– called simply "football" in Canada; "football" in Canada can mean either Canadian or American football
American football
depending on context. All of the variants listed for American football
American football
are also attested for Canadian football. Flag football
Flag football
– non-contact variant in which a flag attached to a player is removed to indicate a tackle. Indoor football, arena football – indoor variants

See also: Comparison of American football
American football
and rugby league, Comparison of American football
American football
and rugby union, Comparison of Canadian and American football, and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union Irish and Australian varieties

International rules football
International rules football
test match from the 2005 International Rules Series between Australia and Ireland at Telstra Dome, Melbourne, Australia.

These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball (requiring a periodic bounce or solo (toe-kick), depending on the code) while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.

Australian rules football
Australian rules football
– officially known as "Australian football", and informally as "football", "footy" or "Aussie rules". In some areas it is referred to as "AFL", the name of the main organising body and competition

Auskick
Auskick
– a version of Australian rules designed by the AFL for young children Metro footy (or Metro rules footy) – a modified version invented by the USAFL, for use on gridiron fields in North American cities (which often lack grounds large enough for conventional Australian rules matches) Kick-to-kick
Kick-to-kick
– informal versions of the game 9-a-side footy – a more open, running variety of Australian rules, requiring 18 players in total and a proportionally smaller playing area (includes contact and non-contact varieties) Rec footy
Rec footy
– "Recreational Football", a modified non-contact variation of Australian rules, created by the AFL, which replaces tackles with tags Touch Aussie Rules
Touch Aussie Rules
– a non-tackle variation of Australian Rules played only in the United Kingdom Samoa rules – localised version adapted to Samoan conditions, such as the use of rugby football fields Masters Australian football (a.k.a. Superules) – reduced contact version introduced for competitions limited to players over 30 years of age Women's Australian rules football
Australian rules football
– women's competition played with a smaller ball and (sometimes) reduced contact

Gaelic football
Gaelic football
– Played predominantly in Ireland. Commonly referred to as "football" or "Gaelic"

Ladies Gaelic football

International rules football
International rules football
– a compromise code used for games between Gaelic and Australian Rules players

See also: Comparison of Australian rules football
Australian rules football
and Gaelic football Surviving medieval ball games Inside the UK

The Haxey
Haxey
Hood, played on Epiphany in Haxey, Lincolnshire Shrove Tuesday
Shrove Tuesday
games

Scoring the Hales
Scoring the Hales
in Alnwick, Northumberland Royal Shrovetide Football
Royal Shrovetide Football
in Ashbourne, Derbyshire The Shrovetide Ball Game in Atherstone, Warwickshire The Shrove Tuesday
Shrove Tuesday
Football
Football
Ceremony of the Purbeck Marblers in Corfe Castle, Dorset Hurling
Hurling
the Silver Ball at St Columb Major
St Columb Major
in Cornwall The Ball Game in Sedgefield, County Durham

In Scotland
Scotland
the Ba game
Ba game
("Ball Game") is still popular around Christmas and Hogmanay
Hogmanay
at:

Duns, Berwickshire Scone, Perthshire Kirkwall
Kirkwall
in the Orkney
Orkney
Islands

Outside the UK

Calcio Fiorentino
Calcio Fiorentino
– a modern revival of Renaissance football from 16th century Florence. la Soule – a modern revival of French medieval football lelo burti – a Georgian traditional football game

Surviving UK school games

Harrow football
Harrow football
players after a game at Harrow School
Harrow School
(circa 2005).

Games still played at UK public (independent) schools:

Eton field game Eton wall game Harrow football Winchester College
Winchester College
football

Recent inventions and hybrid games

Keepie uppie
Keepie uppie
(keep up) – the art of juggling with a football using the feet, knees, chest, shoulders, and head.

Footbag
Footbag
– several variations using a small bean bag or sand bag as a ball, the trade marked term hacky sack is sometimes used as a generic synonym. Freestyle football
Freestyle football
– participants are graded for their entertainment value and expression of skill.

Based on FA rules

Three sided football Triskelion

Based on rugby

Force ’em backs a.k.a. forcing back, forcemanback

Hybrid games

Austus – a compromise between Australian rules and American football, invented in Melbourne
Melbourne
during World War II. Bossaball
Bossaball
– mixes Association football
Association football
and volleyball and gymnastics; played on inflatables and trampolines. Cycle ball
Cycle ball
− a sport similar to association football played on bicycles Footvolley
Footvolley
– mixes Association football
Association football
and beach volleyball; played on sand Football tennis – mixes Association football
Association football
and tennis Kickball
Kickball
– a hybrid of Association football
Association football
and baseball, invented in the United States in about 1942. Speedball – a combination of American football, soccer, and basketball, devised in the United States in 1912. Universal football – a hybrid of Australian rules and rugby league, trialled in Sydney in 1933.[122] Volata – a game resembling Association football
Association football
and European handball, devised by Italian fascist leader, Augusto Turati, in the 1920s. Wheelchair rugby
Wheelchair rugby
– also known as Murderball, invented in Canada in 1977. Based on ice hockey and basketball rather than rugby.

Note: although similar to football and volleyball in some aspects, Sepak takraw
Sepak takraw
has ancient origins and cannot be considered a hybrid game. Tabletop games, video games and other recreations Based on Association football

Subbuteo Blow football Table football
Table football
– also known as foosball, table soccer, babyfoot, bar football or gettone Fantasy football (soccer) Button football
Button football
– also known as Futebol de Mesa, Jogo de Botões Penny football FIFA
FIFA
Video Games Series Pro Evolution Soccer Mario Strikers Lego Football

Based on American football

Paper football Blood Bowl Fantasy football (American) Madden NFL

Based on Australian football

AFL video game series

List of AFL video games

Based on Rugby League football

Sidhe's Rugby League series

Rugby League 3

Australian Rugby League

See also

Football
Football
field (unit of length) List of types of football List of players who have converted from one football code to another Names for association football 1601 to 1725 in sports: Football Footgolf Underwater football

Notes

^ Reilly, Thomas; Gilbourne, D. (2003). "Science and football: a review of applied research in the football code". Journal of Sports Science. 21: 693–705. doi:10.1080/0264041031000102105.  ^ "Editorial: Soccer – or should we say football – must change". 12 June 2014. New Zealanders on the way to their local rugby grounds should still be talking of "going to the football"  ^ "History of Rugby in Australia". Rugby Football
Football
History. Retrieved 11 January 2012.  ^ Bailey, Steven (1995). "Living Sports History: Football
Football
at Winchester, Eton and Harrow". The Sports Historian. 15 (1): 34–53. doi:10.1080/17460269508551675.  ^ Perkin, Harold (1989). "Teaching the nations how to play: sport and society in the British empire and commonwealth". The International Journal of the History of Sport. 6 (2): 145–155. doi:10.1080/09523368908713685.  ^ Reilly, Thomas; Doran, D. (2001). "Science and Gaelic football: A revie". Journal of Sports Sciences. 19 (3): 181–193. doi:10.1080/026404101750095330.  ^ a b Bale, J. (2002). Sports Geography. Taylor & Francis. p. 43. ISBN 0-419-25230-4.  ^ a b c d Douge, Brian (2011). "Football: the common threads between the games". Science and Football
Football
(Second ed.). Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 3–19. ISBN 978-0-415-50911-4.  ^ Association, The Football. "Law 1: The Field of Play - Football Rules & Governance The FA". www.thefa.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.  ^ "Football". Etymology Online. Retrieved 14 December 2015.  ^ FIFA.com. "History of Football
Football
- The Origins - FIFA.com".  ^ Allen Guttmann, Lee Austin Thompson (2001). Japanese sports: a history. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 9780824824648. Retrieved 2010-07-08.  ^ ἐπίσκυρος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007 Edition: "In ancient Greece a game with elements of football, episkuros, or harpaston, was played, and it had migrated to Rome as harpastum by the 2nd century BC". ^ φαινίνδα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library ^ Nigel Wilson, Encyclopedia of Ancient
Ancient
Greece, Routledge, 2005, p. 310 ^ Nigel M. Kennell, The Gymnasium of Virtue: Education and Culture in Ancient
Ancient
Sparta (Studies in the History of Greece and Rome), The University of North Carolina Press, 1995, on Google Books ^ Steve Craig, Sports and Games of the Ancients: (Sports and Games Through History), Greenwood, 2002, on Google Books ^ Don Nardo, Greek and Roman Sport, Greenhaven Press, 1999, p. 83 ^ Sally E. D. Wilkins, Sports and games of medieval cultures, Greenwood, 2002, on Google books ^ E. Norman Gardiner: "Athletics in the Ancient
Ancient
World", Courier Dover Publications, 2002, ISBN 0-486-42486-3, p.229 ^ William Smith: "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities", 1857, p.777 ^ FIFA.com (8 March 2013). "A gripping Greek derby".  ^ Richard Hakluyt, Voyages in Search of The North-West Passage Archived October 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., University of Adelaide, December 29, 2003 ^ From William Blandowski's Australien in 142 File:Photographischen Abbildungen, 1857, (Haddon Library, Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge) ^ Historia Brittonum at the Medieval Sourcebook. ^ Ruff, Julius (2001). Violence in Early Modern Europe 1500–1800. Cambridge University Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-521-59894-1.  ^ Jusserand, Jean-Jules. (1901). Le sport et les jeux d'exercice dans l'ancienne France. Retrieved January 11, 2008, from http://agora.qc.ca/reftext.nsf/Documents/Football--Le_sport_et_les_jeux_dexercice_dans_lancienne_France__La_soule_par_Jean-Jules_Jusserand (in French) ^ Dunning, Eric (1999). Sport
Sport
Matters: Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation. Routledge. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-415-09378-1.  ^ a b Dunning, Eric (1999). Sport
Sport
Matters: Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation. Routledge. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-415-09378-1.  ^ Baker, William (1988). Sports in the Western World. University of Illinois Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-252-06042-7.  ^ Stephen Alsford, FitzStephen's Description of London, Florilegium Urbanum, April 5, 2006 ^ a b c d e Francis Peabody Magoun, 1929, " Football
Football
in Medieval England and Middle-English literature" (The American Historical Review, v. 35, No. 1). ^ "Irish inventions: fact and fiction". Carlow-nationalist.ie. Archived from the original on 2012-07-29. Retrieved 2012-04-16.  ^ Derek Birley ( Sport
Sport
and The Making of Britain). 1993. Manchester University Press. p. 32. 978-0719037597 ^ Derek Baker (England in the Later Middle Ages). 1995. Boydell & Brewer. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-85115-648-4 ^ a b "Online Etymology Dictionary (no date), "football"". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2010-06-19.  ^ Vivek Chaudhary, "Who's the fat bloke in the number eight shirt?" (The Guardian, February 18, 2004.) ^ Anniina Jokinen, Sir Philip Sidney. "A Dialogue Between Two Shepherds" (Luminarium.org, July 2006) ^ Richard, Carew. "EBook of The Survey of Cornwall". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 2007-10-03.  ^ Magee, Jonathan; Caudwell, Jayne; Liston, Kate; Scraton, Sheila, eds. (2007). Women, Football
Football
and Europe: Histories, Equity and Experience. International Football
Football
Institute Series. 1. Meyer & Meyer Sport. ISBN 9781841262253.  ^ A history of Winchester College. by Arthur F Leach. Duckworth, 1899 ISBN 1-4446-5884-0 ^ "2003, "Richard Mulcaster"". Footballnetwork.org. Retrieved 2010-06-19.  ^ Francis Peabody Magoun. (1938) History of football from the beginnings to 1871. p.27. Retrieved 2010-02-09. ^ Rowley, Christopher (2015). The Shared Origins of Football, Rugby, and Soccer. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 86. ISBN 9781442246195.  ^ Francis Willughby, 1660–72, ''Book of Games''. Books.google.co.uk. 2003. ISBN 978-1-85928-460-5. Retrieved 2010-06-19.  ^ a b Julian Carosi, 2006, "The History of Offside" ^ a b Cox, Richard William; Russell, Dave; Vamplew, Wray (2002). Encyclopedia of British Football. Routledge. p. 243. ISBN 978-0-7146-5249-8.  ^ example of ball handling in early football from English writer William Hone, writing in 1825 or 1826, quotes the social commentator Sir Frederick Morton Eden, regarding "Foot-Ball", as played at [[Scone, Scotland]], Scotland:

The game was this: he who at any time got the ball into his hands, run [sic] with it till overtaken by one of the opposite part; and then, if he could shake himself loose from those on the opposite side who seized him, he run on; if not, he threw the ball from him, unless it was wrested from him by the other party, but no person was allowed to kick it. (William Hone, 1825–26, The Every-Day Book, "February 15." Archived January 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Access date: March 15, 2007.)

^ ABC Radio National Ockham's Razor, first broadcast 6 June 2010. ^ THE SURREY CLUB Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle (London, England), Sunday, October 07, 1849; pg. 6. New Readerships ^ Football: The First Hundred Years. The Untold Story. Adrian Harvey. 2005. Routledge, London ^ John Hope, Accounts and papers of the football club kept by John Hope, WS, and some Hope Correspondence 1787–1886 (National Archives of Scotland, GD253/183) ^ a b "The Foot-Ball Club in Edinburgh, 1824–1841 – The National Archives of Scotland". Nas.gov.uk. 2007-11-13. Retrieved 2010-06-19.  ^ "Rugby chronology". Museum of Rugby. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved April 24, 2006.  ^ "History of the Royal Caledonian Society of Melbourne". Electricscotland.com. Retrieved 2010-06-19.  ^ Soccer Ball World – Early History. Retrieved June 9, 2006. Archived June 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ The exact name of Mr Lindon is in dispute, as well as the exact timing of the creation of the inflatable bladder. It is known that he created this for both association and rugby footballs. However, sites devoted to football indicate he was known as HJ Lindon, who was actually Richards Lindon's son, and created the ball in 1862 (ref: Soccer Ball World), whereas rugby sites refer to him as Richard Lindon creating the ball in 1870 (ref: Guardian article). Both agree that his wife died when inflating pig's bladders. This information originated from web sites which may be unreliable, and the answer may only be found in researching books in central libraries. ^ soccerballworld.com, (no date) "Charles Goodyear's Soccer Ball" Downloaded 30/11/06. ^ Scots invented beautiful game The Scotsman, 14 June 2006 ^ Magoun, Francis Peabody (1938). History of football from the beginnings to 1871. Published by H. Pöppinghaus ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle (London, England), Sunday, January 13, 1839. New Readerships ^ Blackwood's Magazine, Published by W. Blackwood, 1862, page 563 ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle (London, England), Saturday, January 07, 1865; Issue 2,229: "The Sheffield
Sheffield
party, however, eventually took a lead, and through some scientific movements of Mr J Wild, scored a goal amid great cheering" ^ Bell's life in london, November 26, 1865, issue 2275: "We cannot help recording the really scientific play with which the Sheffield
Sheffield
men backed each other up ^ Wall, Sir Frederick (2005). 50 Years of Football, 1884–1934. Soccer Books Limited. ISBN 1-86223-116-8.  ^ [Cox, Richard (2002) The encyclopaedia of British Football, Routledge, United Kingdom] ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 18 December 1869 ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 5 November 1870, issue 2 ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 18 November 1871, issue 2, 681 ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 17 February 1872, issue 2694 ^ The Derby Mercury (Derby, England), Wednesday, March 20, 1872; Issue 8226 ^ Murphy, Brendan (2007). From Sheffield
Sheffield
with Love. Sports Book Limited. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-899807-56-7.  ^ Association Football, chapter by CW Alcock, The English Illustrated Magazine 1891, page 287 ^ Harvey, Adrian (2005). Football, the First Hundred Years. Routledge. pp. 273, ref 34–119. ISBN 0-415-35019-0.  ^ Csanadi Arpad, Hungerian coaching manual "Soccer", Corvina, Budapest 1965 ^ Wilson Jonathon, Inverting the pyramid: a History of Football Tactics, Orion, 2008 ^ " Football
Football
Association tribute to the Cambridge Rules". Retrieved 5 January 2015.  ^ Harvey, Adrian (2005). Football, the First Hundred Years. Routledge. pp. 95–99. ISBN 0-415-35019-0.  ^ Murphy, Brendan (2007). From Sheffield
Sheffield
with Love. Sports Book Limited. pp. 41–43. ISBN 978-1-899807-56-7.  ^ "Letter from Tom Wills". MCG website. Archived from the original on June 25, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-14.  ^ "The Origins of Australian Rules Football". MCG website. Archived from the original on June 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-22.  ^ Hibbins, Gillian; Mancini, Anne (1987). Running with the Ball: Football's Foster Father. Lynedoch Publications. pp. 118–119. ISBN 0-7316-0481-4.  ^ Peter Shortell. Hacking – a history Archived 2008-04-03 at the Wayback Machine., Cornwall Referees Society Archived March 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., 2 October 2006 ^ "soccer, n". Oxford English Dictionary. June 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2011.  ^ Meacham, Scott (2006). "Old Division Football, The Indigenous Mob Soccer Of Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
(pdf)" (PDF). dartmo.com. Retrieved 2007-05-16.  ^ a b c d e "No Christian End!" (PDF). The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football
Football
to 1889. Professional Football Researchers Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-06-11. Retrieved 2010-01-26.  ^ Allaway, Roger (2001). "Were the Oneidas playing soccer or not?". The USA Soccer History Archives. Dave Litterer. Retrieved 2007-05-15.  ^ "Canadian Football
Football
Timelines (1860– present)". Football
Football
Canada. Archived from the original on February 28, 2007. Retrieved 2006-12-23.  ^ a b "Timeline 1860s". Official Site of the Canadian Football
Football
League. Canadian Football
Football
League. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2010.  ^ "The History of Football". The History of Sports. Saperecom. 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-15.  ^ "1800s". Rutgers Through The Years. Rutgers University. Archived from the original on 2007-01-20. Retrieved 2007-05-16.  ^ "No Christian End! The Beginnings of Football
Football
in America" (PDF). The Professional Football
Football
Researchers Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-06-11.  ^ "History – CFL.ca – Official Site of the Canadian Football League". CFL.ca. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ "gridiron football (sport)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. britannica.com. Retrieved 13 July 2010.  ^ a b "Camp and His Followers: American Football
Football
1876–1889" (PDF). The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football
Football
to 1889. Professional Football
Football
Researchers Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-13. Retrieved 2010-01-26.  ^ Bennett, Tom (1976). The Pro Style: The Complete Guide to Understanding National Football
Football
League Strategy. Los Angeles: National Football
Football
League Properties, Inc., Creative Services Division. p. 20.  ^ Watterson, John (2001). "Tiny Maxwell and the Crisis of 1905: The Making of a Gridiron Myth" (PDF). College Football
Football
Historical Society. LA 84 Foundation: 54–57. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-08-08. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Vancil, Mark (Ed.) (2000). ABC Sports College Football
Football
All-Time All-America Team. New York: Hyperion Books. p. 18. ISBN 0-7868-6710-8.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-09-22. Retrieved 2015-01-18.  History of the Grey Cup ^ CFL.ca History, Timeline, 1920 Archived June 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "History of the RFU". RFU. Archived from the original on 22 April 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2011.  ^ "The governing body is the "Fédération de soccer du Québec"". Federation-soccer.qc.ca. Archived from the original on 2012-03-04. Retrieved 2012-04-16.  ^ Stories Soccer to become football in Australia (SMH.com.au. December 17, 2004) "ASA chairman Frank Lowy said the symbolic move would bring Australia into line with the vast majority of other countries which call the sport football." ^ "NZ Football
Football
– The Local Name Of The Global Game". NZFootball.co.nz. April 27, 2006. Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. The international game is called football and were part of the international game so the game in New Zealand should be called football  ^ "new name & logo for Samoan football". Sportingpulse.com. 2009-11-28. Retrieved 2012-04-16.  ^ " Football
Football
progress in Samoa". Samoaobserver.ws. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012.  ^ " FIFA
FIFA
Survey: approximately 250 million footballers worldwide" (PDF). FIFA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2006. Retrieved 15 September 2006.  ^ "2006 FIFA
FIFA
World Cup broadcast wider, longer and farther than ever before". FIFA. 6 February 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2009.  ^ Mueller, Frederick; Cantu, Robert; Van Camp, Steven (1996). "Team Sports". Catastrophic Injuries in High School and College Sports. Champaign: Human Kinetics. p. 57. ISBN 0-87322-674-7. Soccer is the most popular sport in the world and is an industry worth over US$400 billion world wide. 80% of this is generated in Europe, though its popularity is growing in the United States. It has been estimated that there were 22 million soccer players in the world in the early 1980s, and that number is increasing. In the United States soccer is now a major sport at both the high school and college levels  ^ "As American as Mom, Apple Pie and Football?". Harris Interactive. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.  ^ Peralta, Eyder (2 February 2015). " Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLIX Was Most Watched Show In TV History". NPR. Retrieved 18 June 2015.  ^ "4174.0 – Sports Attendance, Australia, April 1999". Abs.gov.au. Retrieved 19 February 2010.  ^ "4174.0 – Sports Attendance, Australia, 2005–06". Abs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. Retrieved 19 February 2010.  ^ "The Social Significance of Sport" (PDF). The Economic and Social Research Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 October 2008. Retrieved 21 October 2008.  ^ "Initiative's latest ViewerTrack™ study shows that in Ireland GAA and soccer still dominate the sporting arena, while globally the Super Bowl was the most watched sporting event of 2005". Finfacts.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011.  ^ The first game of American football
American football
is widely cited as a game played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams, Rutgers and Princeton. But the game was played under rules based on the association football rules of the time. During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby code. ^ In 1845, the first rules of rugby were written by Rugby School pupils. But various rules of rugby had existed until the foundation of the Rugby Football Union
Rugby Football Union
in 1871. ^ There are Canadian rules [1] established by Football
Football
Canada. Apart from this, there are also rules [2] established by IFAF. ^ Some historians support the theory that the primary influence was rugby football and other games emanating from English public schools. On the other hand, there are also historians who support the theory that Australian rules football
Australian rules football
and Gaelic Football
Football
have some common origins. See Origins of Australian rules football. ^ Summers, Mark. "The Disability Football
Football
Directory".  ^ Fagan, Sean (2006). "Breaking The Codes". RL1908.com. Archived from the original on 21 October 2006. 

References

Find more aboutFootballat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Eisenberg, Christiane and Pierre Lanfranchi, eds. (2006): Football History: International Perspectives; Special
Special
Issue, Historical Social Research 31, no. 1. 312 pages. Green, Geoffrey (1953); The History of the Football
Football
Association; Naldrett Press, London Mandelbaum, Michael (2004); The Meaning of Sports; Public Affairs, ISBN 1-58648-252-1 Williams, Graham (1994); The Code War; Yore Publications, ISBN 1-874427-65-8

v t e

Team sports

Sport Governing bodies Sportspeople National sport

Basket sports

Basketball

beach deaf 3x3 water wheelchair

Cestoball Korfball Netball

Fast5 indoor wheelchair

Rezball Ringball Slamball

Football
Football
codes

Association football

amputee beach freestyle Futsal indoor Jorkyball paralympic powerchair roller street walking

Australian rules football

AFLX Lightning football Metro footy Nine-a-side Rec footy

Gaelic football

Ladies'

Circle rules football

Gridiron codes

American football

eight-man flag nine-man six-man sprint touch wheelchair

Canadian football Indoor American football

Arena football

Hybrid codes

Austus Eton wall game International rules football Samoa rules Speedball Swedish football Universal football Volata

Medieval football
Medieval football
codes

Ba game Caid Calcio fiorentino Camping Cnapan Cornish hurling Cuju Harpastum Kemari Ki-o-rahi Jegichagi La soule Lelo burti Marn grook Pasuckuakohowog Royal Shrovetide Uppies and downies Yubi lakpi

Rugby codes

Beach Rugby league

masters mod nines sevens tag wheelchair

Rugby union

American flag mini sevens snow tag touch tens

Touch Wheelchair

Bat-and-ball games

Baseball Brännboll British baseball Corkball Cricket

One Day Test Twenty20

Danish longball Indoor cricket Kickball Lapta Matball Oină Over-the-line Pesäpallo Rounders Softball

Fastpitch

Stickball Stoolball Town ball Vigoro Vitilla Wiffle ball Wireball

Stick and ball sports

Bando Cammag Hurling

Camogie Super11s Shinty–Hurling

Indigenous North American stickball Iomain Knattleikr Knotty Lacrosse

box/indoor field intercrosse women's

Ritinis Shinty

Shinty–Hurling

Hockey
Hockey
sports

Ball hockey Bandy

rink

Broomball

Moscow

Field hockey

indoor

Floor hockey Floorball Ice hockey

pond power ice sledge underwater

Ringette Rinkball Roller hockey

in-line quad

Rossall hockey Shinny Street hockey Underwater hockey Unicycle hockey

Polo
Polo
sports

Auto polo Cowboy polo Cycle polo Elephant polo Horseball Motoball Pato Polo

Arena polo chovgan snow polo

Polocrosse Segway polo Yak polo

Net sports

Ball badminton Beach
Beach
tennis Biribol Bossaball Fistball Footbag
Footbag
net Football
Football
tennis Footvolley Jianzi Jokgu Newcomb ball Peteca Sepak takraw Throwball Volleyball

beach paralympic

Other sports

Airsoft Angleball Balle à la main Ballon au poing Basque pelota

frontenis jai alai xare

Bo-taoshi Boules

Bocce Bocce
Bocce
volo Boccia Bowls Jeu provençal Pétanque Raffa

Buzkashi Combat (juggling) Curling

wheelchair

Cycle ball Digor Dodgeball Flickerball Gateball Goalball Guts Handball

beach Czech field

Hornussen Ice stock sport Jereed Kabaddi

indoor beach

Kho kho Kin-Ball Lagori Longue paume Makura-Nage Mesoamerican ballgame Paintball Pelota mixteca Prisonball Pushball Quidditch Rollball Roller derby Slahal Snow snake Synchronized skating Synchronized swimming Tamburello Tchoukball

beach

Tejo Tug of war Ulama Ultimate Underwater football Underwater rugby Valencian pilota

Llargues

Water polo

canoe inner tube beach

Waboba Whirlyball W

.