IRISH TRADITIONAL MUSIC (also known as IRISH TRAD, IRISH FOLK MUSIC, and other variants) is a genre of folk music that developed in Ireland .
In A History of Irish Music (1905),
W. H. Grattan Flood wrote that,
There are several collections of Irish folk music from the 18th century, but it was not until the 19th century that ballad printers became established in Dublin. Important collectors include Colm Ó Lochlainn , George Petrie , Edward Bunting , Francis O\'Neill , James Goodman and many others. Though solo performance is preferred in the folk tradition, bands or at least small ensembles have probably been a part of Irish music since at least the mid-19th century, although this is a point of much contention among ethnomusicologists.
Irish traditional music has endured more strongly against the forces
of cinema, radio and the mass media than the indigenous folk music of
most European countries. This was possibly because the country was not
a geographical battleground in either of the two world wars. Another
potential factor was that the economy was largely agricultural, where
oral tradition usually thrives. From the end of the second world war
until the late fifties folk music was held in low regard. Comhaltas
Ceoltóirí Éireann (an
Irish traditional music association) and the
popularity of the
Historically much old-time music of the USA grew out of the music of Ireland, England and Scotland, as a result of cultural diffusion . By the 1970s Irish traditional music was again influencing music in the USA and further afield in Australia and Europe. It has occasionally been fused with rock and roll , punk rock and other genres.
* 1 Music for singing * 2 Caoineadh songs (laments) * 3 Music for dancing
* 4 Instruments used in traditional Irish music
* 5 Revivals of traditional Irish music
* 5.1 Late 19th century revival and the early 20th century
* 5.2 Second revival in the 1960s and 70s
* 6 Audio samples * 7 Pub sessions * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links
MUSIC FOR SINGING
Like all traditional music , Irish folk music has changed slowly. Most folk songs are less than two hundred years old. One measure of its age is the language used. Modern Irish songs are written in English and Irish . Most of the oldest songs and tunes are rural in origin and come from the older Irish language tradition. Modern songs and tunes often come from cities and towns, Irish songs went from the Irish language to the English language.
Unaccompanied vocals are called sean nós ("in the old style") and are considered the ultimate expression of traditional singing. This is usually performed solo (very occasionally as a duet). Sean-nós singing is highly ornamented and the voice is placed towards the top of the range. A true sean-nós singer will vary the melody of every verse, but not to the point of interfering with the words, which are considered to have as much importance as the melody. To the first-time listener, accustomed to pop and classical singers, sean-nós often sounds more "Arabic", "Persian" or "Indian" than "Western". Photograph of Patrick Byrne, harper, by Hill Irish dance music is isometric . This makes for an eminently danceable music, and Irish dance has been widely exported abroad. 16 measures are known as a "step", with one 8 bar strain for a "right foot" and the second for the "left foot" of the step. Tunes that are not so evenly divided are called "crooked ". The Haymakers jig
Traditional dances and tunes include reels (4 4), hornpipes (4 4 with swung eighth notes), and jigs (double and single jigs are in 6 8 time), as well as imported waltzes , mazurkas , polkas , and highlands or barndances (a sort of Irish version of the Scottish strathspey ). Jigs come in various other forms for dancing – the slip jig and hop jig or single jig are commonly written in 9 8 time, the slide in 12 8. (The dance the hop jig is no longer performed under the auspices of An Coimisiun .) The forms of jig danced in hardshoe are known as double or treble jigs (for the doubles/trebles performed with the tip of the hardshoe), and the jigs danced in ghillies are known as light jigs.
Polkas are a type of 2
4 tune mostly found in the
Sliabh Luachra area, at the border of Cork
and Kerry, in the south of Ireland. Another distinctive
The concept of "style" is of large importance to Irish traditional musicians. At the start of the last century, distinct variation in regional styles of performance existed. With increased communications and travel opportunities, regional styles have become more standardised, with soloists aiming now to create their own, unique, distinctive style, often hybrids of whatever other influences the musician has chosen to include within their style.
Due to the importance placed on the melody in Irish music, harmony is typically kept simple (although, fitting with the melodic structure of most Irish tunes, this usually does not mean a "basic" I–IV-V chord progression), and instruments are played in strict unison , always following the leading player. True counterpoint is mostly unknown to traditional music, although a form of improvised "countermelody " is often used in the accompaniments of bouzouki and guitar players. Much of the local character of a style comes from the type of decoration that is added to a tune.
INSTRUMENTS USED IN TRADITIONAL IRISH MUSIC
The most common instruments used in Irish traditional dance music,
whose history goes back several hundred years, are the fiddle, tin
whistle, flute and
The word bodhrán , indicating a drum, is first mentioned in a translated English document in the 17th century. The saxophone featured in recordings from the early 20th century most notably in Paddy Killoran's Pride of Erin Orchestra. Céilidh bands of the 1940s often included a drum set and stand-up bass as well as saxophones. Traditional harp-playing died out in the late 18th century, and was revived by the McPeake Family of Belfast, Derek Bell , Mary O\'Hara and others in the mid-20th century. Although often encountered, it plays a fringe role in Irish Traditional dance music.
The piano is commonly used for accompaniment. In the early 20th century piano accompaniment was prevalent on the 78rpm records featuring Michael Coleman, James Morrison, John McKenna, PJ Conlon and many more. On many of these recordings the piano accompaniment was woeful because the backers were unfamiliar with Irish music. However, Morrison avoided using the studio piano players and hand-picked his own. The vamping style used by these piano backers has largely remained. There has been a few recent innovators such as Mícheál Ó Súilleabháin, Brian McGrath, Liam Bradley, Josephine Keegan, Ryan Molloy and others. A fiddle and bow
One of the most important instruments in the traditional repertoire,
the fiddle (or violin – there is no physical difference) is played
differently in widely varying regional styles. It uses the standard
GDAE tuning. The best-known regional fiddling traditions are from
The fiddling tradition of
Notable fiddlers from Clare include Mary Custy , Yvonne Casey, Paddy Canny , Bobby Casey , John Kelly , Patrick Kelly , Peadar O\'Loughlin , Pat O'Connor, Martin Hayes and P. Joe Hayes .
Donegal has produced James Byrne , Vincent Campbell , John Doherty , and Con Cassidy.
Sliabh Luachra, a small area between Kerry and Cork , is known for Julia Clifford , her brother Denis Murphy , Sean McGuire , Paddy Cronin and Padraig O\'Keeffe . Contemporary fiddlers from Sliabh Luachra include Matt Cranitch , Gerry Harrington and Connie O\'Connell , while Dubliner Séamus Creagh , actually from Westmeath, is imbued in the local style.
Modern performers include Kevin Burke , Máire Breatnach , Matt Cranitch , Paddy Cronin , Frankie Gavin , Paddy Glackin , Cathal Hayden , Martin Hayes , Peter Horan , Sean Keane , James Kelly , Mairéad Ní Mhaonaigh , Brendan Mulvihill , Máiréad Nesbitt , Gerry O\'Connor , Caoimhín Ó Raghallaigh , and Paul O\'Shaughnessy .
FLUTE AND WHISTLE
The flute has been an integral part of Irish traditional music since roughly the middle of the 19th century, when art musicians largely abandoned the wooden simple-system flute (having a conical bore, and fewer keys) for the metal Boehm system flutes of present-day classical music.
Although the choice of the Albert-system, wooden flute over the metal was initially driven by the fact that, being "outdated" castoffs, the old flutes were available cheaply second-hand, the wooden instrument has a distinct sound and continues to be commonly preferred by traditional musicians to this day. A number of excellent players— Joanie Madden being perhaps the best known—use the Western concert flute , but many others find that the simple system flute best suits traditional fluting. Original flutes from the pre-Boehm era continue in use, but since the 1960s a number of craftsmen have revived the art of wooden flute making. Some flutes are even made of PVC ; these are especially popular with new learners and as travelling instruments, being both less expensive than wooden instruments and far more resistant to changes in humidity. A (keyless) Irish flute
The tin whistle or metal whistle, which with its nearly identical fingering might be called a cousin of the simple-system flute, is also popular. It was mass-produced in 19th century Manchester England, as an inexpensive instrument. Clarke whistles almost identical to the first ones made by that company are still available, although the original version, pitched in C, has mostly been replaced for traditional music by that pitched in D, the "basic key" of traditional music. The other common design consists of a barrel made of seamless tubing fitted into a plastic or wooden mouthpiece .
Skilled craftsmen make fine custom whistles from a range of materials including not only aluminium, brass, and steel tubing but synthetic materials and tropical hardwoods; despite this, more than a few longtime professionals stick with ordinary factory made whistles.
Irish schoolchildren are generally taught the rudiments of playing on the tin whistle, just as school children in many other countries are taught the soprano recorder. At one time the whistle was thought of by many traditional musicians as merely a sort of "beginner's flute", but that attitude has disappeared in the face of talented whistlers such as Mary Bergin , whose classic early seventies recording Feadóga Stáin (with bouzouki accompaniment by Alec Finn ) is often credited with revolutionising the whistle's place in the tradition.
The low whistle , a derivative of the common tin whistle, is also popular, although some musicians find it less agile for session playing than the flute or the ordinary D whistle.
Notable present-day flute-players (sometimes called 'flautists' or
Matt Molloy ,
Kevin Crawford ,
Peter Horan ,
Michael McGoldrick , Desi Wilkinson, Conal O'Grada, James Carty, Emer
Joanie Madden ,
Michael Tubridy and
The uilleann pipes play a prominent part in a form of instrumental
music called Fonn Mall , closely related to unaccompanied singing an
sean nós ("in the old style"). Willie Clancy ,
Leo Rowsome , and
Garret Barry were among the many pipers famous in their day; Paddy
A medieval clarsach in the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh Main article: Cláirseach
The harp is among the chief symbols of Ireland. The Celtic harp, seen on Irish coinage and used in Guinness advertising, was played as long ago as the 10th century. In ancient times, the harpers were greatly respected and, along with poets and scribes, assigned a high place amongst the most significant retainers of the old Gaelic order of lords and chieftains. Perhaps the best known representative of this tradition of harping today is Turlough Ó Carolan , a blind 18th century harper who is often considered the unofficial national composer of Ireland. Thomas Connellan , a slightly earlier Sligo harper, composed such well known airs as "The Dawning of the Day "/"Raglan Road" and "Carolan's Dream".
The native Irish harping tradition was an aristocratic art music with its own canon and rules for arrangement and compositional structure, only tangentially associated with the folkloric music of the common people, the ancestor of present-day Irish traditional music. Some of the late exponents of the harping tradition, such as O'Carolan, were influenced by the Italian Baroque art music of such composers as Vivaldi, which could be heard in the theatres and concert halls of Dublin. The harping tradition did not long outlast the native Gaelic aristocracy which supported it. By the early 19th century, the Irish harp and its music were for all intents and purposes dead. Tunes from the harping tradition survived only as unharmonised melodies which had been picked up by the folkloric tradition, or were preserved as notated in collections such as Edward Bunting 's, (he attended the Belfast Harp Festival in 1792) in which the tunes were most often modified to make them fit for the drawing room pianofortes of the Anglicised middle and upper classes.
The first generations of 20th century revivalists, mostly playing the gut-strung (frequently replaced with nylon after the Second World War) neo-Celtic harp with the pads of their fingers rather than the old brass-strung harp plucked with long fingernails, tended to take the dance tunes and song airs of Irish traditional music, along with such old harp tunes as they could find, and applied to them techniques derived from the orchestral (pedal) harp and an approach to rhythm, arrangement, and tempo that often had more in common with mainstream classical music than with either the old harping tradition or the living tradition of Irish music. A separate Belfast tradition of harp-accompanied folk-singing was preserved by the McPeake Family. Over the past thirty years a revival of the early Irish harp has been growing, with replicas of the medieval instruments being played, using strings of brass, silver, and even gold. This revival grew through the work of a number of musicians including Arnold Dolmetsch in 1930s England, Alan Stivell in 1960s Brittany, and most importantly Ann Heymann in the USA from the 1970s to the present.
Notable players of the modern harp include Derek Bell (of The Chieftains ), Laoise Kelly (of The Bumblebees ), Gráinne Hambly , Máire Ní Chathasaigh , Mary O\'Hara , Antoinette McKenna , Michael Rooney, Áine Minogue , Patrick Ball and Bonnie Shaljean . The best of these have a solid background in genuine Irish traditional music, often having strong competency on another instrument more common in the living tradition, such as the fiddle or concertina, and work very hard at adapting the harp to traditional music, as well as reconstructing what they can of the old harpers' music on the basis of the few manuscript sources which exist. However, the harp continues to occupy a place on the fringe of Irish traditional music.
ACCORDION AND CONCERTINA
The accordion plays a major part in modern Irish music. The accordion
Modern Irish accordion players generally prefer the 2 row button accordion. Unlike similar accordions used in other European and American music traditions, the rows are tuned a semi-tone apart. This allows the instrument to be played chromatically in melody. Currently accordions tuned to the keys of B/C and C#/D are by far the most popular systems.
The B/C accordion lends itself to a flowing style; it was popularised
by Paddy O\'Brien of
The C#/D accordion lends itself to a punchier style and is particularly popular in the slides and polkas of Kerry Music. Notable players include Tony MacMahon , Máirtín O\'Connor , Sharon Shannon , Charlie Piggott , Jackie Daly , Joe Cooley and Johnny O\'Leary .
The piano accordion became highly popular during the 1950s and has flourished to the present day in céilí bands and for old time Irish dance music. Their greater range, ease of changing key, more fluent action, along with their strong musette tuning blended seamlessly with the other instruments and were highly valued during this period. They are the mainstay of the top Irish and Scottish ceilidh bands, including the County Antrim-based Haste to the Wedding Celidh Band , the Gallowglass Céilí Band , the Fitzgerald Céilí Band , Dermot O\'Brien , Malachy Doris , Sean Quinn and Mick Foster are well known Irish solo masters of this instrument and were well recorded. The latest revival of traditional music from the late 1970s also revived the interest in this versatile instrument. Like the button key accordion, a new playing style has emerged with a dry tuning , lighter style of playing and a more rhythmically varied bass. The most notable players of this modern style are Karen Tweed (England) and Alan Kelly (Roscommon). English concertina made by Wheatstone around 1920.
Concertinas are manufactured in several types, the most common in Irish traditional music being the Anglo system with a few musicians now playing the English system. Each differs from the other in construction and playing technique. The most distinctive characteristic of the Anglo system is that each button sounds a different note, depending on whether the bellows are compressed or expanded. Anglo concertinas typically have either two or three rows of buttons that sound notes, plus an "air button" located near the right thumb that allows the player to fill or empty the bellows without sounding a note.
Two-row Anglo concertinas usually have 20 buttons that sound notes. Each row of 10 buttons comprises notes within a common key. The two primary rows thus contain the notes of two musical keys, such as C and G. Each row is divided in two with five buttons playing lower-pitched notes of the given key on the left-hand end of the instrument and five buttons playing the higher pitched notes on the right-hand end. The row of buttons in the higher key is closer to the wrist of each hand. 20 key concertinas have a limited use for Irish traditional music due to the limited range of accidentals available.
Three-row concertinas add a third row of accidentals (i.e., sharps and flats not included in the keys represented by the two main rows) and redundant notes (i.e., notes that duplicate those in the main keys but are located in the third, outermost row) that enable the instrument to be played in virtually any key. A series of sequential notes can be played in the home-key rows by depressing a button, compressing the bellows, depressing the same button and extending the bellows, moving to the next button and repeating the process, and so on. A consequence of this arrangement is that the player often encounters occasions requiring a change in bellows direction, which produces a clear separation between the sounds of the two adjacent notes. This tends to give the music a more punctuated, bouncy sound that can be especially well suited to hornpipes or jigs.
English concertinas, by contrast, sound the same note for any given button, irrespective of the direction of bellows travel. Thus, any note can be played while the bellows is either expanded or compressed. As a consequence, sequential notes can be played without altering the bellows direction. This allows sequences of notes to be played in a smooth, continuous stream without the interruption of changing bellows direction.
Despite the inherent bounciness of the Anglo and the inherent smoothness of the English concertina systems, skilled players of Irish traditional music can achieve either effect on each type of instrument by adapting the playing style. On the Anglo, for example, the notes on various rows partially overlap and the third row contains additional redundant notes, so that the same note can be sounded with more than one button. Often, whereas one button will sound a given note on bellows compression, an alternative button in a different row will sound the same note on bellows expansion. Thus, by playing across the rows, the player can avoid changes in bellows direction from note to note where the musical objective is a smoother sound. Likewise, the English system accommodates playing styles that counteract its inherent smoothness and continuity between notes. Specifically, when the music calls for it, the player can choose to reverse bellows direction, causing sequential notes to be more distinctly articulated. The banjo being played by Mick Moloney
Popular concertina players include Niall Vallely , Kitty Hayes , Mícheál Ó Raghallaigh , Tim Collins , Gearóid Ó hAllmhuráin , Mary MacNamara , Noel Hill , Kate McNamara and Padraig Rynne . Liam Clancy (of The Clancy Brothers and Makem and Clancy ) also played the concertina until his death in 2009.
Main article: Banjo
The four-string tenor banjo is played as a melody instrument by Irish
traditional players, and is commonly tuned GDAE, an octave below the
fiddle. It was brought to
Barney McKenna of
The Dubliners is often credited with paving the way
for the banjo's current popularity, and was, until his death at age
72, actively playing. Notable players include
Kieran Hanrahan ,
Charlie Piggott , John Carty , Angelina Carberry, Gerry O'Connor,
Kevin Griffin and current All
With a few exceptions, for example Tom Hanway , the five-string banjo has had little role in Irish traditional music as a melody instrument. It has been used for accompaniment by the singers Margaret Barry , Pecker Dunne , Luke Kelly , Al O'Donnell, Bobby Clancy and Tommy Makem . Example of an A-4-style mandolin (oval hole)
The mandolin is becoming a somewhat more common instrument amongst Irish traditional musicians. Fiddle tunes are readily accessible to the mandolin player because of the equivalent range of the two instruments and the practically identical (allowing for the lack of frets on the fiddle) left hand fingerings.
Although almost any variety of acoustic mandolin might be adequate for Irish traditional music, virtually all Irish players prefer flat-backed instruments with oval sound holes to the Italian-style bowl-back mandolins or the carved-top mandolins with f-holes favoured by bluegrass mandolinists. The former are often too soft-toned to hold their own in a session (as well as having a tendency to not stay in place on the player's lap), whilst the latter tend to sound harsh and overbearing to the traditional ear. Greatly preferred for formal performance and recording are flat-topped "Irish-style" mandolins (reminiscent of the WWI-era Martin Army-Navy mandolin) and carved (arch) top mandolins with oval soundholes, such as the Gibson A-style of the 1920s. Resonator mandolins such as the RM-1 from National Resophonic are beginning to show up in Irish sessions in the US because they are loud enough to easily be heard.
Noteworthy Irish mandolinists include Andy Irvine (who, like Johnny Moynihan , almost always tunes the E down to D), Mick Moloney , Paul Kelly , Declan Corey and Claudine Langille. John Sheahan and Barney McKenna , fiddle player and tenor banjo player respectively, with The Dubliners are also accomplished mandolin players.
The guitar is not traditional in Irish music but has become widely accepted in modern sessions . These are usually strummed with a plectrum (pick) to provide backing for the melody players or, sometimes, a singer. Irish backing tends to use chord voicings up and down the neck, rather than basic first or second position "cowboy chords"; unlike those used in jazz, these chord voicings seldom involve barre fingerings and often employ one or more open strings in combination with strings stopped at the fifth or higher frets. Modal (root and fifth without the third, neither major nor minor) chords are used extensively alongside the usual major and minor chords, as are suspended and sometimes more exotic augmented chords; however, the major and minor seventh chords are less employed than in many other styles of music.
Ideally, the guitarist follows the leading melody player or singer precisely rather than trying to control the rhythm and tempo. Most guitar parts take inspiration and direction from the melody, rather than driving the melody as in other acoustic genres.
Many of the earliest notable guitarists working in traditional music, such as Dáithí Sproule and The Bothy Band 's Mícheál Ó Domhnaill , tuned their instruments in "DADGAD" tuning, although many players use the "standard" (EADGBE) and "drop D" (DADGBE) tunings: among others, Steve Cooney , Arty McGlynn and John Doyle . A host of other alternative tunings are also used by some players. The distinctive feature of these tunings is that one or more open strings played along with fingered chord shapings provide a drone note part of the chord.
Guitarists and bouzouki players may play single note melody instead of harmonizing accompaniment, but in live acoustic sessions with more than two or three players but it is difficult to produce sufficient volume to be heard over drumming and the piercing sound of fiddles and penny whistles.
Although not traditional, the
BODHRáN AND OTHER PERCUSSION
A frame drum , usually of bent wood and goatskin, the bodhrán is
considered a relatively modern addition to traditional dance music.
Some musicologists suggest its use was originally confined to the
wrenboys on St. Stephen\'s Day and other quasi-ritual processions. It
was introduced/popularised in the 1960s by
Seán Ó Riada (although
there are mentions of "tambourines" without zils being played as early
as the mid 19th century), and quickly became popular. Notable players
Liam Ó Maonlaí
Mention should also be made here of the Bones – two slender, curved pieces of bone or wood – and "spoons". Pairs of either are held together in one hand and struck-together rhythmically to make a percussive, clacking sound.
Occasionally, at pub sessions, there are some non-traditional hand drums used, such as the West African Djembe drum – which can produce a low booming bass note, as well as a high pitched tone – and the Caribbean Bongo drum . These drums are used as a variation to, or combined with, the bodhrán during sessions.
Main article: Harmonica
Although not as well-documented within the tradition as other free-reed instruments, the Irish harmonica tradition is represented by Rick Epping , Mick Kinsella, Paul Moran, the Murphy family from County Wexford, Eddie Clarke and Brendan Power (the latter being of New Zealand ). Paddy Clancy became the first world-famous Irish folk harmonicist in the early 1960s as part of The Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem.
REVIVALS OF TRADITIONAL IRISH MUSIC
LATE 19TH CENTURY REVIVAL AND THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY
The revival of interest in Irish traditional culture was closely linked to Nationalist calls for independence and was catalysed by the foundation of the Gaelic League in 1893. This sought to encourage the rediscovery and affirmation of Irish traditional arts by focusing upon the Irish language, but also established an annual competition, the Feis Cheoil, in 1903 as a focus for its activities.
In the US, traditional musicians remained popular in Irish communities in large cities. Francis O\'Neill (1848–1936) was a collector and promoter of Irish traditional music whose work was a "huge influence on the evolution of Irish traditional dance music in the twentieth century". In the 1920s and 1930s the records of emigrant musicians such as Ed Reavy , Michael Coleman, James Morrison and John McKenna breathed new life into music being played back in Ireland.
Religion also played a role in the re-development of Irish culture. The actual achievement of independence from Britain tallied closely with a new Irish establishment desire to separate Irish culture from the European mainstream, but the new Irish government also paid heed to clerical calls to curtail 'jazz dancing' and other suggestions of a dereliction in Irish morality—though it was not until 1935 that the Public Dance Halls Act curtailed the right of anyone to hold their own events; from then on, no public musical or dancing events could be held in a public space without a license and most of those were usually only granted to 'suitable' persons – often the parish priest.
Combined with continued emigration, and the priesthood's inevitable zeal in closing down un-licensed events, the upshot was to drive traditional music and dancing back into the cottage where it remained until returning migrants persuaded pub owners to host sessions in the early 1960s.
SECOND REVIVAL IN THE 1960S AND 70S
Seán Ó Riada 's
The Chieftains ,
The Clancy Brothers , The Irish
The Dubliners and Sweeney\'s Men were in large part
responsible for a second wave of revitalisation of Irish folk music in
the 1960s, followed by
The 1960s saw a number of innovative performers.
By the 70s,
In the 1980s, major folk bands included
Irish harmonica tune Recording from the Library of Congress' California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties Collection; performed by Aaron Morgan (harmonica) on 17 July 1939 in Columbia, California -------------------------
Problems playing this file? See media help .
A place to hear traditional Irish music as part of a living and evolving tradition is at Ionad Cultúrtha, which is a regional cultural centre for the traditional and contemporary arts in Ballyvourney (near Macroom in County Cork). It holds many music and visual art events and has a very progressive programming policy.
Pub sessions are now the home for much of Irish traditional music,
which takes place at informal gatherings in country and urban pubs.
The first known of these modern pub sessions took place in 1947 in
* List of Irish musicians
Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann
* Sean Nós
* List of All-
* ^ A B A History of Irish Music: Chapter III: Ancient Irish
musical instruments, William H. Grattan Flood (1905)
* ^ Éireann, Comhaltas Ceoltóirí. "Comhaltas: Bodhrán: its
origin, meaning and history". comhaltas.ie.
* ^ Irish
Fiddle Archived 23 May 2008 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Hitchner, Earle. "
Brian Conway is the Irish Echo's top trad
artist for 2008." Irish Echo 28 Jan 2009, monthly ed. n. pag. Print.
Digital edition available at: http://irishecho.com/?p=62163
* ^ Keegan, Niall (2010). "The Parameters of Style in Irish
Traditional Music". Traditional styles and flute music. Inbhear -
Journal of Irish Music and Dance. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
* ^ "North Connacht musicians feature in TG4 show". The Sligo
Champion. 31 October 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
* ^ "Mick Mulvey". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
* ^ Walsh, Tom (7 December 2000). "Pure Piping". Review of Pure
Piping by Leo Rickard (Claddagh CCF33CD). Musical Traditions Internet
Magazine. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
* ^ See also James Boswell: Tour of
* ^ M. Scanlan, Culture and Customs of
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* Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann A global movement promoting Irish traditional music and culture * Irish Traditional Music Archive