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The Fokker
Fokker
F.VII, also known as the Fokker
Fokker
Trimotor, was an airliner produced in the 1920s by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker, Fokker's American subsidiary Atlantic Aircraft Corporation, and other companies under licence.

Contents

1 Design and development 2 Operational history

2.1 Pioneers and explorers

3 Variants

3.1 Licensed copies

4 Operators

4.1 Civilian operators 4.2 Military operators

5 Accidents and incidents 6 Specifications

6.1 Fokker
Fokker
F.VIIb/3m; Atlantic- Fokker
Fokker
C-2A

7 See also 8 References

Design and development[edit] The F.VII was designed as a single-engined transport aircraft by Walter Rethel. Five examples of this model were built for the Dutch airline KLM. One of these planes, registered H-NACC, was used in 1924 for the first flight from the Netherlands
Netherlands
to the Dutch East Indies. In 1925, while living in the US, Anthony Fokker
Fokker
heard of the inaugural Ford Reliability Tour, which was proposed as a competition for transport aircraft. Fokker
Fokker
had the company's head designer, Reinhold Platz, convert a single-engined F.VII A airliner (a 1924 Walter Rethel design) to a trimotor configuration, powered by 200 hp Wright Whirlwind radial engines. The resulting aircraft was designated the Fokker
Fokker
F.VII A/3M. Following shipment to the US, it won the Ford Reliability Tour in late 1925. The Trimotor's structure consisted of a fabric-covered steel-tube fuselage and a plywood-skinned wooden wing.[1] The Fokker
Fokker
F.VII B/3M had a slightly increased wing area over the A/3M, with power increased to 220 hp per engine, while the F.10 was slightly enlarged, carrying 12 passengers in an enclosed cabin. The aircraft became popularly known as the Fokker
Fokker
Trimotor.[2] Operational history[edit] The eight- to 12-passenger Fokker
Fokker
was the aircraft of choice for many early airlines, both in Europe and the Americas and it dominated the American market in the late 1920s. However, the popularity of the Fokker
Fokker
quickly waned after the 1931 crash of a Transcontinental & Western Air Fokker
Fokker
F-10, which resulted in the death of Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne. The investigation revealed problems with the Fokker's plywood-laminate construction, resulted a temporary ban from commercial flights, more stringent maintenance requirements, and a shift to all-metal aircraft such as the similar Ford Trimotor
Ford Trimotor
and later Boeing 247
Boeing 247
and Douglas DC-2.[3] Pioneers and explorers[edit] The F.VII was used by many explorers and aviation pioneers, including:

Richard E. Byrd
Richard E. Byrd
claimed to have flown over the North Pole
North Pole
in the Fokker
Fokker
F.VIIa/3m Josephine Ford on 9 May 1926, a few days before Roald Amundsen accomplished the feat in the airship Norge.[4] Two lieutenants of the United States
United States
Army Air Corps, Lester Maitland and Albert Hegenberger, made the first transpacific flight from the continental United States
United States
to Hawaii
Hawaii
(c. 2,400 mi/3,862 km) in the Atlantic- Fokker
Fokker
C-2 Bird of Paradise on 28–29 June 1927.[4] Also on 29 June 1927, Richard E. Byrd, Bernt Balchen
Bernt Balchen
and two others flew the first official transatlantic airmail in the civilian-owned C-2 America (NX206), crash-landing off the coast of France
France
on 1 July.[5] Lieutenant Colonel 'Dan' Minchin, Captain Leslie Hamilton and Princess Anne of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg attempted on 31 August 1927 to become the first aviators to cross the Atlantic from east to west using a Fokker
Fokker
F.VIIa named the St. Raphael. Their fate remains unknown. James DeWitt Hill
James DeWitt Hill
and Lloyd W. Bertaud
Lloyd W. Bertaud
made a failed attempt to fly from New York to Rome
Rome
in F.VIIa Old Glory when they and the aircraft were lost in the North Atlantic
North Atlantic
7 September 1927. Sir Charles Kingsford Smith's F.VIIb/3m Southern Cross was the first aircraft to cross the Pacific from the United States
United States
to Australia
Australia
in June 1928, and the first to cross the Tasman Sea, flying from Australia
Australia
to New Zealand
New Zealand
and back in September of that year.[6] Amelia Earhart
Amelia Earhart
became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic on 17 June 1928, as a passenger aboard the Fokker
Fokker
F.VIIb/3m Friendship.[4] A group of U. S. Army Air Corps flyers, led by then- Major
Major
Carl Spaatz, set an endurance record of over 150 hours with the Question Mark, a Fokker
Fokker
C-2A over Los Angeles on 1 to 7 January 1929. The purpose of this mission was to set a flight endurance record using aerial refueling.[7]

Variants[edit]

F.VII Single-engined transport aircraft, powered by a 360 hp (268.5 kW) Rolls-Royce Eagle
Rolls-Royce Eagle
piston engine, accommodation for two crew and six passengers; five built. F.VIIa (F.VIIa/1m) Single-engined transport aircraft, slightly larger than F.VII with new undercarriage and wing. Flown on 12 March 1925. First aircraft had 420 hp (310 kW) V-12 Packard Liberty engine but remaining 39 F.VIIa had mostly radial Bristol Jupiter
Bristol Jupiter
or Pratt & Whitney Wasp engines. F.VIIa/3m Version with two additional underwing engines, flown on 4 September 1925. The first two aircraft were identical to the F.VIIa. From the third aircraft, the fuselage was 31 in (80 cm) longer and was powered by 200 hp (149 kW) Wright J-4 Whirlwind
Wright J-4 Whirlwind
radial engines. Probably only 18 were built while many F.VIIa were upgraded to the F.VIIa/3m standard.

First two Fokker
Fokker
F.VIIa were converted into three-engined transport aircraft.

F.VIIb/3m Main production version with greater span; 154 built including built under licence. F.9 American built version of the Fokker
Fokker
F.VIIBb/3m; built by the Atlantic Aircraft Corporation in the United States. Fokker
Fokker
F.10 Enlarged version of the Fokker
Fokker
F.VII airliner, able to carry up to 12 passengers; built by the Atlantic Aircraft Corporation in the United States. C-2 Military transport version of the Fokker
Fokker
F.9, powered by three 220 hp (164 kW) Wright J-5 radial piston engines, accommodation for two pilots and ten passengers; three built in 1926 for the US Army Air Corps. C-2A Military transport version for the US Army Air Corps, with greater wingspan, powered by three 220 hp (164 kW) Wright J-5 radial piston engines, accommodation for two pilots and ten passengers; eight built in 1928. XC-7 One C-2A fitted with three 330 hp (246 kW) Wright J-6-9 radial piston engines. Redesignated C-7 when four C-2A examples were similarly reconfigured. C-7 Military transport conversion of C-2A for the US Army Air Corps by re-engining with 300 hp (220 kW) Wright R-975 engines. XC-7 prototype and four C-2As redesignated in 1931. C-7A Six new production C-7 (Wright R-975) aircraft with larger wings, new vertical fin design, and fuselages patterned after the commercial F.10A. XLB-2 Experimental light bomber version of the C-7, powered by three 410 hp (306 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1380 radial piston engines; one built. TA-1 Military transport version of the US Navy and Marine Corps; three built. TA-2 Military transport version for the US Navy; three built. TA-3 Military transport version for the US Navy, powered by three Wright J-6 radial piston engines; one built. RA-1 Redesignation of the TA-1. RA-2 Redesignation of the TA-2. RA-3 Redesignation of the TA-3.

Licensed copies[edit]

SABCA, 29 aircraft built. Avia, 18 aircraft built. Three aircraft built in Italy
Italy
as the IMAM
IMAM
Ro.10, powered by 3x215hp Alfa Romeo Lynx engines. 3 built for operation by Avio Linee Italiane and Ala Littoria. Plage i Laśkiewicz. Between 1929 and 1930 11 passenger and 20 domestically developed (by Jerzy Rudlicki) bomber aircraft. Three aircraft built in Spain. Avro, 14 aircraft known as Avro
Avro
618 Ten. Atlantic Aircraft Corporation

Operators[edit] Civilian operators[edit]

 Belgium

SABENA
SABENA
operated 28 aircraft.

 Denmark

Det Danske Luftfartselskab
Det Danske Luftfartselskab
operated three F.VIIa aircraft.

 France

CIDNA operated seven F.VIIa aircraft. STAR operated one F.VIIa aircraft.

 Italy

Avio Linee Italiane Ala Littoria

 Hungary

Malert operated two F.VIIa aircraft.

 Netherlands

KLM
KLM
received all five F.VII aircraft and 15 F.VIIas.

 Poland

Aero operated six F.VIIa aircraft for a short period in 1928. Since 1 January 1929, all aircraft were handed over to PLL LOT airline. Polskie Linie Lotnicze LOT operated six F.VIIas and 13 F.VIIb/3ms between 1929 and 1939.

 Portugal

Aero Portuguesa operated one F.VIIb-3m aircraft.

 Romania

CFRNA

 Spain

CLASSA LAPE

  Switzerland

Ad Astra Aero
Ad Astra Aero
at least one F.VIIb-3m Swissair
Swissair
operated one F.VIIa and eight F.VIIb-3m aircraft.

 United States

American Airways, which later became American Airlines. TWA Pan Am
Pan Am
operated F.VIIb/3ms aircraft.

Military operators[edit]

 Belgium

Belgian Air Force

 Belgian Congo

Force Publique

 Independent State of Croatia

Zrakoplovstvo Nezavisne Države Hrvatske

 Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovak Air Force

 Finland

Finnish Air Force
Finnish Air Force
operated one F.VIIa.

 France

French Air Force
French Air Force
- 5 F.VIIa/3m and 2 F.VII/3m aircraft, impressed into military service in 1939/1940.

 Kingdom of Hungary

Royal Hungarian Air Force

 Italy

Regia Aeronautica

 Netherlands

Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Air Force received three bomber F.VIIa/3m aircraft.

 Poland

Polish Air Force
Polish Air Force
operated 21 F.VIIb/3m (20 of them were licence-built) aircraft as bombers and transports between 1929 and 1939.

1 Pułk Lotniczy

211 Eskadra Bombowa 212 Eskadra Bombowa 213 Eskadra Bombowa

 Spanish Republic

Spanish Republican Air Force, operated four aircraft in the squadron of the Sahara and other two in Madrid.

 United States

United States Army Air Corps
United States Army Air Corps
designations include Atlantic- Fokker
Fokker
C-2, C-5 and C-7.[8] United States
United States
Navy and United States
United States
Marine Corps, originally designated TA then RA[9]

 Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Yugoslav Royal Air Force

Accidents and incidents[edit]

On June 21, 1926, a KLM
KLM
F.VII (H-NACL) force-landed at Seabrook Beach, Sandgate near Hythe, Kent, due to fuel exhaustion caused by pilot error; all five on board survived, but the aircraft was written off. On July 9, 1926, a KLM
KLM
F.VII (H-NACC) struck ground in fog at Wolvertem, Belgium, killing both pilots. At 9:44pm on 31 August 1927 the oil tanker SS Josiah Macy reported the last known sighting of the F.VIIa St. Raphael on a trans-atlantic attempt from Upavon, England to Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, piloted by Leslie Hamilton and Frederick F. Minchin, with Princess Anne of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg as passenger. On 7 September 1927, Old Glory disappeared with Lloyd W. Bertaud
Lloyd W. Bertaud
and J. D. Hill at the controls of an attempted transatlantic flight from Old Orchard Beach, Maine
Maine
to Rome, Italy. The flight's last known location was in the North Atlantic, 960 km East of Cape Race, Newfoundland. On September 17, 1927, a Reynolds Airways F.VII (C776) crashed at Dunellen, New Jersey due to loss of control following engine failure, killing seven of 12 on board. The aircraft was formerly operated by KLM
KLM
and had been imported to the United States. On July 4, 1928, Alfred Lowenstein
Alfred Lowenstein
disappeared during a flight over the English Channel
English Channel
in unknown circumstances. On August 15, 1928, a Pan Am
Pan Am
F.VIIa/3m (NC53, General Machado) ditched in the Gulf of Mexico off Egmont Key, Florida. On September 11, 1930, a Sabena
Sabena
F.VII (OO-AIN) crashed on climbout from Croydon Airport
Croydon Airport
due to an in-flight fire, killing both pilots. On December 6, 1931, a KLM
KLM
F.VIIb/3m (PH-AFO) crashed at Bangkok
Bangkok
after failing to take off, killing five of seven on board. On April 3, 1940, a BOAC Avro
Avro
618 Ten (G-AASP, Hercules) crashed on takeoff from Cairo; there were no casualties, but the aircraft was written off. On May 10, 1940, a KLM
KLM
F.VII (PH-ACJ) was destroyed on the ground at Schiphol Airport
Schiphol Airport
by the Luftwaffe during the German invasion of the Netherlands.

Specifications[edit] Fokker
Fokker
F.VIIb/3m; Atlantic- Fokker
Fokker
C-2A[edit] Data from [10] General characteristics

Crew: 2 Capacity: 8 passengers Length: 47 ft 11 in (14.60 m) Wingspan: 71 ft 2 in (21.70 m) Height: 12 ft 8 in (3.90 m) Empty weight: 6,725 lb (3,050 kg) Loaded weight: 11,570 lb (5,200 kg) Powerplant: 3 × Wright J-5 Whirlwind
Wright J-5 Whirlwind
radial engines, 220 hp (164 kW) each

Performance

Cruise speed: 92 kn (170 km/h)

See also[edit]

Alfred Loewenstein, a Belgian financier who fell mysteriously to his death from his private Fokker
Fokker
F.VII

Related development

Avro
Avro
618 Ten Fokker
Fokker
F.10

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Ford Trimotor

Related lists

List of aircraft of World War II List of aircraft of the Finnish Air Force List of military aircraft of the United States List of military aircraft of the United States
United States
(naval) List of civil aircraft

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fokker
Fokker
F.VII.

Notes

^ Thurston, David B. (2000). The World's Most Significant and Magnificent Aircraft: Evolution of the Modern Airplane. SAE. pp. 127–128. ISBN 978-0-7680-0537-0.  ^ " Fokker
Fokker
F-VII." Aeronautics Learning Laboratory. Retrieved: 20 December 2010. ^ Mola, Roger. "Centennial of Flight information on the Fokker
Fokker
crash investigation." centennialofflight.net, 2003. Retrieved: 20 December 2010. ^ a b c Baaker, Leo. "Famous Fokker
Fokker
Flights." tiscali.nl.Retrieved: 20 December 2010. ^ "The Trans-Atlantic Flight of the 'America'." check-six.com, 19 October 2010. Retrieved: 20 December 2010. ^ Naughton, Russell. "The Pioneers - Charles Kingsford Smith." monash.edu.au. Retrieved: 20 December 2010. ^ "Question Mark." Archived 2005-11-09 at the Wayback Machine. USAF Historical Studies Office. Retrieved: 20 December 2010. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Cargo Aircraft Designations." US transports, 11 August 2007. Retrieved: 20 December 2010. ^ Painter, K.M. " Help From The Skies." Popular Mechanics, November 1929. ^ "Fokker." Aero Favourites. Retrieved: 20 December 2010.

Bibliography

Bowers, Peter and Ernest McDowell. Triplanes: A Pictorial History of the World's Triplanes and Multiplanes. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1993. ISBN 0-87938-614-2. Dierikx, Marc. Fokker: A Transatlantic Biography. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. ISBN 1-56098-735-9. Molson, K.M. Pioneering in Canadian Air Transport. Winnipeg: James Richardson & Sons, Ltd., 1974. ISBN 0-919212-39-5. Nevin, David. The Pathfinders (The Epic of Flight Series). Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1980. ISBN 0-8094-3256-0. Postma, Thijs. Fokker: Aircraft Builders to the World. London: Jane's, 1979. ISBN 0-7106-0059-3. Weyl, A.R. Fokker: The Creative Years. London: Putnam, 1965.

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Aircraft produced by Fokker

Company designations pre-1918

M.1 M.2 M.3 M.4 M.5 M.6 M.7 M.8 M.9 M.10 M.14 M.15 M.16 M.17 M.18 M.19 M.21 M.22

V.1 V.2 V.3 V.4 V.5 V.6 V.7 V.8 V.9 V.10 V.11 V.12 V.13 V.14 V.16 V.17 V.18 V.20 V.21 V.22 V.23 V.24 V.25 V.26 V.27 V.28 V.29 V.30 V.31 V.33 V.34 V.35 V.36 V.37 V.38 V.39 V.40 V.41 V.43 V.45

Austro-Hungarian military designations

B.I B.II B.III

German military designations

A.I A.II A.III

C.I

D.I D.II D.III D.IV D.V D.VI D.VII D.VIII

Dr.I

E.I E.II E.III E.IV E.V

F.I

K.I

Company designations post-1918

continuing German military designations:

B.I B.II B.III B.IV B.V

C.II C.III C.IV C.V C.VI C.VII C.VIII C.IX C.X C.XI C.XIV C.XV

D.IX D.X D.XI D.XII D.XIII D.XIV D.XVI D.XVII D.XXI D.XXIII

DC.I

F.II F.III F.IV F.V F.VI F.VII F.VIII F.IX F.X F.XI F.XII F.XIV F.XVIII F.XX F.XXII F.XXIV F.25 F26 F27 F28 F.29

FG.I FG.II FG.III FG.IV

G.I

S.I S.II S.III S.IV S.IX S-11 S-12 S-13 S-14

T.II T.III T.IV T.V T.VIII T.IX

based on seating:

F.XXXVI 50 60 70 100 130

Fokker
Fokker
America

F.7 F.9 Universal Super Universal F.10 F.11 F.14 AF.15 F.18 F.32

United States military designations

Observation:

AO-1 CO-4 XO-27

Transports:

T-2 C-2 C-5 C-7 C-14 C-15 C-16 C-20 C-31 RA

Bombers:

XLB-2 XB-8 FT-1 FT-2

Attack:

XA-7

Fighters:

PW-5 PW-6 PW-7

Ambulance:

A-2

Trainer:

TW-4

v t e

Aircraft produced by OFM, Romeo and IMAM

Ro.1 Ro.5 Ro.10 Ro.26 Ro.30 Ro.35 Ro.37 Ro.41 Ro.43 Ro.44 Ro.51 Ro.57 Ro.58 Ro.63

v t e

United States
United States
military transport aircraft designations, Army/Air Force and Tri-Service systems

Army/Air Force sequence (1925-1962)

C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6 C-7 C-8 C-9 C-10 C-11 C-12 C-131 C-14 C-15 C-16 C-17 C-18 C-19 C-20 C-21 C-22 C-23 C-24 C-25 C-26 C-27 C-28 C-29 C-30 C-31 C-32 C-33 C-34 C-35 C-36 C-37 C-38 C-39 C-40 C-41/A C-42 C-43 C-44 C-45 C-46 C-47/T C-48 C-49 C-50 C-51 C-52 C-53 C-54 C-55 C-56 C-57 C-58 C-59 C-60 C-61 C-62 C-63 C-64 C-65 C-66 C-67 C-68 C-69 C-70/A/B/C/D C-71 C-72 C-73 C-74 C-75 C-76 C-77/B-D C-78 C-79 C-80 C-81 C-82 C-83 C-84 C-85 C-86 C-87 C-88 C-89 C-90 C-91 C-92 C-93 C-94 C-95 C-96 C-97/KC-97 C-98 C-99 C-100 C-101 C-102 C-103 C-104 C-105 C-106 C-107 C-108 C-109 C-110 C-111 C-112 C-113 C-114 C-115 C-116 C-117 C-118 C-119 C-120 C-121/F C-122 C-123/A C-124 C-125 C-126 C-127 (I) C-127 (II) C-128 C-129 C-130/J C-131 C-132 C-133 C-134 C-135/KC-135 C-136 C-137 C-1381 C-1391 C-140 C-141 C-142

Tri-service sequence (1962-present)

C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6 C-7/B C-8 C-9 C-10 C-11 C-12 C-131 C-14 C-15 C-161 C-17 C-18 C-19 C-20A-D/F-H C-21 C-22 C-23 C-24 C-25 C-26 C-27/J C-28 C-29 C-301 C-31 C-32 C-33 C-341 C-35 C-36 C-37A/B C-38 C-391 C-40 C-41 C-421 C-431 C-441 C-45 C-46

Revived original sequence (2005-present)

C-143 C-144 C-145 C-146

Non-sequential designations

C-767 C-880

1 Not assigned See also: AC-47  • AC-119  • AC-130  • DC-130  • EC-130  • HC-130  • KC-130  • LC-130  • MC-130  • WC-130  • CT-39  • CT-43

v t e

United States
United States
Navy/USMC transport designations pre-1931

TA No other designations were assigned in this sequence

v t e

USN/USMC transport designations 1931–1962

Atlantic Aircraft

RA

Budd

RB

Curtiss

RC R2C4 R3C4 R4C R5C

Douglas

RD R2D R3D R4D R5D R6D

Bellanca

RE

Kinner

RK

Kreider-Reisner

RK2 R2K

Martin

RM

Lockheed

RO R2O R3O R4O R5O R6O R7O-1/-2 to "V" (see below, at "Lockheed")

Stinson

RQ R2Q2 R3Q

Fairchild

RQ R2Q R3Q2 R4Q

Ford

RR

Sikorsky

RS

Northrop

RT

Lockheed

from "O" (see above, at "Lockheed") R6V R7V-1/-2 R8V

Convair

RY R2Y R3Y R4Y

1 Not assigned 2 Assigned to a different manufacturer's type 3 Sequence restarted 4 Assigned to a different

.