HOME
        TheInfoList






The focus cities of JetBlue are Boston, Fort Lauderdale, Los Angeles, New York–JFK, Orlando an

In the airline industry, a focus city is a destination from which an airline operates limited point-to-point routes.[20] Ergo, a focus city primarily caters to the local market rather than to connecting passengers.[21][22]

Although the term focus city is used to mainly refer to an airport from which an airline operates limited point-to-point routes, its usage has loosely expanded to refer to a small-scale hub as well.[23] For example, JetBlue's New York–JFK focus city runs like a hub, although in reality it is still deemed by JetBlue as a focus city.[8]

Fortress hub

A fortress hub exists when an airline controls a significant majority of the market at one of its hubs. Competition is particularly difficult at fortress hubs.[24] Examples include Delta Air Lines at Atlanta, American Airlines at Dallas/Fort Worth and United Airlines at Houston–Intercontinental.[25]

Flag carriers have historically enjoyed similar dominance at the

Although the term focus city is used to mainly refer to an airport from which an airline operates limited point-to-point routes, its usage has loosely expanded to refer to a small-scale hub as well.[23] For example, JetBlue's New York–JFK focus city runs like a hub, although in reality it is still deemed by JetBlue as a focus city.[8]

A fortress hub exists when an airline controls a significant majority of the market at one of its hubs. Competition is particularly difficult at fortress hubs.[24] Examples include Delta Air Lines at Atlanta, American Airlines at Dallas/Fort Worth and United Airlines at Houston–Intercontinental.[25]

Flag carriers have historically enjoyed similar dominance at the main international airport of their countries and some still do. Examples include Air Canada at Flag carriers have historically enjoyed similar dominance at the main international airport of their countries and some still do. Examples include Air Canada at Toronto–Pearson, Air France at Paris–Charles de Gaulle, British Airways at London–Heathrow, Korean Air at Seoul–Incheon, Lufthansa at Frankfurt, Qantas at Sydney Kingsford Smith and South African Airways at Johannesburg.

A primary hub is the main hub for an airline. However, as an airline expands operations at its primary hub to the point that it experiences capacity limitations, it may elect to open secondary hubs. Examples of such hubs are British Airways' hub at London–Gatwick, Air India's hub at Mumbai and Lufthansa's hub at Munich. By operating multiple hubs, airlines can expand their geographic reach.[26] They can also better serve spoke–spoke markets, providing more itineraries with connections at different hubs.[1]

Reliever hub

A given hub's capacity may become exhau

A given hub's capacity may become exhausted or capacity shortages may occur during peak periods of the day, at which point airlines may be compelled to shift traffic to a reliever hub. A reliever hub has the potential to serve several functions for an airline: it can bypass the congested hub, it can absorb excess demand for flights that could otherwise not be scheduled at the congested hub, and it can schedule new O&D city pairs for connecting traffic.

One of the most recognized examples of this model is Delta Air Lines's use of LaGuardia Airport as a domestic hub in New York City,

One of the most recognized examples of this model is Delta Air Lines's use of LaGuardia Airport as a domestic hub in New York City, due to capacity and slot restrictions at its hub at John F. Kennedy International Airport. Many regional flights operate out of LaGuardia, while most international flights remain at JFK.

A scissor hub occurs when an airline operates multiple flights to an airport that arrive at the same time, swap passengers, and then continue to their final destination.[27] Air India operates a similar scissor hub at London's Heathrow Airport, where passengers from Delhi, Ahmedabad, and Mumbai can continue onto a flight to Newark.[28] Until its grounding, Jet Airways operated a similar scissor hub at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol to transport passengers from Bangalore, Mumbai and Delhi to Toronto-Pearson and vice versa. An international scissor hub could be used for third and fourth freedom flights or it could be used for fifth freedom flights, for which a precursor is a bilateral treaty between two country pairs.

WestJet uses St. John's as a scissor hub during its summer schedule for flights inbound from WestJet uses St. John's as a scissor hub during its summer schedule for flights inbound from Ottawa, Toronto, and Orlando and outbound to Dublin and London–Gatwick. At Los Angeles International Airport, Qantas passengers from Melbourne, Brisbane or Sydney may transfer onto a flight to New York–JFK and vice versa.

In past history, carriers have maintained niche, time-of-day operations at hubs. The most notable is America West's use of McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas as a primary night-flight hub to increase aircraft utilization rates far beyond those of competing carriers.

See also