FLY FISHING is an angling method in which an artificial "fly" is used to catch fish . The fly is cast using a fly rod, reel, and specialized weighted line. Casting a nearly weightless fly or "lure " requires casting techniques significantly different from other forms of casting. Fly fishermen use hand tied flies that resemble natural invertebrates , baitfish, other food organisms, or "lures " to provoke the fish to strike (bite at the fly).
* 1 Main overview
* 2 History
* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Development * 2.3 Technological improvements * 2.4 Expansion
* 3 Methods
* 4 Techniques
* 5 Tackle * 6 Artificial flies * 7 Knots * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading
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Fly rod and reel with a brown trout from a chalk stream in England
In fly fishing, fish are caught by using artificial flies that are cast with a fly rod and a fly line. The fly line (today, almost always coated with plastic) is heavy enough to send the fly to the target. The main difference between fly fishing and spin or bait fishing is that in fly fishing the weight of the line carries the hook through the air, whereas in spin and bait fishing the weight of the lure or sinker at the end of the monofilament or braided line gives casting distance. Artificial flies are of several types; some imitating an insect (either flying or swimming), others a bait fish or crustacean , others attractors are known to attract fish although they look like nothing in nature. Flies can be made either to float or sink, and range in size from a few millimeters to 30 cm long; most are between 1 and 5 cm.
Artificial flies are made by fastening hair, fur, feathers, or other materials, both natural and synthetic, onto a hook. The first flies were tied with natural materials, but synthetic materials are now popular and prevalent. Flies are tied in sizes, colors and patterns to match local terrestrial and aquatic insects, baitfish, or other prey attractive to the target fish species.
Many credit the first recorded use of an artificial fly to the Roman Claudius Aelianus near the end of the 2nd century. He described the practice of Macedonian anglers on the Astraeus River: ...they have planned a snare for the fish, and get the better of them by their fisherman's craft. . . . They fasten red wool. . . round a hook, and fit on to the wool two feathers which grow under a cock's wattles, and which in color are like wax. Their rod is six feet long, and their line is the same length. Then they throw their snare, and the fish, attracted and maddened by the color, comes straight at it, thinking from the pretty sight to gain a dainty mouthful; when, however, it opens its jaws, it is caught by the hook, and enjoys a bitter repast, a captive.
In his book
The last word, somewhat indistinct in the original, is either "mosco" (moss) or "musca" (fly) but catching fish with fraudulent moss seems unlikely.
The traditional Japanese method of fly-fishing is known as " Tenkara " (Japanese : テンカラ, literally: "from heaven"). Tenkara originated in the mountains of Japan as a way for professional fishermen and inn-keepers to harvest the local fish, Ayu , trout and char for selling and providing a meal to their guests. Primarily a small-stream fishing method that was preferred for being highly efficient, where the long rod allowed the fisherman to place the fly where the fish would be.
Another style of fishing in Japan is
Ayu fishing . As written by
historian Andrew Herd , in the book "The Fly", "
Other than a few fragmented references little was written on fly fishing until The Treatyse on Fysshynge with an Angle was published (1496) within The Boke of Saint Albans attributed to Dame Juliana Berners . The book contains instructions on rod, line and hook making and dressings for different flies to use at different times of the year. By the 15th century, rods of approximately fourteen feet length with a twisted line attached at its tips were probably used in England.
The earliest English poetical treatise on
The art of fly fishing took a great leap forward after the English
Civil War , where a newly found interest in the activity left its mark
on the many books and treatises that were written on the subject at
the time. The renowned officer in the
Parliamentary army , Robert
Venables , published in 1662 The Experienced Angler, or Angling
improved, being a general discourse of angling, imparting many of the
aptest ways and choicest experiments for the taking of most sorts of
fish in pond or river. Another Civil War veteran to enthusiastically
take up fishing was Richard Franck . He was the first to describe
salmon fishing in Scotland, and both in that and trout-fishing with
artificial fly he was a practical angler. He was the first angler to
name the burbot , and commended the salmon of the
The Compleat Angler was written by
Walton did not profess to be an expert with a fishing fly; the fly fishing in his first edition was contributed by Thomas Barker, a retired cook and humorist , who produced a treatise of his own in 1659; but in the use of the live worm , the grasshopper and the frog "Piscator" himself could speak as a master. The famous passage about the frog, often misquoted as being about the worm—"use him as though you loved him, that is, harm him as little as you may possibly, that he may live the longer"—appears in the original edition. Cotton's additions completed the instruction in fly fishing and advised on the making of artificial flies where he listed sixty five varieties.
Charles Kirby designed an improved fishing hook in 1655 that remains relatively unchanged to this day. He went on to invent the Kirby bend, a distinctive hook with an offset point, still commonly used today.
Trading card of the Ustonson company, an early firm specializing in fishing equipment, and holder of a Royal Warrant from the 1760s.
The 18th century was mainly an era of consolidation of the techniques developed in the previous century. Running rings began to appear along the fishing rods, which gave anglers greater control over the cast line. The rods themselves were also becoming increasingly sophisticated and specialized for different roles. Jointed rods became common from the middle of the century and bamboo came to be used for the top section of the rod, giving it a much greater strength and flexibility.
The industry also became commercialized - rods and tackle were sold
at the haberdashers store. After the
Great Fire of London
Some have credited Onesimus with the invention of the multiplying winch , although he was certainly the first to advertise its sale. Early multiplying reels were wide and had a small diameter, and their gears, made of brass , often wore down after extensive use. His earliest advertisement in the form of a trading card date from 1768 and was entitled To all lovers of angling. A full list of the tackles he sold included artificial flies, and 'the best sort of multiplying brass winches both stop and plain'. The commercialization of the industry came at a time of expanded interest in fishing as a recreational hobby for members of the aristocracy .
The impact of the
British fly-fishing continued to develop in the 19th Century, with the emergence of fly fishing clubs, along with the appearance of several books on the subject of fly tying and fly fishing techniques. The Fly-fisher\'s Entomology by Alfred Ronalds had a great influence on the development of fly fishing when it was first published in 1836.
Alfred Ronalds took up the sport of fly fishing, learning the craft
on the rivers Trent , Blythe and Dove . On the
He combined his knowledge of fly fishing with his skill as an engraver and printer, to lavish his work with 20 color plates. It was the first comprehensive work related to the entomology associated with fly fishing and most fly-fishing historians credit Ronalds with setting a literature standard in 1836 that is still followed today. Describing methods, techniques and, most importantly, artificial flies , in a meaningful way for the angler and illustrating them in colour is a method of presentation that can be seen in most fly-fishing literature today.
The book was mostly about the aquatic insects—mayflies ,
caddisflies and stoneflies —that trout and grayling feed on and
their counterpart artificial imitations. About half the book is
devoted to observations of trout, their behaviour, and the methods and
techniques used to catch them. Most of this information, although
enhanced by Ronalds' experiences and observations, was merely an
enhancement of Charles Bowlker's Art of
In Chapter IV - Of a Selection of Insects, and Their Imitations, Used
'Nottingham' and 'Scarborough' reel designs
Modern reel design had begun in England during the latter part of the
18th century, and the predominant model in use was known as the
The material used for the rod itself changed from the heavy woods
native to England, to lighter and more elastic varieties imported from
abroad, especially from
Tackle design began to improve from the 1880s. The introduction of new woods to the manufacture of fly rods made it possible to cast flies into the wind on silk lines, instead of horse hair . These lines allowed for a much greater casting distance. However, these early fly lines proved troublesome as they had to be coated with various dressings to make them float and needed to be taken off the reel and dried every four hours or so to prevent them from becoming waterlogged. Another negative consequence was that it became easy for the much longer line to get into a tangle – this was called a 'tangle' in Britain, and a 'backlash' in the US. This problem spurred the invention of the regulator to evenly spool the line out and prevent tangling.
An American, Charles F. Orvis, designed and distributed a novel reel
and fly design in 1874, described by reel historian
Jim Brown as the
"benchmark of American reel design", and the first fully modern fly
reel. The founding of The
Albert Illingworth, 1st Baron Illingworth , a textiles magnate, patented the modern form of fixed-spool spinning reel in 1905. When casting Illingworth's reel design, the line was drawn off the leading edge of the spool, but was restrained and rewound by a line pickup, a device which orbits around the stationary spool. Because the line did not have to pull against a rotating spool, much lighter lures could be cast than with conventional reels.
By the mid to late 19th century, expanding leisure opportunities for
the middle and lower classes began to have its effect on fly fishing,
which steadily grew in mass appeal. The expansion of the railway
network in Britain allowed the less affluent for the first time to
take weekend trips to the seaside or to rivers for fishing. Richer
hobbyists ventured further abroad. The large rivers of
In southern England, dry-fly fishing acquired an elitist reputation
as the only reliable method of fishing the slower, clearer rivers of
the south such as the
However, there was nothing to prevent the successful employment of
wet flies on these chalk streams, as
G. E. M. Skues proved with his
nymph and wet fly techniques. To the horror of dry-fly purists, Skues
later wrote two books,
Minor Tactics of the Chalk Stream , and The Way
In the United States, attitudes toward methods of fly fishing were not nearly as rigidly defined, and both dry- and wet-fly fishing were soon adapted to the conditions of the country. Fly anglers there are thought to be the first anglers to have used artificial lures for bass fishing . After pressing into service the fly patterns and tackle designed for trout and salmon to catch largemouth and smallmouth bass, they began to adapt these patterns into specific bass flies. Fly anglers seeking bass developed the spinner/fly lure and bass popper fly, which are still used today.
In the late 19th century, American anglers, such as Theodore Gordon
Participation in fly fishing peaked in the early 1920s in the eastern
It was the development of inexpensive fiberglass rods, synthetic fly
lines, and monofilament leaders, however, in the early 1950s, that
revived the popularity of fly fishing. In recent years, interest in
fly fishing has surged as baby boomers have discovered the sport.
Movies such as
Fly casting, Maramec Spring Branch, Missouri
Unlike other casting methods, fly fishing can be thought of as a method of casting line rather than lure. Non-flyfishing methods rely on a lure's weight to pull line from the reel during the forward motion of a cast. By design, a fly is too light to be cast, and thus simply follows the unfurling of a properly cast fly line, which is heavier and tapered and therefore more castable than lines used in other types of fishing.
The physics of flycasting can be described by the transfer of impulse , the product of mass and speed through the rod from base to top and from the transfer of impulse through the fly line all the way to the tip of the leader. Because both the rod and the fly line are tapered the smaller amount of mass will reach high speeds as the waves in rod and line unfurl. The waves that travel through the fly line are called loops. Determining factors in reaching the highest speeds are the basal frequency of a rod and the transfer of the speed from the tip of the rod to the fly line. At the moment the rod tip reaches its highest velocity the direction of the cast is determined. Fly angler circa 1970s
The type of cast used when fishing varies according to the conditions. The most common cast is the forward cast, where the angler whisks the fly into the air, back over the shoulder until the line is nearly straight, then forward, using primarily the forearm. The objective of this motion is to "load" (bend) the rod tip with stored energy, then transmit that energy to the line, resulting in the fly line (and the attached fly) being cast for an appreciable distance. However, just bending the rod and releasing it to jerk the fly line forward (like a bowstring or a catapult) will not propel the fly line and fly very far. More important is the movement of the rod through an arc acting as a lever, magnifying the hand movement of the caster (of about a foot) to an arc at the rod tip of several feet. Here the rod acts as a lever. In fact, one of the Class 3 types of lever, where The force is applied between the fulcrum and the load (like tweezers). The fulcrum in the fly cast is below the caster's hand gripping the rod; the load is at the rod tip; between the hand exerts the force. The caster's "stroke" backwards and forwards, for the backcast and the forward cast, operates the rod as a (slightly flexible) lever. Casting without landing the fly on the water is known as 'false casting', and may be used to pay out line, to dry a soaked fly, or to reposition a cast. Other casts are the roll cast, the single- or double-haul, the tuck cast, and the side- or curve-cast.
Dropping the fly onto the water and its subsequent movement on or beneath the surface is one of fly fishing's most difficult aspects; the angler is attempting to cast in such a way that the line lands smoothly on the water and the fly appears as natural as possible. At a certain point, if a fish does not strike, depending upon the action of the fly in the wind or current, the angler picks up the line to make another presentation. On the other hand, if a fish strikes, the angler pulls in line while raising the rod tip. This "sets" the hook in the fish's mouth. The fish is played either by hand, where the angler continues to hold the fly line in one hand to control the tension applied to the fish, or by reeling up any slack in the line and then using the hand to act as a drag on the reel. Most modern fly reels have an adjustable, mechanical drag system to control line tension during a fish's run.
Beginners tend to point with the rod to where they want to throw, but the movement of the hand has to be a controlled speed-up and then come to an abrupt stop. The rod will then start to unfurl and the tip of the rod will reach a high speed in the required direction. The high speed of the rod tip toward the target gives the impulse to make the cast, the abrupt stop and retreat of the rod tip is essential for the formation of a loop. Experienced fishermen also improve the speed of the line leaving the rod tip by a technique called hauling, applying a quick fast pull with the hand holding the line. At the end of the cast when the line is stretched the line as a whole will still have speed and the fisherman can let some extra line through their fingers making a false throw, either forward or backward or to finish the cast and start fishing.
There are a great number of special casts meant to evade problems like trees behind the angler (roll cast), the pulling of the line on the fly by the action of the stream, or to make the fly land more softly.
Spey casting is a casting technique used in fly fishing. Spey casting
requires a longer, heavier two-handed fly rod , referred to as a "Spey
Spey casting is essentially a large roll cast, developed on the
Spey casting is used for fishing large rivers for salmon and large trout such as steelhead and sea trout . Spey technique is also used in saltwater surf casting . All of these situations require the angler to cast larger flies long distances. The two-handed Spey technique allows more powerful casts and avoids obstacles on the shore by keeping most of the line in front of the angler.
FLY FISHING FOR TROUT
Fly angler on the Firehole
FISHING IN COLD WATER
In order to deceive wary trout, or to reach deep runs where salmon may lie, the fly angler often needs to wade to the right casting position. He therefore requires sure footing and insulation from cold water, both provided by hip boots or chest-high waders . The latter are of two main types, one-piece "boot foot" waders and "stocking foot" waders, which require external boots.
Formerly of latex rubber, "stocking foot" waders are now made of
neoprene , usually 3 mm thick, which provide additional warmth. In the
mid-20th century, American anglers developed felt boot soles for a
better grip in rocky rivers: but felt is now prohibited in some US
states, as a vector of fish and plant diseases that damage sport
fisheries. Manufacturers now offer wading boots with special rubber
treads or metal studs. Breathable
Some "catch and release " anglers flatten the barb of their hook. Such "barbless hooks" are much easier to remove from the fish (and from the angler, in the event of mishap). Many rivers with special regulations mandate that fishermen use barbless hooks in an effort to conserve a healthy fish population.
DRY FLY TROUT FISHING
Dry fly fishing is done with line and flies that float, joined by a leader, usually made of fine polyamide monofilament line . The tapered leader is 3 to 5 meters long, thus nearly invisible where the fly is knotted, and the angler can replace the last meter of nylon as required. Unlike sinking fly (nymph) fishing, the "take" on dry flies is visible, explosive and exciting. While trout typically consume about 90% of their diet from below-water sources, the 10% of surface-level consumption by trout is more than enough to keep most anglers busy. Additionally, beginning fly anglers generally prefer dry fly fishing because of the relative ease of detecting a strike and the instant gratification of seeing a trout strike their fly. Nymph fishing may be more productive, but dry fly anglers soon become addicted to the surface strike. An Adams dry fly
Dry flies may be "attractors", such as the Royal Wulff , or "natural imitators", such as the elk hair caddis, a caddisfly imitation A beginner may wish to begin with a fly that is easy to see such as a Royal Wulff attractor or a mayfly imitation such as a parachute adams. The "parachute" on the parachute adams makes the fly land as softly as a natural on the water and has the added benefit of making the fly very visible from the surface. Being able to see the fly is especially helpful to the beginner. The fly should land softly, as if dropped onto the water, with the leader fully extended from the fly line. Due to rivers having faster and slower currents often running side by side, the fly can over take or be overtaken by the line, thus disturbing the fly's drift. Mending is a technique whereby one lifts and moves the part of the line that requires re-aligning with the fly's drift, thus extending the drag free drift. The mend can be upstream or down stream depending on the currents carrying the line or fly. To be effective, any mending of the fly line should not disturb the natural drift of the fly. Learning to mend is often much easier if the angler can see the fly.
Once a fish has been caught and landed, the fly may no longer float
well. A fly can sometimes be dried and made to float again by "false"
casting, casting the fly back and forth in the air. In some cases, the
fly can be dried with a small piece of reusable absorbent towel, an
amadou patch or chamois and after drying placed and shaken in a
container full of fly "dressing"; a hydrophobic solution. A popular
solution to a dry fly which refuses to float is simply to replace it
with another, similar or identical fly until the original can fully
dry, rotating through a set of flies.
Dry fly fishing on small, clear-water streams can be especially
productive if the angler stays as low to the ground and as far from
the bank as possible, moving upstream with stealth.
NYMPHING FOR TROUT
In New Zealand, nymphing has become the dominant form of fishing in
rivers such as the Tongariro
It is also possible to use standard sinking fly lines, especially if the current is strong and if it is difficult to get down to the correct level to catch the trout.
STILL WATER TROUT FISHING
A rainbow trout taken on an articulated leech pattern, Bristol
Once hooked, a small trout can be easily retrieved "on the reel" or by simply pulling in the fly line with the reel hand while pinching the line between the rod handle and the index finger of the rod hand. It is important to keep the rod tip high, allowing the bend of the rod to absorb the force of the fish's struggles against the line. Larger trout will often take line in powerful runs before they can be landed. Unlike spin fishing where the line is already on the reel, playing a large fish with fly line and a fly reel can present a special challenge. Usually, when a fish is hooked, there will be extra fly line coiled between the reel and the index finger of the rod hand. The challenge is to reel up the loose fly line onto the reel without breaking off a large fish (or getting the line wrapped up around the rod handle, one's foot, a stick or anything else in the way). With experience, really large trout can be put on the reel simply by applying light pressure on the outgoing line using the fisher's fingers. Once the extra line is on the reel, an angler can use the reel's drag system to tire the fish. It is important to use heavier tippet material if it won't spook the fish. The reason why this is important is an exhausted fish can easily die if released too soon. Heavier tippet material enables the angler to land the fish while not over exhausting it.
Catch and release
Releasing wild trout helps preserve the quality of a fishery. Trout are more delicate than most fish and require careful handling. When a trout has been caught but the hook is still embedded, wet your hands before handling the fish. Dry hands stick to the adhesive slime coating the fish and can pull off its scales. It is preferred for the fish to remain in the water when removing the hook, but holding the trout out of the water will not be lethal, provided the hook is removed quickly and the trout is returned immediately.
Small trout caught on a barb-less hook can be released simply by: grasping the eyelet of the fly, and rotating the eyelet toward the bend (the U-bend). This pulls the point backwards, back through the way it entered. Push the eyelet directly toward the bend until the point is removed from the fish. Large trout can be grasped gently and forceps can be used to grip the bend and push backwards, away from the direction the hook currently points. If necessary, squirming trout can be held on their backs. This often subdues the fish and provides enough time to remove the hook.
Once the hook has been removed, return the trout into the water. Support the trout until it stabilizes. This includes holding the fish in water deep enough to submerge its gills. After long fights, it may be necessary to manually move water past its gills. This can be done either by holding the trout in moving water with its head facing upstream, or, in calm water, moving the trout backwards and forwards repeatedly. Once stabilized, the trout will swim off on its own. If released prematurely, the trout, not having enough energy to move, will sink to the bottom of the river and suffocate. Take however long is necessary to revive a trout.
A red drum caught on a fly rod,
Saltwater flyfishing is typically done with heavier tackle than that
which is used for freshwater trout fishing, both to handle the larger,
more powerful fish, and to accommodate the casting of larger and
heavier flies. Salt water fly fishing typically employs the use of wet
flies resembling baitfish , crabs , shrimp and other forage. However,
saltwater fish can also be caught with poppers and other surface lure
similar to those used for freshwater bass fishing , though much
larger. Saltwater species sought and caught with fly tackle include:
bonefish , redfish or red drum , permit , snook , spotted sea trout ,
tuna , dorado (mahi-mahi ), sailfish , tarpon , striped bass , salmon
and marlin . Offshore saltwater species are usually attracted to the
fly by "chumming " with small baitfish, or "teasing" the fish to the
boat by trolling a large hookless lure (
Many saltwater species, particularly large, fast and powerful fish,
are not easily slowed down by "palming" the hand on the reel. Instead,
a purpose-made saltwater reel for these species must have a powerful
drag system. Furthermore, saltwater reels purpose-made for larger fish
must be larger, heavier, and corrosion-resistant ; a typical
high-quality saltwater reel costs 500.00 USD or more.
Corrosion-resistant equipment is key to durability in all types of
saltwater fishing, regardless of the size and power of the target
species. Saltwater Fly
Saltwater fly fishing is most often done from a boat, either a
shallow draft flat boat is used to pursue species such as bonefish,
redfish, permit and tarpon in shallow waters, or from larger offshore
boats for pursuing sailfish, tuna, dorado, marlin and other pelagics
and may be done from shore, such as wading flats for bonefish or
redfish or surf fishing for striped bass and other assorted fish.
Typically, most trout fly fisherman need to practice new skills to
catch saltwater fish on a fly rod.
Hooks for saltwater flies must also be extremely durable and corrosion resistant. Most saltwater hooks are made of stainless steel , but the strongest (though less corrosion resistant) hooks are of high-carbon steel. Typically, these hooks vary from size #8 to #2 for bonefish and smaller nearshore species, to size #3/0 to #5/0 for the larger offshore species.
Main article: Fly fishing tackle A variety of fly reels on display at a fly fishing show
* A wide variety of Fly rods of different weights, lengths and material are used to present artificial flies to target species of fish as well as fight and land fish being caught. * A wide variety of Fly reels are used to store fly line and provide a braking mechanism (drag) for fighting heavy or fast moving fish. * A wide variety of general use and specialized fly lines are used to cast artificial flies under a wide variety of fresh and saltwater conditions. * Terminal tackle is used to connect the artificial fly to the fly line and allow the appropriate presentation of the fly to the fish. * There are a wide variety of accessories—tools, gadgets, clothing and apparel used by the fly angler for maintenance and preparation of tackle, dealing the fish being caught as well as personal comfort and safety while fly fishing. Includes fly boxes used to store and carry artificial flies.
Fly rods are typically between 1.8 m (6 ft) long in freshwater fishing and up to 4.5 m (15 ft) long for two-handed fishing for salmon or steelhead , or in tenkara fishing in small streams. The average rod for fresh and salt water is around 9 feet (2.7 m) in length and weighs from 3 –5 ounces , though a recent trend has been to lighter, shorter rods for fishing smaller streams. Another trend is to longer rods for small streams. The choice of rod lengths and line weights used varies according to local conditions, types of flies being cast, and/or personal preference.
When actively fishing, the angler may want to keep the fly line lightly pressed against the rod handle with the index finger of the casting arm. The free arm is used to pull line from the reel or to retrieve line from the water. If a fish strikes, the angler can pinch the line with the index finger against the rod handle and lift the rod tip, setting the hook.
In broadest terms, flies are categorized as either imitative or attractive. Imitative flies resemble natural food items. Attractive flies trigger instinctive strikes by employing a range of characteristics that do not necessarily mimic prey items. Flies can be fished floating on the surface (dry flies), partially submerged (emergers), or below the surface (nymphs, streamers, and wet flies). A dry fly is typically thought to represent an insect landing on, falling on (terrestrials), or emerging from, the water's surface as might a grasshopper , dragonfly , mayfly , ant , beetle , stonefly or caddisfly . Other surface flies include poppers and hair bugs that might resemble mice, frogs, etc. Sub-surface flies are designed to resemble a wide variety of prey including aquatic insect larvae , nymphs and pupae , baitfish , crayfish , leeches , worms , etc. Wet flies, known as streamers, are generally thought to imitate minnows , leeches or scuds.
Throughout history, artificial flies constructed of furs, feathers, and threads bound on a hook have been created by anglers to imitate fish prey. The first known mention of an artificial fly was in 200AD in Macedonia. Most early examples of artificial flies imitated common aquatic insects and baitfish. Today, artificial flies are tied with a wide variety of natural and synthetic materials (like mylar and rubber ) to represent all manner of potential freshwater and saltwater fish prey to include aquatic and terrestrial insects , crustaceans , worms , baitfish , vegetation , flesh , spawn , small reptiles , amphibians , mammals and birds , etc.
For more details on this topic, see Category:
A few knots have become more or less standard for attaching the various parts of the fly lines and backing, etc., together. A detailed discussion of most of these knots is available in any good book on fly fishing. Some of the knots that are in most every fly angler's arsenal are: the improved clinch knot which is commonly used to attach the fly to the leader, the overhand slip knot or arbor knot which is used to attach the backing to the spool, the albright knot which can be used to attach the fly line to the backing. A loop can also be put in fly line backing using a bimini twist . Often, a loop is added to the business end of the fly line to facilitate the connection to the leader. This loop may take one of several forms. It may be formed by creating a loop in the end of the fly line itself or by adding a braided loop or a loop of monofilament nylon (as in Gray's Loop). Alternatively, a single length of monofilament nylon, or fluorocarbon, may be tied to the end of the fly line using a nail or tube knot or a needle knot. A loop can then be tied at the end of this monofilament butt length or butt section using a double surgeon\'s knot or a perfection loop , to which the tapered or untapered leader, also looped using a double surgeon\'s knot or a perfection loop , may in turn be connected via a loop to loop connection. The use of loop to loop connections between the fly line and the leader provides a quick and convenient way to change or replace a tapered leader. Many commercially produced tapered leaders come with a pre-tied loop connection.
Some traditionalists create their own tapered leaders using progressively smaller-diameter lengths of monofilament line tied together with the blood , barrel knot or "surgeons knot".
Wikimedia Commons has media related to FLY FISHING .
American Museum of Fly Fishing
Bibliography of fly fishing
* ^ William Radcliff
* Berenbaum, May R. (1995). Bugs in the System:
Insects and Their
Impact on Human Affairs. Perseus Publishing. pp. 264–268.
* Hughes, Dave (1995). Wet Flies: Tying and
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