Florida Circuit Courts
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The Florida circuit courts are state courts, and are
trial court A trial court or court of first instance is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the admin ...
s of
original jurisdiction In common law (legal system), common law legal systems original jurisdiction of a court is the power to hear a case for the first time, as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a higher court has the power to review a lower court's decision. ...
for most controversies. In Florida, the circuit courts are one of four types of courts created by the
Florida Constitution The Constitution of the State of Florida is the document that establishes and describes the powers, duties, structure, and function of the government of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or ...
(the other three being The
Florida Supreme Court The Supreme Court of Florida is the state supreme court, highest court in the U.S. state of Florida. It consists of seven members: the chief justice and six justices. Six members are chosen from six districts around the state to foster geographi ...
,
Florida district courts of appeal The district courts of appeal (DCAs) are the Appellate court, intermediate appellate courts of the Florida State court (United States), state court system. There are currently five DCAs: *The Florida First District Court of Appeal, First Distri ...
, and Florida county courts). The circuit courts primarily handle civil cases where the
amount in controversy Amount in controversy (sometimes called jurisdictional amount) is a term used in civil procedure to denote the amount at stake in a lawsuit, in particular in connection with a requirement that persons seeking to bring a lawsuit in a particular cour ...
is greater than $30,000, and
felony A felony is traditionally considered a crime of high seriousness, whereas a misdemeanor is regarded as less serious. The term "felony" originated from English common law (from the French medieval word "félonie") to describe an offense that resul ...
criminal cases, as well as appeals from county courts. Additionally, since circuit courts are constitutional courts as are courts of appeals, state circuit courts operate under the constitutional consideration of that state's constitution that operates under the Constitution of the United States of America. Therefore, Supreme Court justices can be assigned to state circuit courts of appeals and circuit courts where there is a need by the discretion of the Department of Justice and the Attorney General of the federal government.


Circuits

There are 20 judicial circuits in Florida, all but five of which span multiple
counties A county is a geographic region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
. They are: # First Circuit – Escambia, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa and Walton # Second Circuit – Franklin, Gadsden, Jefferson,
Leon Leon, Léon (French) or León (Spanish) may refer to: Places Europe * León, Spain, capital city of the Province of León * Province of León, Spain * Kingdom of León, an independent state in the Iberian Peninsula from 910 to 1230 and again fro ...
,
Liberty Liberty is the ability to do as one pleases, or a right or immunity enjoyed by prescription or by grant (i.e. privilege). It is a synonym for the word freedom. In modern politics, liberty is understood as the state of being free within society fr ...
, and Wakulla # Third Circuit – Columbia,
Dixie Dixie, also known as Dixieland or Dixie's Land, is a nickname for all or part of the Southern United States The Southern United States (sometimes Dixie, also referred to as the Southern States, the American South, the Southland, or simpl ...
,
Hamilton Hamilton may refer to: People * Hamilton (name), a common British surname and occasional given name, usually of Scottish origin, including a list of persons with the surname ** The Duke of Hamilton, the premier peer of Scotland ** Lord Hamilton ...
,
Lafayette Lafayette or La Fayette may refer to: People * Lafayette (name), a list of people with the surname Lafayette or La Fayette or the given name Lafayette * House of La Fayette, a French noble family ** Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (1757 ...
, Madison, Suwannee and
Taylor Taylor, Taylors or Taylor's may refer to: People * Taylor (surname) **List of people with surname Taylor * Taylor (given name), including Tayla and Taylah * Taylor sept, a branch of Scottish clan Cameron * Justice Taylor (disambiguation) Plac ...
# Fourth Circuit –
Clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil material containing clay minerals (hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, e.g. kaolin, aluminium, Al2Silicon, Si2Oxygen, O5(hydroxide, OH)4). Clays develop plasticity (physics), plasticity when wet, du ...
, Duval and Nassau # Fifth Circuit –
Citrus ''Citrus'' is a genus of flowering plant, flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae. Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops such as Orange (fruit), oranges, Lemon, lemons, grapefruits, pomelos, and lim ...
, Hernando,
Lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a Depression (geology), basin, surrounded by land, and distinct from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the World Ocean, oce ...
,
Marion Marion may refer to: People *Marion (given name) *Marion (surname) *Marion Silva Fernandes, Brazilian footballer known simply as "Marion" *Marion (singer), Filipino singer-songwriter and pianist Marion Aunor (born 1992) Places Antarctica * Mario ...
and
Sumter Sumter may refer to: People Given name * Sumter S. Arnim (1904–1990), American dentist * Sumter de Leon Lowry Jr. (1893–1985), United States Army general Surname * Rowendy Sumter (born 1988), Curaçaoan footballer * Shavonda E. Sumter ( ...
# Sixth Circuit – Pasco and Pinellas # Seventh Circuit – Flagler, Putnam, St. Johns and Volusia # Eighth Circuit – Alachua,
Baker A baker is a tradesperson who baking, bakes and sometimes Sales, sells breads and other products made of flour by using an oven or other concentrated heat source. The place where a baker works is called a bakery. History Ancient history Si ...
,
Bradford Bradford is a city status in the United Kingdom, city and the administrative centre of the City of Bradford district in West Yorkshire, England. The city is in the Pennines' eastern foothills on the banks of the Bradford Beck. Bradford had a p ...
, Gilchrist,
Levy Levy, Lévy or Levies may refer to: People * Levy (surname), people with the surname Levy or Lévy * Levy Adcock (born 1988), American football player * Levy Barent Cohen (1747–1808), Dutch-born British financier and community worker * Levy Fi ...
, and Union # Ninth Circuit –
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Orange (colour), from the color of an orange, occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum * ...
and
Osceola Osceola (1804 – January 30, 1838, Asi-yahola in Creek), named Billy Powell at birth in Alabama, became an influential leader of the Seminole The Seminole are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American people who develop ...
# Tenth Circuit – Hardee, Highlands, and
Polk Polk may refer to: People * James K. Polk James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849) was the 11th president of the United States, serving from 1845 to 1849. He previously was the 13th Speaker of the United States House of Repres ...
# Eleventh Circuit – Miami-Dade # Twelfth Circuit – DeSoto,
Manatee Manatees (family (biology), family Trichechidae, genus ''Trichechus'') are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivory, herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing thr ...
, and
Sarasota Sarasota () is a city in Sarasota County, Florida, Sarasota County on the Gulf Coast of the U.S. state of Florida. The area is renowned for its cultural and environmental amenities, beaches, resorts, and the Sarasota School of Architecture. The c ...
# Thirteenth Circuit – Hillsborough # Fourteenth Circuit – Bay, Calhoun,
Gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower opening than a bay (geography), bay, but that is not observable in all geographic areas so named. The term gulf was traditionally used for large highly-indented ...
, Holmes, Jackson and
Washington Washington commonly refers to: * Washington (state), United States * Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States ** A metonym for the federal government of the United States ** Washington metropolitan area, the metropolitan area centered on ...
# Fifteenth Circuit – Palm Beach # Sixteenth Circuit – Monroe # Seventeenth Circuit – Broward # Eighteenth Circuit – Brevard and
Seminole The Seminole are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American people who developed in Florida in the 18th century. Today, they live in Oklahoma and Florida, and comprise three federally recognized tribes: the Seminole Nation of Oklaho ...
# Nineteenth Circuit – Indian River,
Martin Martin may refer to: Places * Martin City (disambiguation) * Martin County (disambiguation) * Martin Township (disambiguation) Antarctica * Martin Peninsula, Marie Byrd Land * Port Martin, Adelie Land * Point Martin, South Orkney Islands Austral ...
, Okeechobee and St. Lucie # Twentieth Circuit –
Charlotte Charlotte ( ) is the List of municipalities in North Carolina, most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. Located in the Piedmont (United States), Piedmont region, it is the county seat of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, Meckl ...
, Collier, Glades, Hendry and Lee


Jurisdiction

Florida circuit courts have original jurisdiction not vested in the county courts, direct review of administrative action, and the power to issue
writs In common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent, judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions."The common law is not ...
of
mandamus (; ) is a judicial remedy in the form of an order from a court to any government, subordinate court, corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to a ...
,
quo warranto In law, especially English and American common law, ''quo warranto'' (Latin language, Medieval Latin for "by what warrant?") is a prerogative writ requiring the person to whom it is directed to show what authority they have for exercising some ...
,
certiorari In law, ''certiorari'' is a Legal process, court process to seek judicial review of a decision of a lower court or government agency. ''Certiorari'' comes from the name of an English prerogative writ, issued by a superior court to direct that t ...
,
prohibition Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law; more particularly the term refers to the banning of the manufacturing, manufacture, storage (whether in barrels or in bottles), transportation, sale, possession, and consumption ...
, and
habeas corpus ''Habeas corpus'' (; from Medieval Latin, ) is a Legal recourse, recourse in law through which a person can report an Arbitrary arrest and detention, unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodi ...
, as well as any other writs necessary to exercise their jurisdiction. As authorized by the legislature, and in addition to the power to issue various injunctions and other necessary orders, the circuit courts more specifically have the following jurisdiction:


Original jurisdiction

Original jurisdiction In common law (legal system), common law legal systems original jurisdiction of a court is the power to hear a case for the first time, as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a higher court has the power to review a lower court's decision. ...
is as follows: * " l actions at law not cognizable by the county courts . . . ." Therefore, all actions except: most
misdemeanor A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour elsewhere) is any "lesser" crime, criminal act in some common law legal systems. Misdemeanors are generally punishment, punished less severely than more serious felony, felonies, but theor ...
cases, violations of municipal and county ordinances, some disputes occurring in homeowners' associations, and cases where the amount in controversy is equal to or less than $30,000 ("Exclusive of interest, costs, attorneys fees, except those within the exclusive jurisdiction of the circuit courts"). * " oceedings relating to the settlement of the estates of decedents and minors, the granting of letters testamentary, guardianship, involuntary hospitalization, the determination of incompetency, and other jurisdiction usually pertaining to courts of probate . . . ." * All cases of equity, including those related to juveniles, except for traffic offenses. * Felonies. * All cases involving the legality of state tax assessment, toll, or denial of refund. *
Ejectment Ejectment is a common law term for civil action to recover the possession of or title to land. It replaced the old real actions and the various possessory assizes (denoting county-based pleas to local sittings of the courts) where boundary disp ...
(But not
eviction Eviction is the removal of a tenant from rental property by the landlord. In some jurisdictions it may also involve the removal of persons from premises that were foreclosed by a mortgagee (often, the prior owners who defaulted on a mort ...
, which may be brought in county court). *
Title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted between the f ...
and boundaries of
real property In English common law, real property, real estate, immovable property or, solely in the US and Canada, realty, is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called Land improvement, improvements or Fixture (property ...
.


Appellate jurisdiction

Appellate jurisdiction A court of appeals, also called a court of appeal, appellate court, appeal court, court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal. In much of t ...
is as follows: * Appeals from county courts (except from orders or judgments declaring invalid a state statute or provision of the state constitution, or any orders or judgments certified by the county court as a matter of great public importance and accepted for review by a District Court of Appeal). § 26.012(1) (2007). * Appeals from final administrative orders of local government code enforcement boards. § 26.012(1) (2007).


Election

Circuit court judges are elected by the voters of the circuits in nonpartisan, contested elections against other persons who choose to qualify as candidates for the position. Circuit court judges serve for six-year terms, and they are subject to the same disciplinary standards and procedures as Supreme Court Justices and district court judges.


See also

* Judiciary of Florida


References


External links


Map of District Court's Jurisdiction

The Florida Rules of Civil Procedure
{{Florida Court System Florida state courts
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geo ...
Courts and tribunals with year of establishment missing