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Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.[1] According to the FAO, a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats, purpose of the activities or a combination of the foregoing features".[2] The definition often includes a combination of fish and fishers in a region, the latter fishing for similar species with similar gear types.[3] A fishery may involve the capture of wild fish or raising fish through fish farming or aquaculture.[2][4] Directly or indirectly, the livelihood of over 500 million people in developing countries depends on fisheries and aquaculture. Overfishing, including the taking of fish beyond sustainable levels, is reducing fish stocks and employment in many world regions.[5][6] A report by Prince Charles' International Sustainability Unit, the New York-based Environmental Defense Fund
Environmental Defense Fund
and 50in10 published in July 2014 estimated global fisheries were adding $270 billion a year to global GDP, but by full implementation of sustainable fishing, that figure could rise by as much as $50 billion.[7]

Contents

1 The term fish 2 Types 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

The term fish[edit] Further information: Fish
Fish
§ Terminology

In biology – the term fish is most strictly used to describe any animal with a backbone that has gills throughout life and has limbs, if any, in the shape of fins.[8] Many types of aquatic animals commonly referred to as fish are not fish in this strict sense; examples include shellfish, cuttlefish, starfish, crayfish and jellyfish. In earlier times, even biologists did not make a distinction—sixteenth century natural historians classified also seals, whales, amphibians, crocodiles, even hippopotamuses, as well as a host of marine invertebrates, as fish.[9] In fisheries – the term fish is used as a collective term, and includes mollusks, crustaceans and any aquatic animal which is harvested.[2] True fish – The strict biological definition of a fish, above, is sometimes called a true fish. True fish are also referred to as finfish or fin fish to distinguish them from other aquatic life harvested in fisheries or aquaculture.

Types[edit]

Fishermen in Sesimbra, Portugal

Fisheries are harvested for their value (commercial, recreational or subsistence). They can be saltwater or freshwater, wild or farmed. Examples are the salmon fishery of Alaska, the cod fishery off the Lofoten
Lofoten
islands, the tuna fishery of the Eastern Pacific, or the shrimp farm fisheries in China. Capture fisheries can be broadly classified as industrial scale, small-scale or artisanal, and recreational. Close to 90% of the world’s fishery catches come from oceans and seas, as opposed to inland waters. These marine catches have remained relatively stable since the mid-nineties (between 80 and 86 million tonnes).[10] Most marine fisheries are based near the coast. This is not only because harvesting from relatively shallow waters is easier than in the open ocean, but also because fish are much more abundant near the coastal shelf, due to the abundance of nutrients available there from coastal upwelling and land runoff. However, productive wild fisheries also exist in open oceans, particularly by seamounts, and inland in lakes and rivers. Most fisheries are wild fisheries, but farmed fisheries are increasing. Farming can occur in coastal areas, such as with oyster farms,[11] but more typically occur inland, in lakes, ponds, tanks and other enclosures. There are species fisheries worldwide for finfish, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms, and by extension, aquatic plants such as kelp. However, a very small number of species support the majority of the world’s fisheries. Some of these species are herring, cod, anchovy, tuna, flounder, mullet, squid, shrimp, salmon, crab, lobster, oyster and scallops. All except these last four provided a worldwide catch of well over a million tonnes in 1999, with herring and sardines together providing a harvest of over 22 million metric tons in 1999. Many other species are harvested in smaller numbers. See also[edit]

Fisheries management Fisheries science List of harvested aquatic animals by weight National Fish
Fish
Habitat Initiative Ocean
Ocean
fisheries Tailrace fishing Tanka people Population dynamics of fisheries Sea
Sea
Fish
Fish
Industry Authority Regional Fisheries Management Organisation

Notes[edit]

^ Fletcher, WJ; Chessonio, J; Fisher, M; Sainsbury KJ; Hundloe, T; Smith, ADM and Whitworth, B (2002) The "How To" guide for wild capture fisheries. National ESD reporting framework for Australian fisheries: FRDC Project 2000/145. Page 119–120. ^ a b c FAO: Fisheries glossary ^ Madden, CJ and Grossman, DH (2004) A Framework for a Coastal/Marine Ecological Classification Standard Archived October 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. NatureServe, page 86. Prepared for NOAA
NOAA
under Contract EA-133C-03-SE-0275 ^ NOAA: Fisheries glossary
Fisheries glossary
p. 24. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2010) Overfishing, Encyclopedia of earth, topic ed. Sidney Draggan, ed. in chief C. Cleveland, National Council on Science and the Environment (NCSE), Washington DC ^ Fisheries and Aquaculture
Aquaculture
in our Changing Climate[permanent dead link] Policy brief of the FAO
FAO
for the UNFCCC
UNFCCC
COP-15 in Copenhagen, December 2009. ^ "Prince Charles calls for greater sustainability in fisheries". London Mercury. Retrieved 13 July 2014.  ^ Nelson, Joseph S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 2. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.  ^ Jr.Cleveland P Hickman, Larry S. Roberts, Allan L. Larson: Integrated Principles of Zoology, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co, 2001, ISBN 0-07-290961-7 ^ "Scientific Facts on Fisheries". GreenFacts Website. 2009-03-02. Retrieved 2009-03-25.  ^ New Zealand Seafood
Seafood
Industry Council. Mussel
Mussel
Farming.

References[edit]

Cullis-Suzuki S and Pauly D (2010) "Failing the high seas: A global evaluation of regional fisheries management organizations" Marine Policy, 34(5) pp 1036–1042. FAO: Types of fisheries Hart PJB and Reynolds JD (2002) Handbook of fish biology and fisheries Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-632-05412-1

External links[edit]

Look up fishery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
article Fisheries.

Fisheries at Curlie (based on DMOZ) FAO
FAO
Fisheries Department and its SOFIA report The Fishery Resources Monitoring System
Fishery Resources Monitoring System
(FIRMS) The International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade (IIFET) Dynamic Changes in Marine Ecosystems: Fishing, Food
Food
Webs, and Future Options (2006), U.S. National Academy of Sciences UNEP/GEF South China
China
Sea
Sea
Project and its Fisheries Refugia Portal
Portal
and National Reports on Fish
Fish
Stocks and Habitats in the South China
China
Sea World Fisheries Day: Seafood
Seafood
for Thought and World Fisheries from Sea to Table slideshow on the Smithsonian Ocean
Ocean
Portal  Hawes, J. W. (1879). "Fisheries". The American Cyclopædia.   "Fisheries". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  Fisheries Wiki A detailed online encyclopaedia providing current and quantitative information on marine fisheries worldwide.

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Principal commercial fishery species groups

Wild

Large pelagic fish

Mackerel Salmon Saury Shark Swordfish Tuna

albacore bigeye Atlantic bluefin Pacific bluefin southern bluefin skipjack yellowfin

Forage fish

Anchovy Capelin Herring Ilish Menhaden Sardines Shad Sprat

european

Demersal fish

Catfish Cod

Atlantic Pacific Alaska
Alaska
pollock

Flatfish

flounder halibut plaice sole turbot

Haddock Mullet Orange roughy Pollock Rockfish Smelt-whitings Toothfish

Freshwater
Freshwater
fish

Carp Sturgeon Tilapia Trout

Other wild fish

Eel Whitebait more...

Crustaceans

Crab Krill Lobster Shrimp more...

Molluscs

Abalone Mussels Octopus Oysters Scallops Squid more...

Echinoderms

Sea
Sea
cucumbers Sea
Sea
urchin more...

Farmed

Carp

bighead common crucian grass silver

Catfish Freshwater
Freshwater
prawns Gilt-head bream Mussels Oysters Salmon

Atlantic salmon trout coho chinook

Scallops Seaweed Shrimp Tilapia

Commercial fishing World fish production Commercial species Fishing
Fishing
topics Fisheries glossary

Fisheries science
Fisheries science
and wild fisheries

Fisheries science

Population dynamics of fisheries Shifting baseline Fish
Fish
stock Fish
Fish
mortality Condition index Stock assessment Fish
Fish
measurement Standard weight in fish Fish
Fish
counter Data storage tag Catch per unit effort Otolith microchemical analysis Biomass Fisheries acoustics Acoustic tag Coded wire tag GIS and aquatic science Pop-up satellite archival tag EcoSCOPE Age class structure Trophic level Trophic cascades Match/mismatch
Match/mismatch
hypothesis Fisheries and climate change Marine biology Aquatic ecosystems Bioeconomics EconMult Ecopath FishBase Census of Marine Life OSTM Fisheries databases Institutes Fisheries scientists

Wild fisheries

Ocean
Ocean
fisheries Diversity of fish Coastal fish Coral reef fish Demersal fish Forage fish Pelagic fish Cod
Cod
fisheries Crab
Crab
fisheries Eel
Eel
fisheries Krill fisheries Kelp
Kelp
fisheries Lobster
Lobster
fisheries Shrimp
Shrimp
fishery Eel
Eel
ladder Fish
Fish
ladder Fish
Fish
screen Migration Salmon
Salmon
run Sardine
Sardine
run Shoaling and schooling Marine habitats Marine snow Water
Water
column Upwelling Humboldt current Algal blooms Dead zones Fish
Fish
kill

Fisheries management, sustainability and conservation

Management

Fisheries management Fisheries law Monitoring control and surveillance Vessel monitoring system Fishery
Fishery
Resources Monitoring System Catch reporting Fisheries observer Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing Magnuson–Stevens Act Pulse fishing Fisheries organizations

Quotas

Catch share Individual fishing quota Minimum landing size Slot limit Bycatch Discards Incidental catch Cetacean bycatch Turtle excluder device Shrimp-Turtle case EU quotas EU MLS Exclusive economic zone

Sustainability

Sustainable fisheries Maximum sustainable yield List of harvested aquatic animals by weight Sustainable seafood Overfishing Environmental effects of fishing Fishing
Fishing
down the food web Destructive fishing practices Future of Marine Animal Populations The Sunken Billions The End of the Line

Conservation

Marine Protected Area Marine reserve Marine conservation Marine conservation
Marine conservation
activism Salmon
Salmon
conservation Grey nurse shark conservation Shark
Shark
sanctuary

Organisations

The Black Fish Marine Stewardship Council Aquaculture
Aquaculture
Stewardship Council Friend of the Sea SeaChoice Seafood
Seafood
Watch Ocean
Ocean
Conservancy Ocean
Ocean
Outcomes Oceana Sea
Sea
Around Us Project World Fish
Fish
Center Defying Ocean's End HERMIONE PROFISH International Seafood
Seafood
Sustainability Foundation Sea
Sea
Shepherd Conservation Society Greenpeace

Related issues

CalCOFI Fish
Fish
slaughter Marine pollution Mercury in fish Shark
Shark
finning Threatened sharks Threatened rays

List of fishing topics by subject Index of fishing articles Fisheries glossary

Wild fisheries

Fishing
Fishing
industry

Commercial fishing List of harvested aquatic animals by weight Trawling Pair trawling Midwater trawling Bottom trawling Seining Gillnetting Longlining Trolling Dredging Fishing
Fishing
vessels Power block

Fish
Fish
processing

Fish
Fish
factory Factory ship Fish
Fish
preservation Slurry ice Dried fish Filleted fish Gibbing Salmon
Salmon
cannery Salted fish Smoked fish Kippers more...

Fish
Fish
products

Seafood Fish
Fish
as food Caviar Cod
Cod
liver oil Fish
Fish
roe Fish
Fish
emulsion Fish
Fish
meal Fish
Fish
hydrolysate Fish
Fish
oil Fish
Fish
protein powder Fish
Fish
sauce Gravlax Hákarl Lox Lutefisk Rakfisk Shrimp
Shrimp
paste Surimi Surströmming Seafood
Seafood
list Sea
Sea
vegetables Algae Crustaceans Molluscs more...

Fish
Fish
marketing

Live fish trade Shrimp
Shrimp
marketing Chasse-marée Fishmonger Fishwife Worshipful Company of Fishmongers

Fish
Fish
markets

Billingsgate Fulton Maine Avenue English Market Scania Tsukiji more...

Area fisheries

World fish production Fishing
Fishing
by country Fishing
Fishing
banks Other areas

Aquaculture
Aquaculture
and farmed fisheries

Aquaculture

Aquaculture
Aquaculture
engineering Aquaponics Best practices Copper alloys Fisheries and aquaculture research institutes Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy
and aquaculture Inland saline Integrated multi-trophic Mariculture Antimicrobials Offshore Organic Raceway Recirculating

Fish
Fish
farming

Broodstock Catfish Cobia Fish
Fish
diseases and parasites Fish
Fish
farming Fish
Fish
feed Fish
Fish
hatchery Fish
Fish
stocking Spawning bed Salmon Tilapia Tailwater US hatcheries

Algaculture

Giant kelp Microalgae Microalgal bacterial flocs Photobioreactor Raceway pond Seaweed

Other species

Brine shrimp Coral Freshwater
Freshwater
prawns Geoduck Hirudiculture Marine shrimp Octopus Oysters Scallops Sea
Sea
cucumber Sea
Sea
sponges Turtles

By country

Alaska Australia Canada Chile China East Timor Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Indonesia Kiribati Madagascar Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands South Africa South Korea Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

v t e

Fisheries and fishing topic areas

Fisheries

Aquaculture Diversity of fish Fish
Fish
diseases and parasites Fish
Fish
farming Fisheries management Fisheries science Individual fishing quota Sustainable fishery Overfishing Wild fisheries

Fishing

Artisanal fishing Fisherman Fishing
Fishing
vessel History of fishing

Industry

List of harvested aquatic animals by weight By country Commercial fishing Marketing Markets Processing Products Seafood

Recreation

Angling Big-game fishing Catch and release Fishing
Fishing
tournaments Fly fishing

Techniques

Fish
Fish
trap Fishfinder Fishing
Fishing
net Gathering seafood by hand Handline fishing Spearfishing Trawling

Tackle

Artificial flies Bait Bite indicators Hook Line Lures Rod Sinker

Locations

Fish
Fish
ponds Fishing
Fishing
banks Fishing
Fishing
villages Marine habitats

Glossary Index Outline Fishing
Fishing
portal Category

v t e

Natural resources

Air

Pollution / quality

Ambient standards (USA) Index Indoor

developing nations

Law

Clean Air Act (USA)

Ozone depletion

Emissions

Airshed Trading Deforestation (REDD)

Energy

Law Resources Fossil fuels (peak oil) Geothermal Nuclear Solar

sunlight shade

Tidal Wave Wind

Land

Arable

peak farmland

Degradation Law

property

Management

habitat conservation

Minerals

mining

law sand

peak rights

Soil

conservation fertility health resilience

Use

planning reserve

Life

Biodiversity Bioprospecting Biosphere Bushfood Bushmeat Fisheries

law management

Food Forests

genetic resources law management

Game

law

Gene bank Herbalist plants Marine conservation Non-timber forest products Rangeland Seed bank Wildlife

conservation management

Wood

Water

Types / location

Aquifer

storage and recovery

Drinking Fresh Groundwater

pollution recharge remediation

Hydrosphere Ice

bergs glacial polar

Irrigation Rain

harvesting

Stormwater Surface water Wastewater

reclaimed

Aspects

Desalination Floods Law Leaching Sanitation Conflict Conservation Peak water Pollution Privatization Quality Right Resources

management policy

Related

Commons

enclosure global land tragedy of

Economics

ecological land

Ecosystem services Exploitation

overexploitation Earth Overshoot Day

Management

adaptive

Natural capital

accounting

Nature reserve Systems ecology Urban ecology Wilderness

Resource

Common-pool Conflict (perpetuation) Curse Depletion Extraction Nationalism Renewable / Non-renewable

Portals

Agriculture and agronomy Energy Environment Fishing Forestry Mining Water Wetlands

Category

agencies law management ministries organizations

Colleges Natural resources

Authority control

.