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Palestinian popular uprising suppressed[2]

Madrid Conference of 1991
Madrid Conference of 1991
and eventually Oslo I Accord: Establishment of the Palestinian Authority The PLO
PLO
recognizes Israel[3]

Belligerents

 Israel

al-Qiyada al Muwhhada

Fatah PFLP DFLP PPP

Hamas Palestinian Islamic Jihad

Supported by: Iraq[1] (during Gulf War)

Commanders and leaders

Yitzhak Shamir (Prime Minister) Yitzhak Rabin (Defense Minister) Dan Shomron (Chief of General Staff) Abu Jihad
Abu Jihad
 † Marwan Barghouti[4]

Casualties and losses

277 Israelis
Israelis
killed[5]

175 civilians[5] 102 security-force[5]

1,962 Palestinians killed[5]

1,603 killed by Israelis[5] 359 killed by Palestinians[5]

The First Intifada
First Intifada
or First Palestinian Intifada (also known simply as the intifada or intifadah[note A]) was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza.[6] The uprising lasted from December 1987 until the Madrid Conference
Madrid Conference
in 1991, though some date its conclusion to 1993, with the signing of the Oslo Accords.[7] The uprising began on 9 December,[8] in the Jabalia
Jabalia
refugee camp after an Israeli Defense Forces' (IDF) truck collided with a civilian car, killing four Palestinians.[9][10][11] In the wake of the incident, a protest movement arose, involving a two-fold strategy of resistance and civil disobedience,[12] consisting of general strikes, boycotts of Israeli Civil Administration
Israeli Civil Administration
institutions in the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
and the West Bank, an economic boycott consisting of refusal to work in Israeli settlements on Israeli products, refusal to pay taxes, refusal to drive Palestinian cars with Israeli licenses, graffiti, barricading,[13][14] and widespread throwing of stones and Molotov cocktails at the IDF and its infrastructure within the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip. Israel, deploying some 80,000 soldiers and initially firing live rounds, killed a large number of Palestinians. In the first 13 months, 332 Palestinians and 12 Israelis
Israelis
were killed.[15] Given the high proportion of children, youths and civilians killed, it then adopted a policy of 'might, power, and beatings,' namely "breaking Palestinians' bones".[15][16] The global diffusion of images of soldiers beating adolescents with clubs then led to the adoption of firing semi-lethal plastic bullets.[15] In the intifada's first year, Israeli security forces killed 311 Palestinians, of which 53 were under the age of 17.[15] Over the first two years, according to Save the Children, an estimated 7% of all Palestinians under 18 years of age suffered injuries from shootings, beatings, or tear gas.[16] Over six years the IDF killed an estimated 1,162–1,204[17] Palestinians. Between 23,600-29,900 Palestinian children required medical treatment from IDF beatings in the first 2 years.[18] Among Israelis, 100 civilians and 60 IDF personnel were killed[19] often by militants outside the control of the Intifada's UNLU,[20] and more than 1,400 Israeli civilians and 1,700 soldiers were injured.[21] Intra-Palestinian violence was also a prominent feature of the Intifada, with widespread executions of an estimated 822 Palestinians killed as alleged Israeli collaborators, (1988–April 1994).[22] At the time Israel
Israel
reportedly obtained information from some 18,000 Palestinians who had been compromised,[23] although fewer than half had any proven contact with the Israeli authorities.[24] The ensuing Second Intifada
Second Intifada
took place from September 2000 to 2005.

Contents

1 General causes

1.1 Background

2 Leadership and aims 3 The Intifada

3.1 Casualties 3.2 Intra-communal violence

4 Other notable events 5 United Nations

5.1 Security Council

6 Outcomes 7 Timeline 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

General causes According to Mubarak Awad, a Palestinian American clinical psychologist, the Intifada was a protest against Israeli repression including "beatings, shootings, killings, house demolitions, uprooting of trees, deportations, extended imprisonments, and detentions without trial".[25] After Israel's capture of the West Bank, Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
from Jordan
Jordan
and Egypt
Egypt
in the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
in 1967, frustration grew among Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied territories. Israel
Israel
opened its labor market to Palestinians in the newly occupied territories. Palestinians were recruited mainly to do unskilled or semi-skilled labor jobs Israelis
Israelis
did not want. By the time of the Intifada, over 40 percent of the Palestinian work force worked in Israel
Israel
daily. Additionally, Israeli confiscation of Palestinian land, high birth rates in the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
and the limited allocation of land for new building and agriculture created conditions marked by growing population density and rising unemployment, even for those with university degrees. At the time of the Intifada, only one in eight college-educated Palestinians could find degree-related work.[26] Couple this with an expansion of a Palestinian university system catering to people from refugee camps, villages, and small towns generating new Palestinian elite from a lower social strata that was more activist and confrontational with Israel.[27] The Israeli Labor Party's Yitzhak Rabin, the then Defense Minister, added deportations in August 1985 to Israel's "Iron Fist" policy of cracking down on Palestinian nationalism.[28] This, which led to 50 deportations in the following 4 years,[29] was accompanied by economic integration and increasing Israeli settlements such that the Jewish settler population in the West Bank
West Bank
alone nearly doubled from 35,000 in 1984 to 64,000 in 1988, reaching 130,000 by the mid nineties.[30] Referring to the developments, Israeli minister of Economics and Finance, Gad Ya'acobi, stated that "a creeping process of de facto annexation" contributed to a growing militancy in Palestinian society.[31] During the 1980s a number of mainstream Israeli politicians referred to policies of transferring the Palestinian population out of the territories leading to Palestinian fears that Israel
Israel
planned to evict them. Public statements calling for transfer of the Palestinian population were made by Deputy Defense minister Michael Dekel, Cabinet Minister Mordechai Tzipori and government Minister Yosef Shapira among others.[30] Describing the causes of the Intifada, Benny Morris
Benny Morris
refers to the "all-pervading element of humiliation", caused by the protracted occupation which he says was "always a brutal and mortifying experience for the occupied" and was "founded on brute force, repression and fear, collaboration and treachery, beatings and torture chambers, and daily intimidation, humiliation, and manipulation"[32] Background While the immediate cause for the First Intifada
First Intifada
is generally dated to a truck incident involving several Palestinian fatalities at the Erez Crossing in December 1987,[33] Mazin Qumsiyeh argues, against Donald Neff, that it began with multiple youth demonstrations earlier in the preceding month.[34] Some sources consider that the perceived IDF failure in late November 1987 to stop a Palestinian guerrilla operation, the Night of the Gliders, in which six Israeli soldiers were killed, helped catalyze local Palestinians to rebel.[33][35][36] Mass demonstrations had occurred a year earlier when, after two Gaza students at Birzeit University
Birzeit University
had been shot by Israeli soldiers on campus on 4 December 1986, the Israelis
Israelis
responded with harsh punitive measures, involving summary arrest, detention and systematic beatings of handcuffed Palestinian youths, ex-prisoners and activists, some 250 of whom were detained in four cells inside a converted army camp, known popularly as Ansar 11, outside Gaza city.[37] A policy of deportation was introduced to intimidate activists in January 1987. Violence simmered as a schoolboy from Khan Yunis
Khan Yunis
was shot dead by Israelis
Israelis
soldiers pursuing him in a Jeep. Over the summer the IDF's Lieutenant Ron Tal, who was responsible for guarding detainees at Ansar 11, was shot dead at point-blank range while stuck in a Gaza traffic jam. A curfew forbidding Gaza residents from leaving their homes was imposed for three days, during the Muslim feast of Eid al-Adha. In two incidents on 1 and 6 October 1987, respectively, the IDF ambushed and killed seven Gaza men, reportedly affiliated with Islamic Jihad, who had escaped from prison in May.[38] Some days later, a 17-year-old schoolgirl, Intisar al-'Attar, was shot in the back while in her schoolyard in Deir al-Balah
Deir al-Balah
by a settler in the Gaza Strip.[39] The Arab summit in Amman
Amman
in November 1987 focused on the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War, and the Palestinian issue was shunted to the sidelines for the first time in years.[40][41] Leadership and aims The Intifada was not initiated by any single individual or organization. Local leadership came from groups and organizations affiliated with the PLO
PLO
that operated within the Occupied Territories; Fatah, the Popular Front, the Democratic Front and the Palestine Communist Party.[42] The PLO's rivals in this activity were the Islamic organizations, Hamas
Hamas
and Islamic Jihad as well as local leadership in cities such as Beit Sahour
Beit Sahour
and Bethlehem. However, the uprising was predominantly led by community councils led by Hanan Ashrawi, Faisal Husseini
Faisal Husseini
and Haidar Abdel-Shafi, that promoted independent networks for education (underground schools as the regular schools were closed by the military in reprisal for the uprising), medical care, and food aid.[43] The Unified National Leadership of the Uprising (UNLU) gained credibility where the Palestinian society complied with the issued communiques.[42] There was a collective commitment to abstain from lethal violence, a notable departure from past practice,[44] which, according to Shalev arose from a calculation that recourse to arms would lead to an Israeli bloodbath and undermine the support they had in Israeli liberal quarters. The PLO
PLO
and its chairman Yassir Arafat had also decided on an unarmed strategy, in the expectation that negotiations at that time would lead to an agreement with Israel.[45] Pearlman attributes the non-violent character of the uprising to the movement's internal organization and its capillary outreach to neighborhood committees that ensured that lethal revenge would not be the response even in the face of Israeli state repression.[46] Hamas
Hamas
and Islamic Jihad cooperated with the leadership at the outset, and throughout the first year of the uprising conducted no armed attacks, except for the stabbing of a soldier in October 1988, and the detonation of two roadside bombs, which had no impact.[47] Leaflets publicizing the uprising's aims demanded the complete withdrawal of Israel
Israel
from the territories it had occupied in 1967: the lifting of curfews and checkpoints; it appealed to Palestinians to join in civic resistance, while asking them not to employ arms, since military resistance would only invite devastating retaliation from Israel; it also called for the establishment of the Palestinian state on the West Bank
West Bank
and the Gaza Strip, abandoning the standard rhetorical calls, still current at the time, for the "liberation" of all of Palestine.[48] The Intifada

An IDF soldier requesting a resident of Jabalia
Jabalia
to erase a slogan on a wall during the first intifada.

Israel's drive into the occupied territories had occasioned spontaneous acts of resistance, but the administration, pursuing an "iron fist" policy of deportations, demolition of homes, collective punishment, curfews and the suppression of political institutions, was confident that Palestinian resistance was exhausted. The assessment that the unrest would collapse proved to be mistaken.[49]

An Improvised tire puncturing device (slang term 'Ninja') comprising an iron nail inserted into a rubber disc (from used tire). Many of these makeshift weapons were scattered by Palestinians on main roads in the occupied territories of the West Bank
West Bank
during the First Intifada.

On 8 December 1987, an Israeli army tank transporter crashed into a row of cars containing Palestinians returning from working in Israel, at the Erez checkpoint. Four Palestinians, three of them residents of the Jabalya refugee camp, the largest of the eight refugee camps in the Gaza Strip, were killed and seven others seriously injured. The traffic incident was witnessed by hundreds of Palestinian labourers returning home from work.[50] The funerals, attended by 10,000 people from the camp that evening, quickly led to a large demonstration. Rumours swept the camp that the incident was an act of intentional retaliation for the stabbing to death of an Israeli businessman, killed while shopping in Gaza two days earlier.[51][52] Following the throwing of a petrol bomb at a passing patrol car in the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
on the following day, Israeli forces, firing with live ammunition and tear gas canisters into angry crowds, shot one young Palestinian dead and wounded 16 others.[53][54] On 9 December, several popular and professional Palestinian leaders held a press conference in West Jerusalem
Jerusalem
with the Israeli League for Human and Civil Rights in response to the deterioration of the situation. While they convened, reports came in that demonstrations at the Jabalya camp were underway and that a 17-year-old youth had been shot to death after throwing a petrol bomb at Israeli soldiers. She would later become known as the first martyr of the intifada.[55][56] Protests rapidly spread into the West Bank
West Bank
and East Jerusalem. Youths took control of neighbourhoods, closed off camps with barricades of garbage, stone and burning tires, meeting soldiers who endeavoured to break through with petrol bombs. Palestinian shopkeepers closed their businesses, and labourers refused to turn up to their work in Israel. Israel
Israel
defined these activities as 'riots', and justified the repression as necessary to restore 'law and order'.[57] Within days the occupied territories were engulfed in a wave of demonstrations and commercial strikes on an unprecedented scale. Specific elements of the occupation were targeted for attack: military vehicles, Israeli buses and Israeli banks. None of the dozen Israeli settlements were attacked and there were no Israeli fatalities from stone-throwing at cars at this early period of the outbreak.[58] Equally unprecedented was the extent of mass participation in these disturbances: tens of thousands of civilians, including women and children. The Israeli security forces used the full panoply of crowd control measures to try and quell the disturbances: cudgels, nightsticks, tear gas, water cannons, rubber bullets, and live ammunition. But the disturbances only gathered momentum.[59] Soon there was widespread rock-throwing, road-blocking and tire burning throughout the territories. By 12 December, six Palestinians had died and 30 had been injured in the violence. The next day, rioters threw a gasoline bomb at the U.S. consulate in East Jerusalem though no one was hurt.[56] The Israeli response to the Palestinian uprising was harsh. The IDF killed many Palestinians at the beginning of the Intifada, the majority killed during demonstrations and riots. Since initially a high proportion of those killed were civilians and youths, Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
adopted a fallback policy of 'might, power and beatings'.[60] Israel
Israel
used mass arrests of Palestinians, engaged in collective punishments like closing down West Bank
West Bank
universities for most years of the uprising, and West Bank
West Bank
schools for a total of 12 months. Round-the-clock curfews were imposed over 1600 times in just the first year. Communities were cut off from supplies of water, electricity and fuel. At any one time, 25,000 Palestinians would be confined to their homes. Trees were uprooted on Palestinians farms, and agricultural produce blocked from being sold. In the first year over 1,000 Palestinians had their homes either demolished or blocked up. Settlers also engaged in private attacks on Palestinians. Palestinian refusals to pay taxes were met with confiscations of property and licenses, new car taxes, and heavy fines for any family whose members had been identified as stone-throwers.[61] Casualties In the first year in the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
alone, 142 Palestinians were killed, while no Israelis
Israelis
died. 77 were shot dead, and 37 died from tear-gas inhalation. 17 died from beatings at the hand of Israeli police or soldiers.[45] During the whole six-year intifada, the Israeli army killed from 1,162-1,204 (or 1,284)[62] Palestinians,241/332[62] being children. From 57,000 to 120,000 were arrested.[15][62][63] 481 were deported while 2,532 had their houses razed to the ground.[62] Between December 1987 and June 1991, 120,000 were injured, 15,000 arrested and 1,882 homes demolished.[64] One journalistic calculation reports that in the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
alone from 1988 to 1993, some 60,706 Palestinians suffered injuries from shootings, beatings or tear gas.[65] In the first five weeks alone, 35 Palestinians were killed and some 1,200 wounded, a casualty rate that only energized the uprising by drawing more Palestinians into participating.[66] B'Tselem
B'Tselem
calculated 179 Israelis
Israelis
killed, while official Israeli statistics place the total at 200 over the same period. 3,100 Israelis, 1,700 of them soldiers, and 1,400 civilians suffered injuries.[65] By 1990 Ktzi'ot Prison
Ktzi'ot Prison
in the Negev
Negev
held approximately one out of every 50 West Bank
West Bank
and Gazan males older than 16 years.[67] Gerald Kaufman
Gerald Kaufman
remarked: "[F]riends of Israel
Israel
as well as foes have been shocked and saddened by that country's response to the disturbances."[68] In an article in the London Review of Books, John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt
Stephen Walt
asserted that IDF soldiers were given truncheons and encouraged to break the bones of Palestinian protesters. The Swedish branch of Save the Children
Save the Children
estimated that "23,600 to 29,900 children required medical treatment for their beating injuries in the first two years of the Intifada", one third of whom were children under the age of ten years.[69] Israel
Israel
adopted a policy of arresting key representatives of Palestinian institutions. After lawyers in Gaza went on strike to protest their inability to visit their detained clients, Israel detained the deputy head of its association without trial for six months. Dr. Zakariya al-Agha, the head of the Gaza Medical Association, was likewise arrested and held for a similar period of detention, as were several women active in Women's Work Committees. During Ramadan, many camps in Gaza were placed under curfew for weeks, impeding residents from buying food, and Al-Shati, Jabalya and Burayj were subjected to saturation bombing by tear gas. During the first year of the Intifada, the total number of casualties in the camps from such bombing totalled 16.[70] Intra-communal violence

Palestinian lynched for alleged collaboration with Israel

Between 1988 and 1992, intra-Palestinian violence claimed the lives of nearly 1,000.[71] By June 1990, according to Benny Morris, "[T]he Intifada seemed to have lost direction. A symptom of the PLO's frustration was the great increase in the killing of suspected collaborators."[72] Roughly 18,000 Palestinians, compromised by Israeli intelligence, are said to have given information to the other side.[23] Collaborators were threatened with death or ostracism unless they desisted, and if their collaboration with the Occupying Power continued, were executed by special troops such as the "Black Panthers" and "Red Eagles". An estimated 771 (according to Associated Press) to 942 (according to the IDF) Palestinians were executed on suspicion of collaboration during the span of the Intifada.[73] Other notable events On 16 April 1988, a leader of the PLO, Khalil al-Wazir, nom de guerre Abu Jihad
Abu Jihad
or 'Father of the Struggle', was assassinated in Tunis
Tunis
by an Israeli commando squad. Israel
Israel
claimed he was the 'remote-control "main organizer" of the revolt', and perhaps believed that his death would break the back of the intifada. During the mass demonstrations and mourning in Gaza that followed, two of the main mosques of Gaza were raided by the IDF and worshippers were beaten and tear-gassed.[74] In total between 11 and 15 Palestinians were killed during the demonstrations and riots in Gaza and West Bank
West Bank
that followed al-Wazir's death.[75] In June of that year, the Arab League agreed to support the intifada financially at the 1988 Arab League summit. The Arab League
Arab League
reaffirmed its financial support in the 1989 summit.[76] Israeli defense minister Yitzhak Rabin's response was: "We will teach them there is a price for refusing the laws of Israel."[77] When time in prison did not stop the activists, Israel
Israel
crushed the boycott by imposing heavy fines and seizing and disposing of equipment, furnishings, and goods from local stores, factories and homes.[78] On 8 October 1990, 22 Palestinians were killed by Israeli police during the Temple Mount riots. This led the Palestinians to adopt more lethal tactics, with three Israeli civilians and one IDF soldier stabbed in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Gaza two weeks later. Incidents of stabbing persisted.[79] The Israeli state apparatus carried out contradictory and conflicting policies that were seen to have injured Israel's own interests, such as the closing of educational establishments (putting more youths onto the streets) and issuing the Shin Bet
Shin Bet
list of collaborators.[80] Suicide bombings by Palestinian militants started on 16 April 1993 with the Mehola Junction bombing, carried at the end of the Intifada.[81] United Nations The large number of Palestinian casualties provoked international condemnation. In subsequent resolutions, including 607 and 608, the Security Council demanded Israel
Israel
cease deportations of Palestinians. In November 1988, Israel
Israel
was condemned by a large majority of the UN General Assembly for its actions against the intifada. The resolution was repeated in the following years.[82] Security Council On 17 February 1989, the UN Security Council
UN Security Council
unanimously but for US condemned Israel
Israel
for disregarding Security Council resolutions, as well as for not complying with the fourth Geneva Convention. The United States, put a veto on a draft resolution which would have strongly deplored it. On 9 June, the US again put a veto on a resolution. On 7 November, the US vetoed a third draft resolution, condemning alleged Israeli violations of human rights[83] On 14 October 1990, Israel
Israel
openly declared that it would not abide Security Council Resolution 672
Security Council Resolution 672
because it did not pay attention to attacks on Jewish worshippers at the Western Wall.[84] Israel
Israel
refused to receive a delegation of the Secretary-General, which would investigate Israeli violence. The following Resolution 673 made little impression and Israel
Israel
kept on obstructing UN investigations.[85] Outcomes The Intifada was recognized as an occasion where the Palestinians acted cohesively and independently of their leadership or assistance of neighbouring Arab states.[86][87][88] The Intifada broke the image of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as a united Israeli city. There was unprecedented international coverage, and the Israeli response was criticized in media outlets and international fora.[86][89][90] The success of the Intifada gave Arafat and his followers the confidence they needed to moderate their political programme: At the meeting of the Palestine National Council in Algiers in mid-November 1988, Arafat won a majority for the historic decision to recognise Israel's legitimacy; to accept all the relevant UN resolutions going back to 29 November 1947; and to adopt the principle of a two-state solution.[91] Jordan
Jordan
severed its residual administrative and financial ties to the West Bank
West Bank
in the face of sweeping popular support for the PLO.[92] The failure of the "Iron Fist" policy, Israel's deteriorating international image, Jordan
Jordan
cutting legal and administrative ties to the West Bank, and the U.S.'s recognition of the PLO
PLO
as the representative of the Palestinian people
Palestinian people
forced Rabin to seek an end to the violence though negotiation and dialogue with the PLO.[93][94] In the diplomatic sphere, the PLO
PLO
opposed the Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
in Iraq. Afterwards, the PLO
PLO
was isolated diplomatically, with Kuwait
Kuwait
and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
cutting off financial support, and 300,000-400,000 Palestinians fled or were expelled from Kuwait
Kuwait
before and after the war. The diplomatic process led to the Madrid Conference
Madrid Conference
and the Oslo Accords.[95] The impact on the Israeli services sector, including the important Israeli tourist industry, was notably negative.[96] Timeline

See also

1990 Temple Mount riots Second Intifada
Second Intifada
(2000–2005) 2014 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
unrest (2014) Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
(2015) Sumud
Sumud
(steadfastness) Palestinian nationalism Palestinian political violence List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

Notes

^Note A The word intifada (انتفاضة) is an Arabic word meaning "uprising". Its strict Arabic transliteration is intifāḍah.

References

^ (in Turkish) 'Saddam olsaydı İsrail'e dersini verirdi' Archived 10 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Zaman ^ Kober, Avi, Israel's Wars of Attrition: Attrition Challenges to Democratic States, p. 165 ^ Kim Murphy. " Israel
Israel
and PLO, in Historic Bid for Peace, Agree to Mutual Recognition," Los Angeles Times, 10 September 1993. ^ "Profile: Marwan Barghouti" BBC News. 26 November 2009. Accessed 9 August 2011. ^ a b c d e f Kober, Avi. "From Blitzkrieg To Attrition: Israel's Attrition Strategy and Staying Power." Small Wars & Insurgencies 16, no. 2 (2005): 216-40. ^ Lockman; Beinin (1989), p. 5. ^ Nami Nasrallah, 'The First and Second Palestinian intifadas,' in David Newman, Joel Peters (eds.) Routledge Handbook on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Routledge, 2013, pp. 56–68, p. 56. ^ Edward Said (1989). Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising Against Israeli Occupation. South End Press. pp. 5–22.  ^ Berman 2011, p. 41. ^ Michail Omer-Man The accident that sparked an Intifada, 12/04/2011 ^ David McDowall,Palestine and Israel: The Uprising and Beyond, University of California Press, 1989 p. 1 ^ Ruth Margolies Beitler, The Path to Mass Rebellion: An Analysis of Two Intifadas, Lexington Books, 2004 p.xi. ^ BBC: A History of Conflict ^ Walid Salem, 'Human Security from Below: Palestinian Citizens Protection Strategies, 1988–2005 ,' in Monica den Boer, Jaap de Wilde (eds.), The Viability of Human Security,Amsterdam University Press, 2008 pp. 179–201 p. 190. ^ a b c d e Audrey Kurth Cronin 'Endless wars and no surrender,' in Holger Afflerbach, Hew Strachan
Hew Strachan
(eds.) How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender, Oxford University Press 2012 pp. 417–433 p. 426. ^ a b Wendy Pearlman, Violence, Nonviolence, and the Palestinian National Movement,Cambridge University Press 2011, p. 114. ^ Rami Nasrallah, 'The First and Second Palestinian Intifadas,' in Joel Peters, David Newman (eds.) The Routledge Handbook on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Routledge 2013 pp. 56–68 p. 61 ^ Arthur Neslen, In Your Eyes a Sandstorm: Ways of Being Palestinian, University of California Press, 2011 p. 122. ^ B'Tselem
B'Tselem
Statistics; Fatalities in the first Intifada. ^ Mient Jan Faber, Mary Kaldor, 'The deterioration of human security in Palestine,' in Mary Martin, Mary Kaldor (eds.) The European Union and Human Security: External Interventions and Missions, Routledge, 2009 pp. 95-111. ^ 'Intifada,' in David Seddon, (ed.)A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East, Taylor & Francis 2004, p. 284. ^ Human Rights Watch, Israel, the Occupied West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip, and the Palestinian Authority
Palestinian Authority
Territories, November, 2001. Vol. 13, No. 4(E), p. 49 ^ a b Amitabh Pal, "Islam" Means Peace: Understanding the Muslim Principle of Nonviolence Today, ABC-CLIO, 2011 p. 191. ^ Lockman; Beinin (1989), p. [1] ^ Ackerman; DuVall (2000), p 407. ^ Ackerman; DuVall (2000), p 401. ^ Robinson, Glenn E. "The Palestinians." The Contemporary Middle East, Third Edition. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2013. 126-127. ^ Helena Cobban, 'The PLO
PLO
and the Intifada', in Robert Owen Freedman, (ed.) The Intifada: its impact on Israel, the Arab World, and the superpowers, University Press of Florida, 1991 pp. 70-106, pp. 94-5.'must be considered as an essential part of the backdrop against which the intifada germinated'.(p. 95) ^ Helena Cobban, 'The PLO
PLO
and the Intifada', p. 94. In the immediate aftermath of the 6 Day War in 1967, some 15,000 Gazans had been deported to Egypt. A further 1,150 were deported between September 1967 and May 1978. This pattern was drastically curtailed by the Likud governments under Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
between 1978 and 1984. ^ a b Morris, Benny (2001). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. Vintage. p. 567. ISBN 0679744754.  ^ Lockman; Beinin (1989), p. 32. ^ Morris, Benny (2001). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. Vintage. pp. 341, 568. ISBN 0679744754.  ^ a b Neff, Donald. "The Intifada Erupts, Forcing Israel
Israel
to Recognize Palestinians". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. December. 1997: 81–83. Retrieved 13 May 2008.  ^ M. B. Qumsiyeh Popular Resistance in Palestine; A History of Hope and Empowerment, Pluto Press; New York 2011.pp. 135 ^ Shay (2005), p. 74. ^ Oren, Amir (18 October 2006). "Secrets of the Ya-Ya brotherhood". Haaretz. Retrieved 13 May 2008.  ^ Anita Vitullo,'Uprising in Gaza,' in Lockman and Beinin 1989 pp. 43-55 pp. 43-44. ^ Vitullo, p. 44 The first incident involved two unarmed men, one a well-known Gaza businessman, at a roadblock. The second occurred in a residential raid, where subsequently a small cache of weapons were found in the cars of four men. The army them bulldozed their homes. A general strike took place, and in response Israel
Israel
arrested and ordered the deportation of Shaykh 'Abd al-'Aziz Awad, who was held responsible for the growth of popular support for Islamic Jihad, on 15 November. ^ Vitullo, pp45-6. The settlers did not report the killing. An Israeli schoolteacher was arrested for the incident after a ballistics test was undertaken, but an Israel
Israel
judge released him after a week, in the wake of Israeli settler
Israeli settler
protests. Settlers said she had been throwing stones. ^ Shalev (1991), p. 33. ^ Nassar; Heacock (1990), p. 31. ^ a b Lockman; Beinin (1989), p. 39. ^ MERIP Palestine, Israel
Israel
and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, A Primer ^ "What amazed this writer . .was the interesting departure from the norms of the past. Palestinians in the Occupied Territories were continuously insisting that they would not resort to arms. Any escalation in the use of violence on their part would be as a last resort, for defensive purposes only", Souad Dajani, cited Pearlman, Violence, Nonviolence, and the Palestinian National Movement, p. 106 ^ a b Jean-Pierre Filiu, Gaza: A History, Oxford University Press p. 206. ^ éPearlman, ibid. p. 107. ^ Pearlman, p. 112. ^ Walid Salem p. 189 ^ Mark Tessler, A History of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict,Indiana University Press, 1994 p. 677. ^ Vitullo p. 46. ^ Ruth Margolies Beitler, The Path to Mass Rebellion: An Analysis of Two Intifadas, Lexington Books, 2004 p.xiii. ^ Vitullo, p. 46:'Although Palestinians rushed to aid the man, no one cooperated with military interrogators, who arrested scores of people and clamped a curfew on the area.' ^ Ruth Margolies Beitler,The Path to Mass Rebellion: An Analysis of Two Intifadas, p. 116 n.75. ^ Tessler, A History of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, pp. 677-8. ^ Vitullo, p. 46. writes 20 year old man. ^ a b 'Intifada,' in David Seddon,(ed.) A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East, p. 284. ^ Vitullo p. 47 challenges this:'To the contrary, the protests showed restraint and rationality. . .Demonstrations were not "peaceful" but neither did they turn Palestinians into mindless mobs. Youths stripped one Israeli down to his underwear in front of Shifa hospital, but then let him run back to his fellow soldiers. A young Palestinian took another soldier's rifle away from him, broke it in two, then handed it back'. ^ Vitullo, p. 47 ^ Shlaim (2000), pp. 450–1. ^ Audrey Kurth Cronin, 'How fighting ends: asymmetric wars, terrorism and suicide bombing,' inHolger Afflerbach, Hew Strachan
Hew Strachan
(eds.) How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender, Oxford University Press, 2012 pp. 417-433, p. 426 ^ Pearlman, p. 115. ^ a b c d Juan José López-Ibor, Jr., George Christodoulou, Mario Maj, Norman Sartorius, Ahmed Okasha (eds.),Disasters and Mental Health. John Wiley & Sons, 2005 p. 231. ^ WRMEA Donald Neff The Intifada Erupts, Forcing Israel
Israel
to Recognize Palestinians ^ Sumantra Bose, Contested Lands: Israel-Palestine, Kashmir, Bosnia, Cyprus, and Sri Lanka, Harvard University Press, 2007 p. 243 ^ a b Nami Nasrallah, 'The First and Second Palestinian intifadas,' in David Newman, Joel Peters (eds.) Routledge Handbook on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Routledge, 2013, pp. 56–67, p. 56. ^ Ruth Margolies Beitler, The Path to Mass Rebellion: An Analysis of Two Intifadas, p. 120 ^ Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(HRW) (1991) Prison Conditions in Israel
Israel
and the Occupied Territories. A Middle East Watch Report. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-011-1. Pages 18, 64. ^ McDowall (1989), p. 2. ^ Mearsheimer, John; Walt, Stephen (2006). "The Israel
Israel
Lobby". London Review of Books. 28 (6): 3–12.  ^ Vitullo pp. 51-2, ^ "Collaborators, One Year Al-Aqsa Intifada Fact Sheets And Figures". One Year Al-Aqsa Intifada Fact Sheets And Figures. The Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group. Archived from the original on 6 June 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2007.  ^ Morris (1999), p. 612. ^ Sergio Catignani, Israeli Counter-Insurgency and the Intifadas: Dilemmas of a Conventional Army, Routledge, 2008 pp. 81-84. ^ Anita Vitullo, pp. 50-1 ^ UN (31 July 1991). "THE QUESTION OF PALESTINE 1979-1990". United Nations. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2015.  ^ Sela, Avraham. "Arab Summit Conferences." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. pp. 158-160 ^ Sosebee, Stephen J. "The Passing of Yitzhak Rabin, Whose 'Iron Fist' Fueled the Intifada" The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 31 October 1990. Vol. IX #5, pg. 9 ^ Aburish, Said K. (1998). Arafat: From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing
Bloomsbury Publishing
pp. 201-228 ISBN 978-1-58234-049-4 ^ Ruth Margolies Beitler, The Path to Mass Rebellion: An Analysis of Two Intifadas, p. 128. ^ Nassar; Heacock (1990), p. 115. ^ Jeffrey Ivan Victoroff (2006). Tangled Roots: Social and Psychological Factors in the Genesis of Terrorism. IOS Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-58603-670-6.  ^ Resolution 44/2 of 06.10.89; Resolution 45/69 of 06.12.90; Resolution 46/76 of 11.12.91 ^ Yearbook of the United Nations
United Nations
1989, Chapter IV, Middle East. 31 December 1989. ^ Cuéllar, Javier Pérez de (1997). Pilgrimage for peace: a Secretary-General's memoir. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-312-16486-7.  ^ Division for Palestinian Rights (DPR), The question of Palestine 1979–1990 Archived 4 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Chapter II, section E. The intifadah and the need to ensure the protection of the Palestinians living under Israeli occupation. 31 July 1991. ^ a b McDowall (1989), p. [2] ^ Nassar; Heacock (1990), p. 1. ^ Eitan Alimi (9 January 2007). Israeli Politics and the First Palestinian Intifada: Political Opportunities, Framing Processes and Contentious Politics. Taylor & Francis. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-203-96126-1.  ^ UNGA, Resolution "43/21. The uprising (intifadah) of the Palestinian people" Archived 14 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. 3 November 1988 (doc.nr. A/RES/43/21). ^ Shlaim (2000), p. 455. ^ Shlaim (2000), p. 466. ^ Pearlman, p. 113 ^ Shlaim (2000), pp. 455–7. ^ Foreign Policy Research Institute Archived 9 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Yitzhak Rabin: An Appreciation By Harvey Sicherman ^ Roberts; Garton Ash (2009) p. 37. ^ Noga Collins-kreiner, Nurit Kliot, Yoel Mansfeld, Keren Sagi (2006) Christian Tourism to the Holy Land: Pilgrimage During Security Crisis Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., ISBN 978-0-7546-4703-4 and ISBN 978-0-7546-4703-4

Bibliography

Ackerman, Peter; DuVall, Jack (2000). A Force More Powerful: A Century of Nonviolent Conflict. New York: Palgrave. ISBN 0-312-24050-3.  Alimi, Eitan Y. (2006). Israeli Politics and the First Palestinian Intifada (2007 hardback ed.). Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-38560-2.  Aronson, Geoffrey (1990). Israel, Palestinians, and the Intifada: Creating Facts on the West Bank. London: Kegan Paul International. ISBN 978-0-7103-0336-3.  Berman, Eli (2011). Radical, Religious, and Violent: The New Economics of Terrorism. MIT Press. p. 314. ISBN 0262258005.  Finkelstein, Norman (1996). The Rise and Fall of Palestine: A Personal Account of the Intifada Years. Minnesota: University Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-2858-2.  Hiltermann, Joost R. (1991). Behind the Intifada: Labor and Women's Movements in the Occupied Territories (1993 reprint ed.). Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-07869-4.  King, Mary Elizabeth (2007). A Quiet Revolution: The First Palestinian Intifada and Nonviolent Resistance. New York: Nation Books. ISBN 978-1-56025-802-5.  Lockman, Zachary; Beinin, Joel, eds. (1989). Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising Against Israeli Occupation. Cambridge, MA: South End Press. ISBN 978-0-89608-363-9.  McDowall, David (1989). Palestine and Israel: The Uprising and Beyond. California: University Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06902-2.  Morris, Benny (1999). Righteous Victims: a History of the Zionist-Arab conflict, 1881-1999. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-74475-7.  Nassar, Jamal Raji; Heacock, Roger, eds. (1990). Intifada: Palestine at the Crossroads. New York: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-93411-X.  Peretz, Don (1990). Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-0860-9.  Rigby, Andrew (1991). Living the Intifada. London: Zed Books. ISBN 978-1-85649-040-5. , out-of-print, now downloadable at civilresistance.info Roberts, Adam; Garton Ash, Timothy, eds. (2009). Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present. Oxford: University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-955201-6.  Shay, Shaul (2005). The Axis of Evil: Iran, Hizballah, and the Palestinian Terror. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7658-0255-2.  Schiff, Ze'ev; Ya'ari, Ehud (1989). Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising: Israel's Third Front. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-67530-1.  Shalev, Aryeh (1991). The Intifada: Causes and Effects. Jerusalem: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post & Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-8303-3.  Shlaim, Avi (2000). The Iron Wall: Israel
Israel
and the Arab World. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-028870-4. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to First Intifada.

Jewish Virtual Library The Intifada in Palestine:Introduction (www.intifada.com) United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 605 Palestinian Arab "collaborators" (Guardian, UK) The Future of a Rebellion
Rebellion
- Palestine An analysis of the 1980s intifada revolt of Palestinian youth. on libcom.org U.S. Involvement with Palestine's Rebellions from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives Israel's Post-Soviet Expansion from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives

v t e

Israeli–Palestinian conflict

Participants

Israel

Israel
Israel
Defense Forces Israel
Israel
Police Mossad Shabak (Shin Bet)

Palestinians

Principals

All-Palestine Protectorate Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO) Fatah Hamas Palestinian National Authority

Other groups

al-Aqsa Brigades DFLP PLF PIJ PPSF PFLP PFLP-GC PRC

Third-party groups

Arab League Hezbollah

Individuals

Israelis

Moshe Arens Ami Ayalon Ehud Barak Menachem Begin Meir Dagan Moshe Dayan Avi Dichter Yuval Diskin David Ben-Gurion Efraim Halevy Dan Halutz Tzipi Livni Golda Meir Shaul Mofaz Yitzhak Mordechai Benjamin Netanyahu Ehud Olmert Shimon Peres Yaakov Peri Yitzhak Rabin Amnon Lipkin-Shahak Yitzhak Shamir Ariel Sharon Shabtai Shavit Moshe Ya'alon Danny Yatom Zvi Zamir

Palestinians

Abu Abbas Mahmoud Abbas Moussa Arafat Yasser Arafat Yahya Ayyash Marwan Barghouti Mohammed Dahlan Mohammed Deif George Habash Wadie Haddad Ismail Haniyeh Nayef Hawatmeh Amin al-Husayni Ghazi Jabali Ahmed Jibril Abu Jihad Salah Khalaf Leila Khaled Sheikh Khalil Khaled Mashal Zuheir Mohsen Abu Ali Mustafa Abu Nidal Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Jibril Rajoub Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi Ali Hassan Salameh Salah Shehade Ramadan Shalah Fathi Shaqaqi Ahlam Tamimi Ahmed Yassin

Timeline

Background

1920–1948

1920

Nebi Musa riots Battle of Tel Hai

1921 Jaffa riots 1929 Palestine riots

Hebron massacre Safed massacre

1936–39 Arab revolt 1944–47 Jewish insurgency 1947–48 Civil War

 

1948–1970

1948 Arab–Israeli War

massacres

1948–present Fedayeen insurgency

1951–1967 Attacks against Israeli civilians 1950s–1960s IDF reprisal operations

1953 Qibya massacre 1956 Kafr Qasim / Khan Yunis / Rafah massacres 1967 Six-Day War 1967–70 War of Attrition

1968 Battle of Karameh

Palestinian insurgency

1968–1982

1970 Avivim school bus massacre 1972 Sabena Flight 571 / Munich massacre / Operation "Wrath of God" (1973 Lillehammer affair) 1974 Kiryat Shmona massacre / Ma'alot massacre 1975 Savoy Hotel attack 1976 Operation "Entebbe" 1978 Coastal Road massacre / South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict 1980 Misgav Am hostage crisis

 

1973–1987

1973 Yom Kippur War 1975 Zion Square bombing 1982  Lebanon
Lebanon
War

Siege of Beirut

1984 Bus 300 affair 1985 Achille Lauro hijacking / Operation "Wooden Leg" 1987 Night of the Gliders

First Intifada

1987–1991

1988  Tunis
Tunis
Raid 1989 Bus 405 attack 1990 Temple Mount riots 1990s Palestinian suicide attacks 1994 Cave of the Patriarchs massacre

Second Intifada

2000–2005

Palestinian rocket attacks

list

Palestinian suicide attacks Israeli assassinations 2000 October events 2001 Santorini 2002 Karine A / Operation "Defensive Shield" / Battle of Jenin / Battle of Nablus / Operation "Determined Path" 2003 Abu Hasan / Ain es Saheb airstrike 2004 Operation "Rainbow" / Beit Hanoun raid / Operation "Days of Penitence"

 

2006–present

2006 Operation "Bringing Home the Goods" 2008 Mercaz HaRav / Jerusalem
Jerusalem
bulldozer attack 2009 Temple Mount riots 2010 Palestinian militancy campaign 2015  Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
(2015–2016) 2017 Temple Mount crisis

Gaza–Israel conflict

2006–present

2006 Gaza beach explosion / Gaza cross-border raid / Operation "Summer Rains" / Operation "Autumn Clouds" / Beit Hanoun shelling 2008 Gaza– Egypt
Egypt
border breach / Operation "Hot Winter" 2008–09 Gaza War 2010 Gaza flotilla raid 2012 Operation "Returning Echo" / Operation "Pillar of Defense" 2014 Operation "Protective Edge" 2015 Freedom Flotilla III 2018 Land Day incidents

Diplomacy

Timeline

1948–1991

1948 Palestinian exodus

depopulated Arab settlements

1949 Lausanne Conference 1967–present Israeli settlement

settler violence international law

1990s

1991 Madrid Conference 1993/95 Oslo Accords 1994  Protocol on Economic Relations (Paris Protocol) 1994 Gaza–Jericho Agreement 1994–present US security assistance to PNA 1997 Hebron Agreement 1998 Wye River Memorandum 1999 Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum

2000s

2000 Camp David Summit / Clinton Parameters 2001 Taba Summit 2002 Quartet established 2003 Road Map 2005 Israeli disengagement from Gaza 2005 Agreement on Movement and Access 2006 Valley of Peace initiative 2007 Annapolis Conference 2009 Aftonbladet Israel
Israel
controversy

2010s

2010–11 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks 2011 Palestine Papers 2013–14 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks

United Nations

1947 UN Resolution 181 1948 UN Resolution 194 1967 UN Resolution 242

v t e

Arab–Israeli conflict

v t e

Countries Authorities Organizations

Primary countries and authorities

All-Palestine Egypt Hamas
Hamas
Gaza Iraq Kuwait Israel Jordan Lebanon Pakistan Palestinian National Authority Saudi Arabia Syria

Organizations

Active

Abu Nidal
Abu Nidal
Organization Amal al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades Syrian Social Nationalist Party Arab League Arab Liberation Front Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine Fatah Guardians of the Cedars Hamas Hezbollah Jaish al-Islam Kataeb Lebanese Forces al-Mourabitoun Muslim Brotherhood Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestine Liberation Front Palestine Liberation Organization Palestinian Popular Struggle Front Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
– General Command Popular Resistance Committees as-Sa'iqa

Inactive or former

Arab Higher Committee Arab Liberation Army Black Hand Black September Haganah Holy War Army Irgun
Irgun
(Etzel) Japanese Red Army Lehi Palmach Revolutionary Cells South Lebanon
Lebanon
Army

Other countries

Algeria China Cuba France Iran Kuwait Libya Morocco North Korea Norway Pakistan Russia Sudan Tunisia Turkey Uganda United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Venezuela Yemen

Transnational

European Union United Nations

Former states

Mandatory Palestine Soviet Union United Arab Republic

v t e

Armed engagements

Background

1920 Battle of Tel Hai 1936–39 Arab revolt 1944 Operation ATLAS 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine

1948–1950s

1948–49 Arab–Israeli War 1950s Palestinian Fedayeen attacks (Reprisal operations) 1956 Suez Crisis

1960s

1966 Operation Shredder 1967 Six-Day War 1967–70 War of Attrition

1968 Battle of Karameh

Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

1968 Operation Gift

1970s–1980

1973 Yom Kippur War

Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

1972 Operation Isotope / Lod Airport massacre / Munich Olympics massacre 1972–79  Operation Wrath of God (Airstrike, Spring of Youth) 1973 Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 1974 Ma'alot massacre 1975 Savoy Operation 1976 Operation Entebbe 1978 Coastal Road massacre / Operation Litani 1980 Misgav Am hostage crisis

1980s

1981 Operation Opera 1982  Lebanon
Lebanon
War 1982–2000 South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict 1984 Bus 300 affair 1985 Operation Wooden Leg 1987–93 First Intifada

1988 Mothers' Bus rescue / Tunis
Tunis
raid

1990s

1992 Operation Bramble Bush 1993–2008 Palestinian suicide attacks 1993 Operation Accountability 1996 Operation Grapes of Wrath

2000s

2000–05 Al-Aqsa Intifada (Second Intifada) 2000–06 Shebaa Farms conflict 2001–present Rocket and mortar attacks on southern Israel 2003 Ain es Saheb airstrike 2006 Operation Bringing Home the Goods / Operation Summer Rains / Operation Autumn Clouds / Lebanon
Lebanon
War 2006–present Gaza– Israel
Israel
conflict

2007–08 Operation Hot Winter 2008–09 Gaza War

2007–present Lebanese rocket attacks

2010s

2010 Adaisseh skirmish / Palestinian militancy campaign Gaza– Israel
Israel
conflict

2011 Southern Israel
Israel
cross-border attacks 2012 Operation Returning Echo / Operation Pillar of Defense 2014 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict 2015  Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
(2015–2016)

v t e

Diplomacy and peace proposals

To 1948

1914 Damascus Protocol 1915 McMahon–Hussein Correspondence 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement 1917 Balfour Declaration 1918 Declaration to the Seven / Anglo-French Declaration 1919 Faisal–Weizmann Agreement 1920 San Remo conference 1922 Churchill White Paper 1937 Peel Commission 1939 White Paper 1947 UN Partition Plan 1948 American trusteeship proposal

1948–91

1948  UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
(UNGA) Resolution 194 1949 Armistice agreements / Lausanne Conference 1950  Tripartite Declaration 1964 Palestinian National Covenant 1967 Khartoum Resolution / UN Security Council
UN Security Council
(UNSC) Resolution 242 1973 UNSC Resolution 338 / UNSC Resolution 339 1974 Israel– Syria
Syria
disengagement agreement / UNSC Resolution 350 1978 UNSC Resolution 425 / Camp David Accords 1979 UNSC Resolution 446 / Egypt– Israel
Israel
Peace Treaty / UNSC Resolution 452 1980 UNSC Resolution 478 1981 UNSC Resolution 497 1983 Israel– Lebanon
Lebanon
agreement

1991–present

1991 Madrid Conference 1993 Oslo Accords 1994 Gaza–Jericho Agreement / Israel– Jordan
Jordan
peace treaty 1995 Beilin-Abu Mazen agreement 1998 Wye River Memorandum 1999 Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum 2000 Camp David Summit / Clinton Parameters 2001 Taba Summit 2002 Beirut Summit and peace initiative / Road map 2003 Geneva Initiative 2004 UNSC Resolution 1559 / UNSC Resolution 1566 2005 UNSC Resolution 1583 / Sharm el-Sheikh Summit / Israeli disengagement from Gaza / Agreement on Movement and Access 2006 UNSC Resolution 1701 2007 Annapolis Conference 2010 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks 2013 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks

v t e

Israeli wars and conflicts

Arab–Israeli War (1948–49) Reprisal operations (1951–56) Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(1956) Six-Day War
Six-Day War
(1967) War of Attrition
War of Attrition
(1967–70) Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
(1973) Operation Litani (1978) First Lebanon
Lebanon
War (1982–85) South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict (1985–2000) First Intifada
First Intifada
(1987–93) Second Intifada
Second Intifada
(2000–05) Second Lebanon
Lebanon
War (2006) Gaza War (2008–09) Operation Pillar of Defense
Operation Pillar of Defense
(2012) Israel–Gaza conflict (2014)

Authority control

.