* Iraq expelled from Kuwait * Kuwaiti monarchy restored * Destruction of Iraqi and Kuwaiti infrastructure * Failed Shia/Kurdish uprisings against the Iraqi government * Iraqi Kurdistan obtains autonomy, establishment of the northern Iraq no fly zone by the U.S. * Saddam Hussein retains power * U.N. sanctions against Iraq maintained until 2003 * United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 establishes cease-fire terms, beginning of the Iraq disarmament controversies
COMMANDERS AND LEADERS
Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Sheikh Saad Al Abdullah
King Fahd Saleh Al-Muhaya Khalid bin Sultan Margaret Thatcher John Major Peter de la Billière Brian Mulroney Hussain Muhammad Ershad François Mitterrand Michel Roquejeoffre Konstantinos Mitsotakis Ioannis Varvitsiotis Roh Tae-Woo Mikhail Gorbachev
956,600, including 700,000 US troops 650,000 soldiers
CASUALTIES AND LOSSES
COALITION: 292 killed (147 killed by enemy action, 145 non-hostile deaths) 467 wounded in action 776 wounded 31 Tanks destroyed/disabled 32 Bradley IFVs destroyed/damaged
1 M113 APC destroyed 2 British Warrior APCs destroyed 1 Artillery Piece destroyed 75 Aircraft destroyed KUWAIT: 57 aircraft lost, At least 8 aircraft captured (Mirage F1s) 4,200 killed, 12,000 captured ≈200 tanks destroyed/captured 850+ other armored vehicles destroyed/captured 17 ships sunk, 6 captured Hundreds tanks destroyed/captured about 1000 IFVs and APCs dozens aircraft dozens ships IRAQI: 20,000–35,000 killed 75,000+ wounded 3,700 tanks destroyed 2,400 APCs destroyed 2,600 Artillery Pieces destroyed 110 Aircraft destroyed 137 Aircraft escaped to Iran 19 naval ships sunk, 6 damaged
KUWAITI CIVILIAN LOSSES: Over 1,000 killed 600 missing people IRAQI CIVILIAN LOSSES: About 3,664 killed OTHER CIVILIAN LOSSES: 300 civilians killed, more injured
* v * t * e
Persian Gulf Wars
* Iranian Revolution (1978–79) * Iran– Iraq War (1980–88) * Invasion of Kuwait (1990) * Gulf War (1990–91) * Iraqi Kurdish/Shi\'a uprisings (1991) * Iraq no-fly zones conflict (1991–2003) * Iraq missile strikes (1993) * Iraq missile strikes (1996) * Iraq bombing (1998) * 1999 Shia uprising in Iraq * Iraq War (2003–11) * Iraqi insurgency (2011–13) * Iraqi Civil War (2014–present)
* v * t * e
INVASION OF KUWAIT
* Kuwaiti Bridges * Dasman Palace * Failaka * British Airways Flight 149
* Khafji * Wadi Al-Batin
* Ad-Dawrah * Qurah * Maradim * Bubiyan
* Air to Air combat * "Package Q" Air Strike * Ras Tanura * Samurra * Amiriyah
LIBERATION OF KUWAIT
* Rumaila * Safwan
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This article is part of a series about George H. W. Bush
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The GULF WAR (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed OPERATION DESERT SHIELD (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and OPERATION DESERT STORM (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait .
The war is also known under other names, such as the PERSIAN GULF
WAR, FIRST GULF WAR, GULF WAR I, KUWAIT WAR, FIRST IRAQ WAR, or IRAQ
WAR before the term "
Iraq War" became identified instead with the
Iraq War (also referred to in the US as "Operation Iraqi
Iraqi Army 's occupation of
Kuwait that began 2 August
1990 was met with international condemnation, and brought immediate
economic sanctions against
Iraq by members of the UN Security Council
. US President
George H. W. Bush deployed US forces into Saudi Arabia
, and urged other countries to send their own forces to the scene. An
array of nations joined the coalition, the largest military alliance
World War II . The great majority of the coalition's military
forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, and
The war was marked by the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN . The war has also earned the nickname _Video Game War_ after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board US bombers during Operation Desert Storm.
The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from
Kuwait began with an
aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991, continuing for five
weeks. This was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was
a decisive victory for the coalition forces, who liberated
advanced into Iraqi territory. The coalition ceased its advance, and
declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the ground campaign started.
Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on
Saudi Arabia's border.
Scud missiles against coalition
military targets in
* 1 Terminology
* 1.1 Operational names * 1.2 Campaign names
* 2 Background
* 3.1 Kuwaiti resistance movement
* 4 Run-up to the war
* 4.1 Diplomatic means
* 4.2 Military means
* 4.2.1 Creating a coalition * 4.2.2 Justification for intervention
* 5 Early battles
* 6 Counter reconnaissance * 7 Breach
* 8 Ground campaign
* 9 The end of active hostilities
* 10 Coalition involvement
* 11 Casualties
* 11.1 Civilian * 11.2 Iraqi
* 11.3 Coalition
* 11.3.1 Friendly fire
* 12 Controversies
* 12.1 Gulf War Illness * 12.2 Effects of depleted uranium * 12.3 Highway of Death * 12.4 Bulldozer assault * 12.5 Palestinian exodus from Kuwait * 12.6 Coalition bombing of Iraq\'s civilian infrastructure * 12.7 Abuse of Coalition POWs * 12.8 Operation Southern Watch * 12.9 Sanctions * 12.10 Draining of the Qurna Marshes * 12.11 Oil spill * 12.12 Kuwaiti oil fires
* 13 Cost
* 13.1 Effect on developing countries
* 14 Media coverage
* 15 Technology
* 15.1 Scud and Patriot missiles
* 16 See also * 17 Notes * 18 References
* 19 Bibliography
* 19.1 Films * 19.2 Novels
* 20 External links
The following names have been used to describe the conflict itself:
* _Gulf War_ and _ Persian Gulf War_ have been the most common terms for the conflict used within western countries . A problem with these terms is that the usage is ambiguous, having now been applied to at least three conflicts: see Gulf War (other) . The use of the term _Persian Gulf_ (as opposed to _Arabian Gulf_) is also disputed: see Persian Gulf naming dispute . With no consensus of naming, various publications have attempted to refine the name. Some variants include:
* _Gulf War_ (e.g. _The Gulf War_, BBC television series, 2005; _Modern Conflicts: The Gulf War_, Discovery Channel DVD set, 2010) * _ Persian Gulf War_ (e.g. _Encyclopedia of the Persian Gulf War_, Mark Grossman, 1995; _An Operational Analysis of the Persian Gulf War_, US Army War College , 2016) * _ Gulf War (1990–1991)_ (e.g. _The Gulf War 1991 (Essential Histories)_, Alastair Finlan, 2003; _Gulf War, 1990–91_, William Thomas Allison, 2012) * _First Gulf War_ (to distinguish it from the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the subsequent Iraq War ) (e.g. _ Gulf War One: Real Voices from the Front Line, Hugh McManners , 2010)_ * _Second Gulf War_ (to distinguish it from the Iran– Iraq War ) (e.g. _ Iraq and the Second Gulf War: State Building and Regime Security_, Mohammad-Mahmoud Mohamedou, 1997)
* _Liberation of Kuwait _ ( Arabic : تحرير الكويت) (_taḥrīr al-kuwayt_) is the term used by Kuwait and most of the coalition's Arab states, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Egypt, and the United Arab Emirates . * Other language terms include French : _la Guerre du Golfe_ and German : _Golfkrieg_ (_Gulf War_); German : _Zweiter Golfkrieg_ (_Second Gulf War_); French : _Guerre du Koweït_ (_War of Kuwait_) * _The mother of all battles_ ( Arabic : أم المعارك) (_umm al-ma‘ārik_) is a term derived from Saddam Hussein (e.g. _The Mother of All Battles: Saddam Hussein's Strategic Plan for the Persian Gulf War_, Kevin M. Woods, 2008).
Most of the coalition states used various names for their operations and the war's operational phases. These are sometimes incorrectly used as the conflict's overall name, especially the US _Desert Storm_:
* _Operation Desert Shield_ was the US operational name for the US buildup of forces and Saudi Arabia's defense from 2 August 1990, to 16 January 1991.
* _Operation Desert Storm_ was the US name of the airland conflict from 17 January 1991, through 11 April 1991.
* _Operation Desert Sabre_ (early name _Operation Desert Sword_) was the US name for the airland offensive against the Iraqi Army in the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations (the "100-hour war") from 24–28 February 1991, in itself, part of _Operation Desert Storm_.
* _ Operation Desert Farewell _ was the name given to the return of US units and equipment to the US in 1991 after Kuwait's liberation, sometimes referred to as _Operation Desert Calm_. * _ Operation Granby _ was the British name for British military activities during the operations and conflict. * _ Opération Daguet _ was the French name for French military activities in the conflict. * _ Operation Friction _ was the name of the Canadian operations * _Operazione Locusta _ (Italian for Locust ) was the Italian name for the operations and conflict.
In addition, various phases of each operation may have a unique operational name.
The US divided the conflict into three major campaigns:
* _Defense of Saudi Arabian country_ for the period 2 August 1990, through 16 January 1991. * _Liberation and Defense of Kuwait_ for the period 17 January 1991, through 11 April 1991. * _Southwest Asia Cease-Fire_ for the period 12 April 1991, through 30 November 1995, including _ Operation Provide Comfort _.
See also: Iraq– United States relations
Cold War ,
Iraq had been an ally of the
The Iraq– Kuwait dispute also involved Iraqi claims to Kuwait as Iraqi territory. Kuwait had been a part of the Ottoman Empire 's province of Basra , something that Iraq claimed made it rightful Iraqi territory. Its ruling dynasty, the al-Sabah family , had concluded a protectorate agreement in 1899 that assigned responsibility for its foreign affairs to the United Kingdom. The UK drew the border between the two countries in 1922, making Iraq virtually landlocked. Kuwait rejected Iraqi attempts to secure further provisions in the region.
Iraq also accused Kuwait of exceeding its OPEC quotas for oil production. In order for the cartel to maintain its desired price of $18 a barrel, discipline was required. The United Arab Emirates and Kuwait were consistently overproducing; the latter at least in part to repair losses caused by Iranian attacks in the Iran– Iraq War and to pay for the losses of an economic scandal. The result was a slump in the oil price – as low as $10 a barrel – with a resulting loss of $7 billion a year to Iraq, equal to its 1989 balance of payments deficit. Resulting revenues struggled to support the government's basic costs, let alone repair Iraq's damaged infrastructure. Jordan and Iraq both looked for more discipline, with little success. The Iraqi government described it as a form of economic warfare, which it claimed was aggravated by Kuwait slant-drilling across the border into Iraq's Rumaila oil field . At the same time, Saddam looked for closer ties with those Arab states that had supported Iraq in the war. This was supported by the US, who believed that Iraqi ties with pro-Western Gulf states would help bring and maintain Iraq inside the US' sphere of influence.
In 1989, it appeared that Saudi–Iraqi relations , strong during the war, would be maintained. A pact of non-interference and non-aggression was signed between the countries, followed by a Kuwaiti-Iraqi deal for Iraq to supply Kuwait with water for drinking and irrigation, although a request for Kuwait to lease Iraq Umm Qasr was rejected. Saudi-backed development projects were hampered by Iraq's large debts, even with the demobilization of 200,000 soldiers. Iraq also looked to increase arms production so as to become an exporter, although the success of these projects was also restrained by Iraq's obligations; in Iraq, resentment to OPEC's controls mounted. Donald Rumsfeld as US special envoy to the Middle East, meets Saddam Hussein on 19–20 December 1983.
Iraq's relations with its Arab neighbors – in particular
In early July 1990,
Iraq complained about Kuwait's behavior, such as
not respecting their quota, and openly threatened to take military
action. On the 23rd, the CIA reported that
Iraq had moved 30,000
troops to the Iraq-
Kuwait border, and the US naval fleet in the
Persian Gulf was placed on alert. Saddam believed an anti-Iraq
conspiracy was developing –
Kuwait had begun talks with Iran, and
So what can it mean when America says it will now protect its friends? It can only mean prejudice against Iraq. This stance plus maneuvers and statements which have been made has encouraged the UAE and Kuwait to disregard Iraqi rights ... If you use pressure, we will deploy pressure and force. We know that you can harm us although we do not threaten you. But we too can harm you. Everyone can cause harm according to their ability and their size. We cannot come all the way to you in the United States, but individual Arabs may reach you ... We do not place America among the enemies. We place it where we want our friends to be and we try to be friends. But repeated American statements last year made it apparent that America did not regard us as friends.
I know you need funds. We understand that and our opinion is that you should have the opportunity to rebuild your country. But we have no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts, like your border disagreement with Kuwait ... Frankly, we can only see that you have deployed massive troops in the south. Normally that would not be any of our business. But when this happens in the context of what you said on your national day, then when we read the details in the two letters of the Foreign Minister, then when we see the Iraqi point of view that the measures taken by the UAE and Kuwait is, in the final analysis, parallel to military aggression against Iraq, then it would be reasonable for me to be concerned.
Saddam stated that he would attempt last-ditch negotiations with the Kuwaitis but Iraq "would not accept death".
According to Glaspie's own account, she stated in reference to the precise border between Kuwait and Iraq, "... that she had served in Kuwait 20 years before; 'then, as now, we took no position on these Arab affairs'." Glaspie similarly believed that war was not imminent.
INVASION OF KUWAIT
The result of the Jeddah talks was an Iraqi demand for $10 billion to cover the lost revenues from Rumaila; Kuwait offered $9 billion. The Iraqi response was to immediately order the invasion, which started on 2 August 1990 with the bombing of Kuwait's capital, Kuwait City .
At the time of the invasion, the Kuwaiti military was believed to have numbered 16,000 men, arranged into three armored, one mechanised infantry and one under-strength artillery brigade. The pre-war strength of the Kuwait Air Force was around 2,200 Kuwaiti personnel, with 80 fixed-wing aircraft and 40 helicopters. In spite of Iraqi saber-rattling , Kuwait did not mobilize its force; the army had been stood down on 19 July, and at the time of the Iraqi invasion many Kuwaiti military personnel were on leave.
By 1988, at the Iran– Iraq war's end, the Iraqi Army was the world's fourth largest army; it consisted of 955,000 standing soldiers and 650,000 paramilitary forces in the Popular Army. According to John Childs and André Corvisier, a low estimate shows the Iraqi Army capable of fielding 4,500 tanks, 484 combat aircraft and 232 combat helicopters. According to Michael Knights, a high estimate shows the Iraqi Army capable of fielding one million men and 850,000 reservists, 5,500 tanks, 3,000 artillery pieces, 700 combat aircraft and helicopters; and held 53 divisions, 20 special-forces brigades, and several regional militias, and had a strong air defense. Iraqi Army T-72 M main battle tanks. The T-72M tank was a common Iraqi battle tank used in the Gulf War. An Iraqi Air Force Bell 214ST transport helicopter , after being captured by a US Marine Corps unit at the start of the ground phase of Operation Desert Storm.
Iraqi commandos infiltrated the Kuwaiti border first to prepare for the major units which began the attack at midnight. The Iraqi attack had two prongs, with the primary attack force driving south straight for Kuwait City down the main highway, and a supporting attack force entering Kuwait farther west, but then turning and driving east, cutting off Kuwait City from the country's southern half. The commander of a Kuwaiti armored battalion, 35th Armoured Brigade , deployed them against the Iraqi attack and was able to conduct a robust defense at the Battle of the Bridges near Al Jahra , west of Kuwait City.
Kuwaiti aircraft scrambled to meet the invading force, but approximately 20% were lost or captured. A few combat sorties were flown against Iraqi ground forces.
The main Iraqi thrust into Kuwait City was conducted by commandos deployed by helicopters and boats to attack the city from the sea, while other divisions seized the airports and two airbases . The Iraqis attacked the Dasman Palace , the Royal Residence of Kuwait\'s Emir , Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah , which was defended by the Emiri Guard supported with M-84 tanks. In the process, the Iraqis killed Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah , the Emir's youngest brother.
Within 12 hours, most resistance had ended within Kuwait and the royal family had fled, leaving Iraq in control of most of Kuwait. After two days of intense combat, most of the Kuwaiti military were either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard , or had escaped to Saudi Arabia. The Emir and key ministers were able to get out and head south along the highway for refuge in Saudi Arabia. Iraqi ground forces consolidated their control of Kuwait City, then headed south and redeployed along the Saudi border. After the decisive Iraqi victory, Saddam initially installed a puppet regime known as the "Provisional Government of Free Kuwait " before installing his cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid as Kuwait's governor on 8 August.
KUWAITI RESISTANCE MOVEMENT
Kuwaitis founded a local armed resistance movement following the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. The Kuwaiti resistance's casualty rate far exceeded that of the coalition military forces and Western hostages. The resistance predominantly consisted of ordinary citizens who lacked any form of training and supervision.
RUN-UP TO THE WAR
A key element of US political-military and energy economic planning
occurred in early 1984. The Iran–
Iraq war had been going on for five
years by that time and there were significant casualties on both
sides, reaching into the hundreds of thousands. Within President
Ronald Reagan 's National Security Council concern was growing that
the war could spread beyond the boundaries of the two belligerents. A
National Security Planning Group meeting was formed, chaired by then
George H. W. Bush to review US options. It was
determined that there was a high likelihood that the conflict would
Within hours of the invasion, Kuwait and US delegations requested a meeting of the UN Security Council , which passed Resolution 660 , condemning the invasion and demanding a withdrawal of Iraqi troops. On 3 August, the Arab League passed its own resolution, which called for a solution to the conflict from within the league, and warned against outside intervention; Iraq and Libya were the only two Arab League states which opposed a resolution for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait. The PLO opposed it as well. The Arab states of Yemen and Jordan – a Western ally which bordered Iraq and relied on the country for economic support – opposed military intervention from non-Arab states. The Arab state of Sudan aligned itself with Saddam.
On 6 August, Resolution 661 placed economic sanctions on Iraq.
Resolution 665 followed soon after, which authorized a naval
blockade to enforce the sanctions. It said the "use of measures
commensurate to the specific circumstances as may be necessary ... to
halt all inward and outward maritime shipping in order to inspect and
verify their cargoes and destinations and to ensure strict
implementation of resolution 661." President Bush visiting
American troops in
From the beginning, US officials insisted on a total Iraqi pullout from Kuwait, without any linkage to other Middle Eastern problems, fearing any concessions would strengthen Iraqi influence in the region for years to come.
On 12 August 1990, Saddam "propose that all cases of occupation, and
those cases that have been portrayed as occupation, in the region, be
resolved simultaneously". Specifically, he called for
Saddam Hussein detained several Westerners, with video footage shown on state television
On 23 August, Saddam appeared on state television with Western hostages to whom he had refused exit visas. In the video, he asks a young British boy, Stuart Lockwood, whether he is getting his milk, and goes on to say, through his interpreter, "We hope your presence as guests here will not be for too long. Your presence here, and in other places, is meant to prevent the scourge of war."
Another Iraqi proposal communicated in August 1990 was delivered to US National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft by an unidentified Iraqi official. The official communicated to the White House that Iraq would "withdraw from Kuwait and allow foreigners to leave" provided that the UN lifted sanctions, allowed "guaranteed access to the Persian Gulf through the Kuwaiti islands of Bubiyan and Warbah", and allowed Iraq to "gain full control of the Rumaila oil field that extends slightly into Kuwaiti territory". The proposal also "include offers to negotiate an oil agreement with the United States 'satisfactory to both nations' national security interests,' develop a joint plan 'to alleviate Iraq's economical and financial problems' and 'jointly work on the stability of the gulf.'"
In December 1990, Iraq made a proposal to withdraw from Kuwait provided that foreign troops left the region and that an agreement was reached regarding the Palestinian problem and the dismantlement of both Israel's and Iraq's weapons of mass destruction . The White House rejected the proposal. The PLO 's Yasser Arafat expressed that neither he nor Saddam insisted that solving the Israel–Palestine issues should be a precondition to solving the issues in Kuwait, though he did acknowledge a "strong link" between these problems.
Ultimately, the US stuck to its position that there would be no negotiations until Iraq withdrew from Kuwait and that they should not grant Iraq concessions, lest they give the impression that Iraq benefited from its military campaign. Also, when US Secretary of State James Baker met with Tariq Aziz in Geneva, Switzerland, for last minute peace talks in early 1991, Aziz reportedly made no concrete proposals and did not outline any hypothetical Iraqi moves.
On 29 November 1990, the Security Council passed Resolution 678 which gave Iraq until 15 January 1991 to withdraw from Kuwait and empowered states to use "all necessary means" to force Iraq out of Kuwait after the deadline.
On 14 January 1991,
"Operation Desert Shield" redirects here. For the 2006 operation by the Iraqi insurgency, see Operation Desert Shield (Iraq) . F-15Es parked during Operation Desert Shield.
One of the West's main concerns was the significant threat Iraq posed to Saudi Arabia. Following Kuwait's conquest, the Iraqi Army was within easy striking distance of Saudi oil fields . Control of these fields, along with Kuwaiti and Iraqi reserves, would have given Saddam control over the majority of the world's oil reserves. Iraq also had a number of grievances with Saudi Arabia. The Saudis had lent Iraq some 26 billion dollars during its war with Iran. The Saudis had backed Iraq in that war, as they feared the influence of Shia Iran's Islamic revolution on its own Shia minority. After the war, Saddam felt he shouldn't have to repay the loans due to the help he had given the Saudis by fighting Iran.
Soon after his conquest of Kuwait, Saddam began verbally attacking the Saudis. He argued that the US-supported Saudi state was an illegitimate and unworthy guardian of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina . He combined the language of the Islamist groups that had recently fought in Afghanistan with the rhetoric Iran had long used to attack the Saudis. US Army soldiers from the 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade during the Gulf War
Acting on the
Carter Doctrine 's policy, and out of fear the Iraqi
Army could launch an invasion of Saudi Arabia, US President George H.
W. Bush quickly announced that the US would launch a "wholly
defensive" mission to prevent
Iraq from invading
The US Navy dispatched two naval battle groups built around the
aircraft carriers USS _Dwight D. Eisenhower_ and USS _Independence_ to
the Persian Gulf, where they were ready by 8 August. The US also sent
the battleships USS _Missouri_ and USS _Wisconsin_ to the region. A
total of 48 US Air Force F-15s from the
1st Fighter Wing
Creating A Coalition
Nations that deployed coalition forces or provided support.
A series of UN Security Council resolutions and Arab League resolutions were passed regarding Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. One of the most important was Resolution 678 , passed on 29 November 1990, which gave Iraq a withdrawal deadline until 15 January 1991, and authorized "all necessary means to uphold and implement Resolution 660", and a diplomatic formulation authorizing the use of force if Iraq failed to comply.
To ensure that economic backing, Baker went on an 11-day journey to nine countries that the press dubbed "The Tin Cup Trip". The first stop was Saudi Arabia, which a month before had already granted permission to the United States to use its facilities. However, Baker believed that Saudi Arabia, an immensely wealthy nation, should assume some of the cost of the military efforts, since one of the most important military objectives was to defend Saudi Arabia. When Baker asked King Fahd for 15 billion dollars, the King readily agreed, with the promise that Baker ask Kuwait for the same amount.
The next day, 7 September, he did just that, and the Emir of
displaced in a Sheraton hotel outside his invaded country, easily
agreed. Baker then moved to enter talks with Egypt, whose leadership
he considered to be "the moderate voice of the middle east". President
After stops in Helsinki and Moscow to smooth out Iraqi demands for a
middle-eastern peace conference with the
Baker flew to Rome for a brief visit with the Italians in which he
was promised the use of some military equipment, before journeying to
Germany to meet with American ally Chancellor Kohl . Although
Germany\'s constitution (which was brokered essentially by the United
States) prohibited military involvement in outside nations, Kohl was
willing to repay his gratitude for the
United States with a two
billion dollar contribution to the coalition's war effort, as well as
further economic and military support of coalition ally Turkey, and
the execution of the transport of Egyptian soldiers and ships to the
Persian Gulf. General
Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. and President
George H. W. Bush visit US troops in
A coalition of forces opposing Iraq's aggression was formed,
consisting of forces from 34 countries: Argentina, Australia, Bahrain,
Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, France, Greece, Italy,
Kuwait, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman,
Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, the
United Kingdom, and the US itself. It was the largest coalition since
World War II . US Army General
Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. was designated
to be the commander of the coalition forces in the
Persian Gulf area.
Although they did not contribute any forces, Japan and Germany made financial contributions totaling $10 billion and $6.6 billion respectively. US troops represented 73% of the coalition's 956,600 troops in Iraq.
Many of the coalition countries were reluctant to commit military forces. Some felt that the war was an internal Arab affair or did not want to increase US influence in the Middle East. In the end, however, many nations were persuaded by Iraq's belligerence towards other Arab states, offers of economic aid or debt forgiveness, and threats to withhold aid.
Justification For Intervention
The US and the UN gave several public justifications for involvement
in the conflict, the most prominent being the Iraqi violation of
Kuwaiti territorial integrity. In addition, the US moved to support
its ally Saudi Arabia, whose importance in the region, and as a key
supplier of oil, made it of considerable geopolitical importance.
Shortly after the Iraqi invasion, US Defense Secretary Dick Cheney
made the first of several visits to
The Pentagon stated that satellite photos showing a buildup of Iraqi forces along the border were this information's source, but this was later alleged to be false. A reporter for the _ St. Petersburg Times _ acquired two commercial Soviet satellite images made at the time in question, which showed nothing but empty desert. Gen. Colin Powell (left), Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. , and Paul Wolfowitz (right) listen as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney addresses reporters regarding the 1991 Gulf War.
Other justifications for foreign involvement included Iraq's history of human rights abuses under Saddam . Iraq was also known to possess biological weapons and chemical weapons , which Saddam had used against Iranian troops during the Iran– Iraq War and against his own country's Kurdish population in the Al-Anfal campaign . Iraq was also known to have a nuclear weapons program, but the report about it from January 1991 was partially declassified by the CIA on 26 May 2001.
Although there were human rights abuses committed in Kuwait by the invading Iraqi military, the alleged incidents which received most publicity in the US were inventions of the public relations firm hired by the government of Kuwait to influence US opinion in favor of military intervention. Shortly after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, the organization _Citizens for a Free Kuwait _ was formed in the US. It hired the public relations firm Hill & Knowlton for about $11 million, paid by Kuwait\'s government .
Among many other means of influencing US opinion, such as distributing books on Iraqi atrocities to US soldiers deployed in the region, "Free Kuwait" T-shirts and speakers to college campuses, and dozens of video news releases to television stations, the firm arranged for an appearance before a group of members of the US Congress in which a woman identifying herself as a nurse working in the Kuwait City hospital described Iraqi soldiers pulling babies out of incubators and letting them die on the floor.
The story was an influence in tipping both the public and Congress towards a war with Iraq: six Congressmen said the testimony was enough for them to support military action against Iraq and seven Senators referenced the testimony in debate. The Senate supported the military actions in a 52–47 vote. However, a year after the war, this allegation was revealed to be a fabrication. The woman who had testified was found to be a member of Kuwait\'s Royal Family , in fact the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the US. She hadn't lived in Kuwait during the Iraqi invasion.
The details of the Hill one residence was repeatedly defecated in. A resident later commented: "The whole thing was violence for the sake of violence, destruction for the sake of destruction ... Imagine a surrealistic painting by Salvador Dalí ".
The Gulf War began with an extensive aerial bombing campaign on 16 January 1991. For 42 consecutive days and nights, the coalition forces subjected Iraq to the most intensive air bombardment in military history. The coalition flew over 100,000 sorties , dropping 88,500 tons of bombs, and widely destroying military and civilian infrastructure. The air campaign was commanded by USAF Lieutenant General Chuck Horner , who briefly served as US Central Command 's Commander-in-Chief – Forward while General Schwarzkopf was still in the US.
A day after the deadline set in Resolution 678, the coalition
launched a massive air campaign, which began the general offensive
codenamed Operation Desert Storm. The first priority was the
destruction of Iraq's Air Force and anti-aircraft facilities. The
sorties were launched mostly from
The next targets were command and communication facilities. Saddam Hussein had closely micromanaged Iraqi forces in the Iran– Iraq War, and initiative at lower levels was discouraged. Coalition planners hoped that Iraqi resistance would quickly collapse if deprived of command and control.
The air campaign's third and largest phase targeted military targets throughout Iraq and Kuwait: Scud missile launchers, weapons research facilities, and naval forces. About a third of the coalition's air power was devoted to attacking Scuds, some of which were on trucks and therefore difficult to locate. US and British special operations forces had been covertly inserted into western Iraq to aid in the search for and destruction of Scuds.
Iraqi anti-aircraft defenses, including man-portable air-defense systems , were surprisingly ineffective against enemy aircraft and the coalition suffered only 75 aircraft losses in over 100,000 sorties, 44 due to Iraqi action. Two of these losses are the result of aircraft colliding with the ground while evading Iraqi ground fired weapons. One of these losses is a confirmed air-air victory.
IRAQI MISSILE STRIKES ON ISRAEL AND SAUDI ARABIA
Scud Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) with missile in upright position.
Iraq's government made no secret that it would attack if invaded. Prior to the war's start, in the aftermath of the failed US–Iraq peace talks in Geneva, Switzerland, a reporter asked Iraq's English-speaking Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz : "Mr. Foreign Minister, if war starts ... will you attack?" His response was: "Yes, absolutely, yes."
Five hours after the first attacks, Iraq's state radio broadcast declaring that "The dawn of victory nears as this great showdown begins." Iraq fired eight missiles the next day. These missile attacks were to continue throughout the war. A total of 88 Scud missiles were fired by Iraq during the war's seven weeks.
Iraq hoped to provoke a military response from Israel. The Iraqi
government hoped that many Arab states would withdraw from the
Coalition, as they would be reluctant to fight alongside Israel.
Following the first attacks,
Israeli Air Force jets were deployed to
patrol the northern airspace with Iraq.
Scud missiles targeting
In response to the threat of Scuds on Israel, the US rapidly sent a
Patriot missile air defense artillery battalion to
Coalition air forces were also extensively exercised in "
in the Iraqi desert, trying to locate the camouflaged trucks before
they fired their missiles at
As the Scud attacks continued, the Israelis grew increasingly impatient, and considered taking unilateral military action against Iraq. On 22 January 1991, a Scud missile hit the Israeli city of Ramat Gan , after two coalition Patriots failed to intercept it. Three elderly people suffered fatal heart attacks, another 96 people were injured, and 20 apartment buildings were damaged. After this attack, the Israelis warned that if the US failed to stop the attacks, they would. At one point, Israeli commandos boarded helicopters prepared to fly into Iraq, but the mission was called off after a phone call from US Defense Secretary Dick Cheney, reporting on the extent of coalition efforts to destroy Scuds and emphasizing that Israeli intervention could endanger US forces.
In addition to the attacks on Israel, 47 Scud missiles were fired into Saudi Arabia, and one missile was fired at Bahrain and another at Qatar. The missiles were fired at both military and civilian targets. One Saudi civilian was killed, and 78 others were injured. No casualties were reported in Bahrain or Qatar. The Saudi government issued all its citizens and expatriates with gas masks in the event of Iraq using missiles with chemical or biological warheads. The government broadcast alerts and 'all clear' messages over television to warn citizens during Scud attacks.
On 25 February 1991, a Scud missile hit a US Army barracks of the 14th Quartermaster Detachment, out of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, stationed in Dhahran , Saudi Arabia, killing 28 soldiers and injuring over 100.
IRAQI INVASION OF SAUDI ARABIA (BATTLE OF KHAFJI)
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Main article: Battle of Khafji Military operations during Khafji's liberation
On 29 January, Iraqi forces attacked and occupied the lightly defended Saudi city of Khafji with tanks and infantry. The Battle of Khafji ended two days later when the Iraqis were driven back by the Saudi Arabian National Guard , supported by Qatari forces and US Marines. The allied forces used extensive artillery fire.
Both sides suffered casualties, although Iraqi forces sustained substantially more dead and captured than the allied forces. Eleven Americans were killed in two separate friendly fire incidents, an additional 14 US airmen were killed when their AC-130 gunship was shot down by an Iraqi surface-to-air missile, and two US soldiers were captured during the battle. Saudi and Qatari forces had a total of 18 dead. Iraqi forces in Khafji had 60–300 dead and 400 captured.
The Battle of Khafji was an example of how air power could single-handedly hinder the advance of enemy ground forces. Upon learning of Iraqi troop movements, 140 coalition aircraft were diverted to attack an advancing column consisting of two armored divisions in battalion-sized units. Precision stand-off attacks were conducted during the night and through to the next day. Iraqi vehicle losses included 357 tanks, 147 armored personnel carriers, and 89 mobile artillery pieces. Some crews simply abandoned their vehicles upon realizing that they could be destroyed by guided bombs without warning, stopping the divisions from massing for an organized attack on the town. One Iraqi soldier, who had fought in the Iran- Iraq War, remarked that his brigade "had sustained more punishment from allied airpower in 30 minutes at Khafji than in eight years of fighting against Iran."
Task Force 1-41 Infantry was a heavy battalion task force from the 2nd Armored Division (Forward). It was the spearhead of VII Corps . It consisted primarily of the 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment , 3rd Battalion, 66th Armor Regiment , and the 4th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment . Task Force 1–41 was the first coalition force to breach the Saudi Arabian border on 15 February 1991 and conduct ground combat operations in Iraq engaging in direct and indirect fire fights with the enemy on 17 February 1991. Shortly after arrival in theatre Task Force 1–41 Infantry received a counter-reconnaissance mission. 1–41 Infantry was assisted by the 1st Squadron, 4th Armored Cavalry Regiment. This joint effort would become known as Task Force Iron. Counter-reconnaissance generally includes destroying or repelling the enemy's reconnaissance elements and denying their commander any observation of friendly forces. On 15 February 1991 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment fired on a trailer and a few trucks in the Iraqi sector that was observing American forces. On 16 February 1991 several groups of Iraqi vehicles appeared to be performing reconnaissance on the Task Force and were driven away by fire from 4–3 FA. Another enemy platoon, including six vehicles, was reported as being to the northeast of the Task Force. They were engaged with artillery fire from 4–3 FA. Later that evening another group of Iraqi vehicles was spotted moving towards the center of the Task Force. They appeared to be Iraqi Soviet-made BTRs and tanks. For the next hour the Task Force fought several small battles with Iraqi reconnaissance units. TF 1–41 IN fired TOW missiles at the Iraqi formation destroying one tank. The rest of the formation was destroyed or driven away by artillery fire from 4–3 FA. On 17 February 1991 the Task Force took enemy mortar fire, however, the enemy forces managed to escape. Later that evening the Task Force received enemy artillery fire but suffered no casualties. Soldiers of 2nd Platoon, Company C, 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment pose with a captured Iraqi tank during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991. An Iraqi Republican Guard tank destroyed by Task Force 1–41 Infantry during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991. M270 Multiple Launch Rocket Systems attack Iraqi positions during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
Main article: Task Force 1-41 Infantry
The breach was preceded by a heavy artillery barrage, led by 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment and the 210th Field Artillery Brigade , to soften up Iraqi defenses. Around 300 guns from multiple nations participated in the barrage. Over 14,000 rounds of artillery and over 4,900 MLRS rockets were fired at Iraqi forces during these raids. Iraq lost close to 22 artillery battalions during the initial stages of this barrage. This would include the destruction of approximately 396 Iraqi artillery pieces. By the end of these raids Iraqi artillery assets had all but ceased to exist. These raids were supplemented by air attacks by B-52 Stratofortress bombers and C-130 cargo aircraft.
Task Force 1-41 Infantry and the 1st Squadron, 4th Armored Cavalry
Regiment was given the task of breaching Iraq's initial defensive
positions along the Iraq-
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Ground troop movements 24–28 February 1991 during Operation Desert Storm
Coalition forces dominated the air with their technological advantages. Air supremacy was achieved before the start of the main ground offensive. Coalition forces also had two key technological advantages:
* Coalition main battle tanks , such as the US M1 Abrams , British Challenger 1 , and Kuwaiti M-84 AB were vastly superior to the Type 69 and export-model T-72 tanks used by the Iraqis. Coalition crews were better trained, with more highly developed armored doctrine. Iraqi tanks were mainly employed as armored self-propelled artillery , rather than in the maneuver warfare roles employed by the coalition. * The use of GPS made it possible for coalition forces to navigate without reference to roads or other fixed landmarks. This, along with aerial reconnaissance , allowed them to fight a battle of maneuver rather than a battle of encounter : they knew where they were and where the enemy was, so they could attack a specific target rather than searching on the ground for enemy forces.
US decoy attacks by air attacks and naval gunfire the night before Kuwait's liberation were designed to make the Iraqis believe the main coalition ground attack would focus on central Kuwait. US M1A1 Abrams tanks from the 3rd Armored Division along the Line of Departure.
For months, American units in
Despite the successes of coalition forces, it was feared that the Iraqi Republican Guard would escape into Iraq before it could be destroyed. It was decided to send British armored forces into Kuwait 15 hours ahead of schedule, and to send US forces after the Republican Guard. The coalition advance was preceded by a heavy artillery and rocket barrage, after which 150,000 troops and 1,500 tanks began their advance. Iraqi forces in Kuwait counterattacked against US troops, acting on a direct order from Saddam Hussein himself. Despite the intense combat, the Americans repulsed the Iraqis and continued to advance towards Kuwait City.
Kuwaiti forces were tasked with liberating the city. Iraqi troops offered only light resistance. The Kuwaitis lost one soldier and one plane was shot down, and quickly liberated the city. On 27 February, Saddam ordered a retreat from Kuwait, and President Bush declared it liberated. However, an Iraqi unit at Kuwait International Airport appeared not to have received the message and fiercely resisted. US Marines had to fight for hours before securing the airport, after which Kuwait was declared secure. After four days of fighting, Iraqi forces were expelled from Kuwait. As part of a scorched earth policy, they set fire to nearly 700 oil wells and placed land mines around the wells to make extinguishing the fires more difficult.
INITIAL MOVES INTO IRAQ
The war's ground phase was officially designated Operation Desert Saber.
The first units to move into Iraq were three patrols of the British Special Air Service 's B squadron, call signs Bravo One Zero, Bravo Two Zero , and Bravo Three Zero, in late January. These eight-man patrols landed behind Iraqi lines to gather intelligence on the movements of Scud mobile missile launchers, which could not be detected from the air, as they were hidden under bridges and camouflage netting during the day. Other objectives included the destruction of the launchers and their fiber-optic communications arrays that lay in pipelines and relayed coordinates to the TEL operators that were launching attacks against Israel. The operations were designed to prevent any possible Israeli intervention. Due to lack of sufficient ground cover to carry out their assignment, One Zero and Three Zero abandoned their operations, while Two Zero remained, and was later compromised, with only Sergeant Chris Ryan escaping to Syria. Iraqi T-62 knocked out by 3rd Armored Division fire
Elements of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Battalion 5th Cavalry of the 1st Cavalry Division of the US Army performed a direct attack into Iraq on 15 February 1991, followed by one in force on 20 February that led directly through seven Iraqi divisions which were caught off guard. On 17 January 1991 the 101st Airborne Division Aviation Regiment, fired the first shots of the war when eight AH-64 helicopters successfully destroyed two Iraqi early warning radar sites. From 15–20 February, the Battle of Wadi Al-Batin took place inside Iraq; this was the first of two attacks by 1 Battalion 5th Cavalry of the 1st Cavalry Division. It was a feint attack, designed to make the Iraqis think that a coalition invasion would take place from the south. The Iraqis fiercely resisted, and the Americans eventually withdrew as planned back into the Wadi Al-Batin. Three US soldiers were killed and nine wounded, with one M2 Bradley IFV turret destroyed, but they had taken 40 prisoners and destroyed five tanks, and successfully deceived the Iraqis. This attack led the way for the XVIII Airborne Corps to sweep around behind the 1st Cav and attack Iraqi forces to the west. On 22 February 1991, Iraq agreed to a Soviet-proposed ceasefire agreement. The agreement called for Iraq to withdraw troops to pre-invasion positions within six weeks following a total ceasefire, and called for monitoring of the ceasefire and withdrawal to be overseen by the UN Security Council.
The coalition rejected the proposal, but said that retreating Iraqi forces would not be attacked, and gave 24 hours for Iraq to withdraw its forces. On 23 February, fighting resulted in the capture of 500 Iraqi soldiers. On 24 February, British and American armored forces crossed the Iraq– Kuwait border and entered Iraq in large numbers, taking hundreds of prisoners. Iraqi resistance was light, and four Americans were killed.
COALITION FORCES ENTER IRAQ
Destroyed Iraqi civilian and military vehicles on the Highway of Death . Aerial view of destroyed Iraqi T-72 tank, BMP-1 and Type 63 armored personnel carriers and trucks on Highway 8 in March 1991 The oil fires caused were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait Remains of downed F-16C Bradley IFV burns after being hit by Iraqi T-72 fire
Shortly afterwards, the US VII Corps , in full strength and spearheaded by the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, launched an armored attack into Iraq early on 24 February, just to the west of Kuwait, taking Iraqi forces by surprise. Simultaneously, the US XVIII Airborne Corps launched a sweeping "left-hook" attack across southern Iraq's largely undefended desert, led by the US 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment and the 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized) . This movement's left flank was protected by the French Division Daguet . The 101st Airborne Division conducted a combat air assault into enemy territory. The 101st Airborne Division had struck 155 miles behind enemy lines. It was the deepest air assault operation in history. Approximately 400 helicopters transported 2,000 soldiers into Iraq where they destroyed Iraqi columns trying to flee westward and prevented the escape of Iraqi forces. The Screaming Eagles would travel an additional fifty to sixty miles into Iraq. By nightfall, the 101st cut off Highway 8 which was a vital supply line running between Basra and the Iraqi forces. The 101st had lost 16 soldiers in action during the 100-hour war and captured thousands of enemy prisoners of war.
The French force quickly overcame Iraq's 45th Infantry Division, suffering light casualties and taking a large number of prisoners, and took up blocking positions to prevent an Iraqi counterattack on the coalition's flank. The movement's right flank was protected by the United Kingdom\'s 1st Armoured Division . Once the allies had penetrated deep into Iraqi territory, they turned eastward, launching a flank attack against the elite Republican Guard before it could escape. The Iraqis resisted fiercely from dug-in positions and stationary vehicles, and even mounted armored charges.
Unlike many previous engagements, the destruction of the first Iraqi tanks did not result in a mass surrender. The Iraqis suffered massive losses and lost dozens of tanks and vehicles, while US casualties were comparatively low, with a single Bradley knocked out. Coalition forces pressed another 10 km into Iraqi territory, and captured their objective within three hours. They took 500 prisoners and inflicted heavy losses, defeating Iraq's 26th Infantry Division. A US soldier was killed by an Iraqi land mine, another five by friendly fire, and 30 wounded during the battle. Meanwhile, British forces attacked Iraq's Medina Division and a major Republican Guard logistics base. In nearly two days of some of the war's most intense fighting, the British destroyed 40 enemy tanks and captured a division commander.
Meanwhile, US forces attacked the village of Al Busayyah , meeting fierce resistance. The US force destroyed a considerable amount of military hardware and took prisoners, while suffering no casualties.
On 25 February 1991, Iraqi forces fired a Scud missile at an American barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The missile attack killed 28 US military personnel.
The coalition's advance was much swifter than US generals had expected. On 26 February, Iraqi troops began retreating from Kuwait, after they had set 737 of its oil wells on fire. A long convoy of retreating Iraqi troops formed along the main Iraq- Kuwait highway. Although they were retreating, this convoy was bombed so extensively by coalition air forces that it came to be known as the Highway of Death . Hundreds of Iraqi troops were killed. American, British, and French forces continued to pursue retreating Iraqi forces over the border and back into Iraq, eventually moving to within 150 miles (240 km) of Baghdad, before withdrawing back to Iraq's border with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
One hundred hours after the ground campaign started, on 28 February, President Bush declared a ceasefire, and he also declared that Kuwait had been liberated.
THE END OF ACTIVE HOSTILITIES
Main article: 1991 uprisings in Iraq Civilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian flags as they celebrate the retreat of Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Persian Gulf Veterans National Medal of the US military.
In coalition-occupied Iraqi territory, a peace conference was held where a ceasefire agreement was negotiated and signed by both sides. At the conference, Iraq was authorized to fly armed helicopters on their side of the temporary border, ostensibly for government transit due to the damage done to civilian infrastructure. Soon after, these helicopters and much of Iraq's military were used to fight an uprising in the south . The rebellions were encouraged by an airing of "The Voice of Free Iraq" on 2 February 1991, which was broadcast from a CIA-run radio station out of Saudi Arabia. The Arabic service of the Voice of America supported the uprising by stating that the rebellion was well supported, and that they soon would be liberated from Saddam.
In the North, Kurdish leaders took American statements that they would support an uprising to heart, and began fighting, hoping to trigger a coup d\'état . However, when no US support came, Iraqi generals remained loyal to Saddam and brutally crushed the Kurdish uprising . Millions of Kurds fled across the mountains to Turkey and Kurdish areas of Iran. These events later resulted in no-fly zones being established in northern and southern Iraq. In Kuwait, the Emir was restored, and suspected Iraqi collaborators were repressed. Eventually, over 400,000 people were expelled from the country, including a large number of Palestinians , because of PLO support of Saddam. Yasser Arafat didn't apologize for his support of Iraq, but after his death, the Fatah under Mahmoud Abbas ' authority formally apologized in 2004.
There was some criticism of the Bush administration, as they chose to allow Saddam to remain in power instead of pushing on to capture Baghdad and overthrowing his government. In their co-written 1998 book, _ A World Transformed _, Bush and Brent Scowcroft argued that such a course would have fractured the alliance, and would have had many unnecessary political and human costs associated with it.
In 1992, the US Defense Secretary during the war, Dick Cheney, made the same point:
I would guess if we had gone in there, we would still have forces in Baghdad today. We'd be running the country. We would not have been able to get everybody out and bring everybody home.
And the final point that I think needs to be made is this question of casualties. I don't think you could have done all of that without significant additional US casualties, and while everybody was tremendously impressed with the low cost of the (1991) conflict, for the 146 Americans who were killed in action and for their families, it wasn't a cheap war.
And the question in my mind is, how many additional American casualties is Saddam (Hussein) worth? And the answer is, not that damned many. So, I think we got it right, both when we decided to expel him from Kuwait, but also when the President made the decision that we'd achieved our objectives and we were not going to go get bogged down in the problems of trying to take over and govern Iraq.
Instead of a greater involvement of its own military, the US hoped that Saddam would be overthrown in an internal coup d'état. The CIA used its assets in Iraq to organize a revolt, but the Iraqi government defeated the effort.
On 10 March 1991, 540,000 US troops began moving out of the Persian Gulf.
Coalition members included Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Greece, Honduras, Hungary, Italy, Kuwait, Malaysia, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.
Germany and Japan provided financial assistance and donated military hardware, although they did not send direct military assistance. This later became known as _checkbook diplomacy _.
Argentina was the only Latin American country to participate in the 1991 Gulf War sending a destroyer, ARA Almirante Brown (D-10) , a corvette, ARA Spiro (P-43) (later replaced by another corvette, ARA Rosales (P-42) ) and a supply ship (ARA _Bahía San Blas_ (B-4) ) to participate on the United Nations blockade and sea control effort of the Persian Gulf. The success of "Operación Alfil" (English: "Operation Bishop") as it was known, with more than 700 interceptions and 25,000 miles sailed in the theatre of operations helped to overcome the so-called "Malvinas syndrome ". Argentina was later classified as major non- NATO ally due to her contributions during the war.
Canadian CF-18 Hornets participated in combat during the Gulf War See also: Operation FRICTION
Canada was one of the first countries to condemn Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, and it quickly agreed to join the US-led coalition. In August 1990, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney committed the Canadian Forces to deploy a Naval Task Group. The destroyers HMCS _Terra Nova_ and HMCS _Athabaskan_ joined the maritime interdiction force supported by the supply ship HMCS _Protecteur_ in Operation Friction . The Canadian Task Group led the coalition's maritime logistics forces in the Persian Gulf. A fourth ship, HMCS _Huron_ , arrived in-theater after hostilities had ceased and was the first allied ship to visit Kuwait.
Following the UN-authorized use of force against Iraq, the Canadian Forces deployed a CF-18 Hornet and CH-124 Sea King squadron with support personnel, as well as a field hospital to deal with casualties from the ground war. When the air war began, the CF-18s were integrated into the coalition force and were tasked with providing air cover and attacking ground targets. This was the first time since the Korean War that Canada's military had participated in offensive combat operations. The only CF-18 Hornet to record an official victory during the conflict was an aircraft involved in the beginning of the Battle of Bubiyan against the Iraqi Navy.
The Canadian Commander in the Middle East was Commodore Kenneth J. Summers .
The second largest European contingent was from France, which
committed 18,000 troops. Operating on the left flank of the US XVIII
Airborne Corps, the French Army force was the
Division Daguet ,
including troops from the
French Foreign Legion . Initially, the
French operated independently under national command and control, but
coordinated closely with the Americans (via CENTCOM ) and Saudis. In
January, the Division was placed under the tactical control of the
XVIII Airborne Corps.
The United Kingdom committed the largest contingent of any European state that participated in the war's combat operations. Operation Granby was the code name for the operations in the Persian Gulf. British Army regiments (mainly with the 1st Armoured Division) , Royal Air Force squadrons and Royal Navy vessels were mobilized in the Persian Gulf. The Royal Air Force, using various aircraft, operated from airbases in Saudi Arabia. The United Kingdom played a major role in the Battle of Norfolk where its forces destroyed over 200 Iraqi tanks and a large quantity of other vehicles. After 48 hours of combat the British 1st Armoured Division destroyed or isolated four Iraqi infantry divisions (the 26th, 48th, 31st, and 25th) and overran the Iraqi 52nd Armored Division in several sharp engagements.
Chief Royal Navy vessels deployed to the Persian Gulf included _Broadsword_-class frigates , and _Sheffield_-class destroyers , other R.N. and R.F.A. ships were also deployed. The light aircraft carrier HMS _Ark Royal_ was deployed to the Mediterranean Sea .
Special operations forces were deployed in the form of several SAS squadrons.
A British Challenger 1 achieved the longest range confirmed tank kill of the war, destroying an Iraqi tank with an armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding-sabot (APFSDS) round fired over a distance of 4,700 metres (2.9 mi)—the longest tank-on-tank kill shot recorded.
Over 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians were killed by Iraqis. More than 600 Kuwaitis went missing during Iraq's occupation, and approximately 375 remains were found in mass graves in Iraq. The increased importance of air attacks from both coalition warplanes and cruise missiles led to controversy over the number of civilian deaths caused during Desert Storm's initial stages. Within Desert Storm's first 24 hours, more than 1,000 sorties were flown, many against targets in Baghdad. The city was the target of heavy bombing, as it was the seat of power for Saddam and the Iraqi forces' command and control . This ultimately led to civilian casualties .
In one noted incident, two USAF stealth planes bombed a bunker in Amiriyah , causing the deaths of 408 Iraqi civilians who were in the shelter. Scenes of burned and mutilated bodies were subsequently broadcast, and controversy arose over the bunker's status, with some stating that it was a civilian shelter, while others contended that it was a center of Iraqi military operations, and that the civilians had been deliberately moved there to act as human shields .
Saddam's government gave high civilian casualty figures in order to draw support from Islamic countries. The Iraqi government claimed that 2,300 civilians died during the air campaign. According to the Project on Defense Alternatives study, 3,664 Iraqi civilians were killed in the conflict. An investigation by Beth Osborne Daponte estimated total civilian fatalities at about 3,500 from bombing, and some 100,000 from the war's other effects.
The exact number of Iraqi combat casualties is unknown, but is believed to have been heavy. Some estimate that Iraq sustained between 20,000 and 35,000 fatalities. A report commissioned by the US Air Force, estimated 10,000–12,000 Iraqi combat deaths in the air campaign, and as many as 10,000 casualties in the ground war. This analysis is based on Iraqi prisoner of war reports.
According to the Project on Defense Alternatives study, between 20,000 and 26,000 Iraqi military personnel were killed in the conflict while 75,000 others were wounded.
Coalition troops killed by country COUNTRY TOTAL Enemy action ACCIDENT Friendly fire REF
United States 146 111 35 35
United Kingdom 47 38 1 9
Saudi Arabia 24 18 6
France 9 9
United Arab Emirates 6 6
Qatar 3 3
Kuwait 1 1
Sailors from a US Navy honor guard carry Navy pilot Scott Speicher 's remains
The Department of Defense reports that US forces suffered 148
battle-related deaths (35 to friendly fire ), with one pilot listed
as MIA (his remains were found and identified in August 2009). A
further 145 Americans died in non-combat accidents. The UK suffered
47 deaths (nine to friendly fire, all by US forces),
The largest single loss of life among coalition forces happened on 25 February 1991, when an Iraqi Al Hussein missile hit a US military barrack in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 28 US Army Reservists from Pennsylvania . In all, 190 coalition troops were killed by Iraqi fire during the war, 113 of whom were American, out of a total of 358 coalition deaths. Another 44 soldiers were killed and 57 wounded by friendly fire . 145 soldiers died of exploding munitions or non-combat accidents.
The largest accident among coalition forces happened on 21 March 1991, a Royal Saudi Air Force C-130H crashed in heavy smoke on approach to Ras Al-Mishab Airport, Saudi Arabia. 92 Senegalese soldiers and six Saudi crew members were killed.
The number of coalition wounded in combat was 776, including 458 Americans.
190 coalition troops were killed by Iraqi combatants, the rest of the 379 coalition deaths being from friendly fire or accidents. This number was much lower than expected. Among the American dead were three female soldiers.
While the death toll among coalition forces engaging Iraqi combatants was very low, a substantial number of deaths were caused by accidental attacks from other Allied units. Of the 148 US troops who died in battle, 24% were killed by friendly fire, a total of 35 service personnel. A further 11 died in detonations of coalition munitions. Nine British military personnel were killed in a friendly fire incident when a USAF A-10 Thunderbolt II destroyed a group of two Warrior IFVs .
GULF WAR ILLNESS
Main article: Gulf War syndrome
Many returning coalition soldiers reported illnesses following their action in the war, a phenomenon known as Gulf War syndrome or Gulf War illness. Common symptoms that were reported are chronic fatigue, Fibromyalgia, and Gastrointestinal disorder. There has been widespread speculation and disagreement about the causes of the illness and the reported birth defects. Researchers found that infants born to male veterans of the 1991 war had higher rates of two types of heart valve defects. Gulf War veterans' children born after the war had a certain kidney defect that was not found in Gulf War veterans' children born before the war. Researchers have said that they did not have enough information to link birth defects with exposure to toxic substances. Some factors considered as possibilities include exposure to depleted uranium , chemical weapons , anthrax vaccines given to deploying soldiers, and/or infectious diseases. Major Michael Donnelly , a USAF officer during the War, helped publicize the syndrome and advocated for veterans' rights in this regard.
EFFECTS OF DEPLETED URANIUM
Approximate area and major clashes in which DU rounds were used. Main article: Depleted uranium § Health considerations
Depleted uranium was used in the war in tank kinetic energy penetrators and 20–30 mm cannon ordnance . Significant controversy regarding the long term safety of depleted uranium exists, although detractors claim pyrophoric , genotoxic , and teratogenic heavy metal effects. Many have cited its use during the war as a contributing factor to a number of instances of health issues in the conflict's veterans and surrounding civilian populations. However, scientific opinion on the risk is mixed.
Depleted uranium has 40% less radioactivity than natural uranium, but the negative effects should not be overlooked. Some say that depleted uranium is not a significant health hazard unless it is taken into the body. External exposure to radiation from depleted uranium is generally not a major concern because the alpha particles emitted by its isotopes travel only a few centimeters in air or can be stopped by a sheet of paper. Also, the uranium-235 that remains in depleted uranium emits only a small amount of low-energy gamma radiation. However, if allowed to enter the body, depleted uranium, like natural uranium, has the potential for both chemical and radiological toxicity with the two important target organs being the kidneys and the lungs.
HIGHWAY OF DEATH
Main article: Highway of Death
On the night of 26–27 February 1991, some Iraqi forces began leaving Kuwait on the main highway north of Al Jahra in a column of some 1,400 vehicles. A patrolling E-8 Joint STARS aircraft observed the retreating forces and relayed the information to the DDM-8 air operations center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. These vehicles and the retreating soldiers were subsequently attacked by two A-10 aircraft, resulting in a 60 km stretch of highway strewn with debris—the Highway of Death. _New York Times_ reporter Maureen Dowd wrote, "With the Iraqi leader facing military defeat, Mr. Bush decided that he would rather gamble on a violent and potentially unpopular ground war than risk the alternative: an imperfect settlement hammered out by the Soviets and Iraqis that world opinion might accept as tolerable."
Chuck Horner, Commander of US and allied air operations, has written:
, the Iraqis totally lost heart and started to evacuate occupied Kuwait, but airpower halted the caravan of Iraqi Army and plunderers fleeing toward Basra. This event was later called by the media "The Highway of Death." There were certainly a lot of dead vehicles, but not so many dead Iraqis. They'd already learned to scamper off into the desert when our aircraft started to attack. Nevertheless, some people back home wrongly chose to believe we were cruelly and unusually punishing our already whipped foes.
By February 27, talk had turned toward terminating the hostilities. Kuwait was free. We were not interested in governing Iraq. So the question became "How do we stop the killing."
An armored bulldozer similar to the ones used in the attack.
Another incident during the war highlighted the question of
large-scale Iraqi combat deaths. This was the "bulldozer assault",
wherein two brigades from the US 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized)
were faced with a large and complex trench network, as part of the
heavily fortified "
Saddam Hussein Line". After some deliberation, they
opted to use anti-mine plows mounted on tanks and combat earthmovers
to simply plow over and bury alive the defending Iraqi soldiers. Not a
single American was killed during the attack. Reporters were banned
from witnessing the attack, near the neutral zone that touches the
PALESTINIAN EXODUS FROM KUWAIT
Main article: Palestinian exodus from Kuwait (Gulf War)
A Palestinian exodus from Kuwait took place during and after the Gulf War. During the Gulf War, more than 200,000 Palestinians voluntarily fled Kuwait during the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait due to harassment and intimidation by Iraqi security forces, in addition to getting fired from work by Iraqi authority figures in Kuwait. After the Gulf War, the Kuwaiti authorities forcibly pressured nearly 200,000 Palestinians to leave Kuwait in 1991. Kuwait's policy, which led to this exodus, was a response to alignment of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and the PLO with Saddam Hussein.
The Palestinians who fled Kuwait were Jordanian citizens . In 2013, there were 280,000 Jordanian citizens of Palestinian origin in Kuwait. In 2012, 80,000 Palestinians (without Jordanian citizenship ) lived in Kuwait.
COALITION BOMBING OF IRAQ\'S CIVILIAN INFRASTRUCTURE
In the 23 June 1991 edition of _The Washington Post_, reporter Bart Gellman wrote: "Many of the targets were chosen only secondarily to contribute to the military defeat of ... Military planners hoped the bombing would amplify the economic and psychological impact of international sanctions on Iraqi society ... They deliberately did great harm to Iraq's ability to support itself as an industrial society ..." In the Jan/Feb 1995 edition of _Foreign Affairs_, French diplomat Eric Rouleau wrote: "he Iraqi people, who were not consulted about the invasion, have paid the price for their government's madness ... Iraqis understood the legitimacy of a military action to drive their army from Kuwait, but they have had difficulty comprehending the Allied rationale for using air power to systematically destroy or cripple Iraqi infrastructure and industry: electric power stations (92 percent of installed capacity destroyed), refineries (80 percent of production capacity), petrochemical complexes, telecommunications centers (including 135 telephone networks), bridges (more than 100), roads, highways, railroads, hundreds of locomotives and boxcars full of goods, radio and television broadcasting stations, cement plants, and factories producing aluminum, textiles, electric cables, and medical supplies." However, the UN subsequently spent billions rebuilding hospitals, schools, and water purification facilities throughout the country.
ABUSE OF COALITION POWS
During the conflict, coalition aircrew shot down over Iraq were displayed as prisoners of war on TV, most with visible signs of abuse. Amongst several testimonies to poor treatment, USAF Captain Richard Storr was allegededly tortured by Iraqis during the Persian Gulf War. Iraqi secret police broke his nose, dislocated his shoulder and punctured his eardrum. Royal Air Force Tornado crew John Nichol and John Peters have both alleged that they were tortured during this time. Nichol and Peters were forced to make statements against the war in front of television cameras. Members of British Special Air Service Bravo Two Zero were captured while providing information about an Iraqi supply line of Scud missiles to coalition forces. Only one, Chris Ryan , evaded capture while the group's other surviving members were violently tortured. Flight surgeon (later General) Rhonda Cornum was raped by one of her captors after the Black Hawk helicopter in which she was riding was shot down while searching for a downed F-16 pilot.
OPERATION SOUTHERN WATCH
Main article: Operation Southern Watch
Since the war, the US has had a continued presence of 5,000 troops
Wikisource has original text related to this article: UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 661
On 6 August 1990, after Iraq\'s invasion of Kuwait , the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 661 which imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, providing for a full trade embargo , excluding medical supplies, food and other items of humanitarian necessity, these to be determined by the Council's sanctions committee. From 1991 until 2003, the effects of government policy and sanctions regime led to hyperinflation , widespread poverty and malnutrition.
During the late 1990s, the UN considered relaxing the sanctions imposed because of the hardships suffered by ordinary Iraqis. Studies dispute the number of people who died in south and central Iraq during the years of the sanctions.
DRAINING OF THE QURNA MARSHES
Main article: Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes
The draining of the Qurna Marshes was an irrigation project in Iraq during and immediately after the war, to drain a large area of marshes in the Tigris–Euphrates river system . Formerly covering an area of around 3,000 square kilometers, the large complex of wetlands were almost completely emptied of water, and the local Shi'ite population relocated, following the war and 1991 uprisings . By 2000, United Nations Environment Programme estimated that 90% of the marshlands had disappeared, causing desertification of over 7,500 square miles (19,000 km2).
The draining of the Qurna Marshes also called The DRAINING OF THE MESOPOTAMIAN MARSHES occurred in Iraq and to a smaller degree in Iran between the 1950s and 1990s to clear large areas of the marshes in the Tigris-Euphrates river system . Formerly covering an area of around 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi), the large complex of wetlands was 90% drained prior to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq . The marshes are typically divided into three main sub-marshes, the Hawizeh , Central, and Hammar Marshes and all three were drained at different times for different reasons. Initial draining of the Central Marshes was intended to reclaim land for agriculture but later all three marshes would become a tool of war and revenge.
Many international organizations such as the UN Human Rights Commission , the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq , the Wetlands International , and Middle East Watch have described the project as a political attempt to force the Marsh Arabs out of the area through water diversion tactics.
Main article: Gulf War oil spill
On 23 January, Iraq dumped 400 million US gallons (1,500,000 m3) of crude oil into the Persian Gulf, causing the largest offshore oil spill in history at that time. It was reported as a deliberate natural resources attack to keep US Marines from coming ashore (_Missouri_ and _Wisconsin_ had shelled Failaka Island during the war to reinforce the idea that there would be an amphibious assault attempt). About 30–40% of this came from allied raids on Iraqi coastal targets.
KUWAITI OIL FIRES
The Kuwaiti oil fires were caused by the Iraqi military setting fire to 700 oil wells as part of a scorched earth policy while retreating from Kuwait in 1991 after conquering the country but being driven out by coalition forces. The fires started in January and February 1991, and the last one was extinguished by November.
The resulting fires burned out of control because of the dangers of sending in firefighting crews. Land mines had been placed in areas around the oil wells, and a military cleaning of the areas was necessary before the fires could be put out. Somewhere around 6 million barrels (950,000 m3) of oil were lost each day. Eventually, privately contracted crews extinguished the fires, at a total cost of US$1.5 billion to Kuwait. By that time, however, the fires had burned for approximately 10 months, causing widespread pollution.
The cost of the war to the
United States was calculated by the US
Congress to be $61.1 billion. About $52 billion of that amount was
paid by other countries: $36 billion by Kuwait,
EFFECT ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Apart from the impact on Arab States of the Persian Gulf , the resulting economic disruptions after the crisis affected many states. The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) undertook a study in 1991 to assess the effects on developing states and the international community's response. A briefing paper finalized on the day that the conflict ended draws on their findings which had two main conclusions: Many developing states were severely affected and while there has been a considerable response to the crisis, the distribution of assistance was highly selective.
The ODI factored in elements of "cost" which included oil imports, remittance flows, re-settlement costs, loss of export earnings and tourism. For Egypt, the cost totaled $1 billion, 3% of GDP. Yemen had a cost of $830 million, 10% of GDP, while it cost Jordan $1.8 billion, 32% of GDP.
International response to the crisis on developing states came with the channeling of aid through The Gulf Crisis Financial Co-ordination Group. They were 24 states, comprising most of the OECD countries plus some Gulf states: Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Kuwait. The members of this group agreed to disperse $14 billion in development assistance.
The World Bank responded by speeding up the disbursement of existing project and adjustment loans. The International Monetary Fund adopted two lending facilities – the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) and the Compensatory white-space:nowrap;"> in assistance.
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Main article: Media coverage of the Gulf War
The war was heavily televised . For the first time, people all over the world were able to watch live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters departing from aircraft carriers. Allied forces were keen to demonstrate their weapons' accuracy.
In the United States, the "big three" network anchors led the war's network news coverage: ABC 's Peter Jennings , CBS 's Dan Rather , and NBC 's Tom Brokaw were anchoring their evening newscasts when air strikes began on 16 January 1991. ABC News correspondent Gary Shepard, reporting live from Baghdad, told Jennings of the city's quietness. But, moments later, Shepard was back on the air as flashes of light were seen on the horizon and tracer fire was heard on the ground.
On CBS, viewers were watching a report from correspondent Allen Pizzey, who was also reporting from Baghdad, when the war began. Rather, after the report was finished, announced that there were unconfirmed reports of flashes in Baghdad and heavy air traffic at bases in Saudi Arabia. On the NBC Nightly News, correspondent Mike Boettcher reported unusual air activity in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Moments later, Brokaw announced to his viewers that the air attack had begun.
Still, it was CNN whose coverage gained the most popularity and indeed its wartime coverage is often cited as one of the landmark events in the network's history, ultimately leading to the establishment of CNN International . CNN correspondents John Holliman and Peter Arnett and CNN anchor Bernard Shaw relayed audio reports from Baghdad's Al-Rashid Hotel as the air strikes began. The network had previously convinced the Iraqi government to allow installation of a permanent audio circuit in their makeshift bureau. When the telephones of all of the other Western TV correspondents went dead during the bombing, CNN was the only service able to provide live reporting. After the initial bombing, Arnett remained behind and was, for a time, the only American TV correspondent reporting from Iraq.
In the United Kingdom, the BBC devoted the FM portion of its national speech radio station BBC Radio 4 to an 18-hour rolling news format creating Radio 4 News FM . The station was short lived, ending shortly after President Bush declared the ceasefire and Kuwait's liberation. However, it paved the way for the later introduction of Radio Five Live .
Two BBC journalists, John Simpson and Bob Simpson (no relation), defied their editors and remained in Baghdad to report on the war's progress. They were responsible for a report which included an "infamous cruise missile that travelled down a street and turned left at a traffic light."
Newspapers all over the world also covered the war and _Time_ magazine published a special issue dated 28 January 1991, the headline "War in the Gulf" emblazoned on the cover over a picture of Baghdad taken as the war began.
US policy regarding media freedom was much more restrictive than in the Vietnam War . The policy had been spelled out in a Pentagon document entitled _ Annex Foxtrot _. Most of the press information came from briefings organized by the military. Only selected journalists were allowed to visit the front lines or conduct interviews with soldiers. Those visits were always conducted in the presence of officers, and were subject to both prior approval by the military and censorship afterward. This was ostensibly to protect sensitive information from being revealed to Iraq. This policy was heavily influenced by the military's experience with the Vietnam War, in which public opposition within the US grew throughout the war's course. It was not only the limitation of information in the Middle East; media were also restricting what was shown about the war with more graphic depictions like Ken Jarecke 's image of a burnt Iraqi soldier being pulled from the American AP wire whereas in Europe it was given extensive coverage.
At the same time, the war's coverage was new in its instantaneousness. About halfway through the war, Iraq's government decided to allow live satellite transmissions from the country by Western news organizations, and US journalists returned en masse to Baghdad. NBC 's Tom Aspell , ABC's Bill Blakemore, and CBS News' Betsy Aaron filed reports, subject to acknowledged Iraqi censorship. Throughout the war, footage of incoming missiles was broadcast almost immediately.
A British crew from CBS News, David Green and Andy Thompson, equipped with satellite transmission equipment, traveled with the front line forces and, having transmitted live TV pictures of the fighting en route, arrived the day before the forces in Kuwait City, broadcasting live television from the city and covering the entrance of the Arab forces the next day.
Alternative media outlets provided views in opposition to the war. Deep Dish Television compiled segments from independent producers in the US and abroad, and produced a 10-hour series that was distributed internationally, called The Gulf Crisis TV Project. The series' first program _War, Oil and Power_ was compiled and released in 1990, before the war broke out. _News World Order_ was the title of another program in the series; it focused on the media's complicity in promoting the war, as well as Americans' reactions to the media coverage. In San Francisco, as a local example, Paper Tiger Television West produced a weekly cable television show with highlights of mass demonstrations, artists' actions, lectures, and protests against mainstream media coverage at newspaper offices and television stations. Local media outlets in cities across the country screened similar oppositional media.
The organization Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) critically analyzed media coverage during the war in various articles and books, such as the 1991 _ Gulf War Coverage: The Worst Censorship was at Home_.
_ The USS Missouri_ launches a Tomahawk missile . The Gulf War was the last conflict in which battleships were deployed in a combat role (as of 2017)
Precision-guided munitions were heralded as key in allowing military strikes to be made with a minimum of civilian casualties compared to previous wars, although they were not used as often as more traditional, less accurate bombs. Specific buildings in downtown Baghdad could be bombed while journalists in their hotels watched cruise missiles fly by.
Precision-guided munitions amounted to approximately 7.4% of all bombs dropped by the coalition. Other bombs included cluster bombs , which disperse numerous submunitions, and daisy cutters , 15,000-pound bombs which can disintegrate everything within hundreds of yards.
Global Positioning System (GPS) units were relatively new at the time and were important in enabling coalition units to easily navigate across the desert. Since military GPS receivers were not available for most troops, many used commercially available units. To permit these to be used to best effect, the "selective availability" feature of the GPS system was turned off for the duration of Desert Storm, allowing these commercial receivers to provide the same precision as the military equipment.
Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) and satellite communication systems were also important. Two examples of this are the US Navy's Grumman E-2 Hawkeye and the US Air Force's Boeing E-3 Sentry . Both were used in command and control area of operations. These systems provided essential communications links between air, ground, and naval forces. It is one of several reasons why coalition forces dominated the air war.
American-made color photocopiers were used to produce some of Iraq's battle plans. Some of the copiers contained concealed high-tech transmitters that revealed their positions to American electronic warfare aircraft , leading to more precise bombings.
SCUD AND PATRIOT MISSILES
Military personnel examine the remains of a Scud
The role of Iraq's
Scud missiles featured prominently in the war.
Scud is a tactical ballistic missile that the
Scud missiles utilize inertial guidance which operates for the
duration that the engines operate.
Scud missiles, launching
them into both
The US Patriot missile was used in combat for the first time. The US
military claimed a high effectiveness against Scuds at the time, but
later analysis gives figures as low as 9%, with 45% of the 158 Patriot
launches being against debris or false targets. The Dutch Ministry of
Defense , which also sent Patriot missiles to protect civilians in
* 1973 Samita border skirmish * War on Terror * War in Afghanistan (2001–present) * United Nations Iraq– Kuwait Observation Mission (April 1991 – October 2003) * Kuwait– Iraq barrier * Gulf War military awards * Iraq disarmament timeline 1990–2003 * Iraq–Russia relations * Lion of Babylon (tank) * List of Gulf War military equipment * Operation Simoom * Organization of United States Air Force Units in the Gulf War * SIPRI Arms Transfers Database, Iraq 1973–1990 * Timeline of the Gulf War * History of the M1 Abrams
* _Conflict: Desert Storm _ * _Conflict: Desert Storm II _ * _Gulf War: Operation Desert Hammer _
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Arbuthnot, Felicity (17 September 2000). "Allies Deliberately Poisoned Iraq Public Water Supply in Gulf War". Scotland: Sunday Herald. Retrieved 4 December 2005. Atkinson, Rick; Devroy, Ann (12 January 1991). "U.S. Claims Iraqi Nuclear Reactors Hit Hard". _Washington Post_. Retrieved 4 December 2005. Austvik, Ole Gunnar (1993). "_The War Over the Price of Oil_". International Journal of Global Energy Issues. Bard, Mitchell. "The Gulf War". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 25 May 2009. Barzilai, Gad (1993). Klieman, Aharon; Shidlo, Gil, eds. _The Gulf Crisis and Its Global Aftermath_. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08002-9 . Blum, William (1995). Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. Common Courage Press. ISBN 1-56751-052-3 . Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2005. Bolkom, Christopher; Pike, Jonathan. "_Attack Aircraft Proliferation: Areas for Concern_". Retrieved 4 December 2005. Brown., Miland. "First Persian Gulf War". Archived from the original on 21 January 2007. Emering, Edward John (2005). _The Decorations and Medals of the Persian Gulf War (1990 to 1991)_. Claymont, DE: Orders and Medals Society of America. ISBN 1-890974-18-8 . OCLC 62859116 . Finlan, Alastair (2003). _The Gulf War 1991_. Osprey. ISBN 1-84176-574-0 . Forbes, Daniel (15 May 2000). "Gulf War crimes?". Salon Magazine. Retrieved 4 December 2005. Graham., Bob (2012). _GULF in the WAR STORY: A US Navy Personnel Manager Confides in You_. Florida u.a.: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1475147056 . Hawley., T. M. (1992). _Against the Fires of Hell: The Environmental Disaster of the Gulf War_. New York u.a.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0-15-103969-0 . Hiro, Dilip (1992). _Desert Shield to Desert Storm: The Second Gulf War_. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-90657-9 . Clancy, Tom; Horner, Chuck (1999). _Every Man a Tiger: The Gulf War Air Campaign_. Putnam. ISBN 978-0-399-14493-6 . Hoskinson, Ronald Andrew; Jarvis, Norman (1994). " Gulf War Photo Gallery". Retrieved 4 December 2005. Kepel, Gilles (2002). "From the Gulf War to the Taliban Jihad / Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam". Latimer, Jon (2001). _Deception in War_. London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-5605-8 . Little, Allan (1 December 1997). " Iraq coming in from the cold?". BBC. Retrieved 4 December 2005. Lowry, Richard S. "The Gulf War Chronicles". iUniverse (2003 and 2008). MacArthur, John. "Independent Policy Forum Luncheon Honoring". Retrieved 4 December 2005. Makiya, Kanan (1993). _Cruelty and silence : war, tyranny, uprising, and the Arab World_. W.W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-03108-9 . Moise, Edwin. "Bibliography: The First U.S. – Iraq War: Desert Shield and Desert Storm (1990–1991)". Retrieved 21 March 2009. Munro, Alan (2006). _Arab Storm: Politics and Diplomacy Behind the Gulf War_. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-128-1 . Naval Historical Center (15 May 1991). "The United States Navy in Desert Shield/Desert Storm". Retrieved 4 December 2005. Wright, Steven (2007). _The United States and Persian Gulf Security: The Foundations of the War on Terror_. Ithaca Press. ISBN 978-0-86372-321-6 . Niksch, Larry A; Sutter, Robert G (23 May 1991). "Japan\'s Response to the Persian Gulf Crisis: Implications for U.S.- Japan Relations". Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Retrieved 4 December 2005. Odgers, George (1999). _100 Years of Australians at War_. Sydney: Lansdowne. ISBN 1-86302-669-X . Riley, Jonathon (2010). _Decisive Battles: From Yorktown to Operation Desert Storm_. Continuum. ISBN 1-84725-250-8 . Roberts, Paul William (1998). _The demonic comedy : some detours in the Baghdad of Saddam Hussein_. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-13823-3 . Sifry, Micah; Cerf, Christopher (1991). _The Gulf War Reader_. New York, NY: Random House. ISBN 0-8129-1947-5 . Simons, Geoff (2004). _Iraq: from Sumer to post-Saddam_ (3 ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-1770-1 . Smith, Jean Edward (1992). _George Bush's War_. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-8050-1388-7 . Tucker, Spencer (2010). _The Encyclopedia of Middle East Wars. The United States in the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq Conflicts_. ABC-Clio. ISBN 1-84725-250-8 . Turnley, Peter (December 2002). "The Unseen Gulf War (photo essay)". Retrieved 4 December 2005. Walker, Paul; Stambler, Eric (1991). "... and the dirty little weapons". _ Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Vol 47, Number 4_. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2010. Frank, Andre Gunder (20 May 1991). "Third World War in the Gulf: A New World Order". _Political Economy Notebooks for Study and Research, no. 14, pp. 5–34_. Retrieved 4 December 2005. PBS Frontline. "The Gulf War: an in-depth examination of the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf crisis". Retrieved 4 December 2005. "Report to Congress on the Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, Chapter 6". Retrieved 4 December 2005.
* _ Dawn of the World _ (2008) * _ Bravo Two Zero _ (1999) * _ Courage Under Fire _ (1996) * _The Finest Hour _ (1991) * _ The Heroes of Desert Storm _ (1991) * _Jarhead _ (2005) * _ Lessons of Darkness _ (1992) (a documentary) * _Live from Baghdad _ (2002) * _Towelhead _ (2007) * _Three Kings _ (1999) * _The Manchurian Candidate _ (2004) * Used as a back drop for the film _ The Big Lebowski _ (1998). It is frequently discussed as well. * Used in retconned backstory for _The Punisher _ (2004) * The Bollywood movie Airlift (2016) is based on the true story of the evacuation of 170,000 Indians stranded in the War Zone.
* _Braving the Fear – The True Story of Rowdy US Marines in the Gulf War_ (by Douglas Foster) ISBN 978-1-4137-9902-6 * _Bravo Two Zero_ (by Andy McNab ) ISBN 0-440-21880-2 * _ The Fist of God _ (by Frederick Forsyth ) ISBN 0-553-09126-3 * _Glass (Pray the Electrons Back to Sand)_ (by James Chapman) * _Gulf in the War Story: A US Navy Personnel Manager Confides in You_ (diary from inside the real Top Gun, VF-1 "Wolfpack" by Bob Graham) ISBN 978-1-4751-4705-6 * _Hogs_ dime novel series by James Ferro * _Jarhead_ (by Anthony Swofford) ISBN 0-7432-3535-5 * _Savant_ (by James Follett ) * _Summer 1990_ (by Firyal AlShalabi) * _Third Graders at War_ (by Felix G) * _To Die in Babylon_ by Harold Livingston * M60 vs T-62 Cold War Combatants 1956–92 by Lon Nordeen font-size: 90%; color: #555">(via Wayback Machine) * Desert Shield/Desert Storm Photographs US Army Heritage and Education Center, Carlisle, Pennsylvania * Persian Gulf War * 20th Anniversary of Desert Storm in Photos * Air Force and Air Defense of Iraq before the war (not translated) exact list of the technical details * Liberating Kuwait United States Marine Corps * Baath Ground Forces Equipment – GlobalSecurity.org * Friendly-fire Incidents – www.gulflink.osd.mil
* v * t * e
* Conflict timeline * Disarmament timeline
INVASION OF KUWAIT
* Air campaign * "Package Q" air strike * Khafji * Wadi Al-Batin * Samurra * Al Busayyah * 67 Easting * 73 Easting * Phase Line Bullet * Medina Ridge * 2nd Kuwait * Highway of Death * Jalibah * Norfolk * Rumaila * Safwan
* Operation _Southern Watch_ * Iraq sanctions * Kuwaiti oil fires * 1991 uprisings * Draining of the marshes * Gulf War oil spill * Depleted uranium * Gulf War syndrome * Awards * Operation _Provide Comfort_
* v * t * e
28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006
* Relationship with Al-Qaeda
* Capture * Interrogation * Trial * Execution
* Killing babies * Alleged shredder
* Father: Hussein \'Abid al-Majid * Mother: Subha Tulfah al-Mussallat * Half-brothers: Watban , Sabawi , and Barzan * Wives: Sajida Talfah and Samira Shahbandar * Uncle and Father-in-Law: Khairallah Talfah * Sons: Uday and Qusay * Daughters: Rana , Raghad , and Hala * Grandchildren: Mustapha Hussein
* WIKIMEDIA: * _ Wiktionary * Wikibooks * Wikiquote * Wikisource * Commons * Wikinews * Wikibook * Category
* v * t * e
* 1958–68 * 1968–2003 * 2003–11 * 2011–present
* Iraq War
* U.S. invasion * Iraqi insurgency * U.S. troop withdrawal
* Insurgency (2011–2013)
* Civil War (2014–present)
* Administrative divisions * Constitution * Council of Representatives (legislative) * Elections * Foreign aid * Foreign relations
* Council of Ministers * Presidency Council * President * Prime Minister
* Human rights
* in post-invasion Iraq
* in ISIL-controlled territory
* LGBT * Freedom of religion * Women
* Law * Military * Police * Political parties * Judiciary * Wars and conflicts
* Central Bank * Dinar (currency) * Infrastructure * Oil Industry * Oil reserves * Reconstruction * Stock Exchange * Telecommunications * Transportation
* Cuisine * Culture * Education * Health * Media * Music * Sports
* diaspora * refugees
* Arabic * Aramaic * Kurdish * Persian * Turkmen
* Outline * Index
* v * t * e
* Franco-Syrian War * Iraqi revolt against the British * Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine * Adwan Rebellion * Arab separatism in Khuzestan _ * Great Syrian Revolt * Sheikh Said rebellion * 1921 Persian coup d\'état
* ARAB–ISRAELI CONFLICT
Black September in
* 1972 North Yemen–South
Turkish invasion of Cyprus
* LEBANESE CIVIL WAR
Political violence in Turkey (1976–80)
Islamist uprising in
* Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution
* Sadr uprising (1980) * IRAN–IRAQ WAR * 1980 Turkish coup d\'état
* Kurdish separatism in Turkey
* _Turkey-PKK conflict _
* GULF WAR (1990–1991)
1991 uprisings in Iraq
* Terror campaign in
* Bahraini uprising
* Egyptian Crisis
THIS LIST INCLUDES POST-OTTOMAN CONFLICTS (AFTER 1918) OF AT LEAST 100 FATALITIES EACH Prolonged conflicts are listed in the decade when initiated; ongoing conflicts are marked italic and conflict with +100,000 killed with bold.
* v * t * e
Armed conflicts involving the United States Armed Forces
* Shays\' Rebellion * Whiskey Rebellion * Fries\'s Rebellion * Mormon War * Dorr Rebellion * Bleeding Kansas * Utah War * Civil War * Indian Wars * Brooks–Baxter War * Range War * Lincoln County War * Johnson County War * Coal Creek War * Homestead Strike * Battle of Blair Mountain * Bonus Army * Battle of Athens
* Revolutionary War * Quasi-War * First Barbary War * War of 1812 * Second Barbary War * First Sumatran expedition * Second Sumatran expedition * Ivory Coast Expedition * Mexican–American War * First Fiji Expedition * Second Opium War * Second Fiji Expedition * Formosa Expedition * Korean Expedition * Spanish–American War * Philippine–American War * Boxer Rebellion * Banana Wars * Border War * World War I * Russian Civil War * World War II * Korean War * Vietnam War * Invasion of the Dominican Republic * Invasion of Grenada * Lebanese Civil War * Invasion of Panama * Gulf War * Somali Civil War * Bosnian War * Kosovo War * Afghanistan War * Iraq War * War in North-West Pakistan * Libyan Civil War
* Intervention against ISIL
* List of conflicts in the U.S. * List of wars involving the U.S. * Timeline of U.S. military operations * Length of U.S. participation in major wars * Overseas expansion * Military history * Covert regime-change actions * Casualties of war * Peace movement * List of anti-war organizations * Conscientious objector
* v * t * e
History of the United States
* Prehistory * Pre-Columbian * Colonial * 1776–89 * 1789–1849 * 1849–65 * 1865–1918 * 1918–45 * 1945–64 * 1964–80 * 1980–91 * 1991–2008 * 2008–present
* American Century * Cities * Constitution * Demographic * Diplomatic * Economic * Education * Immigration * Medical * Merchant Marine * Military * Musical * Religious * Slavery * Southern * Technological and industrial * Territorial acquisitions * Territorial evolution * Voting rights * Women
* v * t * e
* Cursed soldiers * Operation Unthinkable_ * Potsdam Conference * Gouzenko Affair * Operation _Masterdom_ * Operation _Beleaguer_ * Operation _Blacklist Forty_ * Iran crisis of 1946 * Greek Civil War * Corfu Channel incident * Turkish Straits crisis * Restatement of Policy on Germany * First Indochina War * Truman Doctrine * Asian Relations Conference * Marshall Plan * 1948 Czechoslovak coup d\'état * Tito–Stalin Split * Berlin Blockade * Western betrayal * Iron Curtain * Eastern Bloc * Western Bloc * Chinese Civil War (Second round) * Malayan Emergency * Albanian Subversion
* 1953 Iranian coup d\'état
* Uprising of 1953 in
* 1954 Guatemalan coup d\'état
* Partition of Vietnam
* Cuban Missile Crisis * Sino-Indian War * Communist insurgency in Sarawak * Iraqi Ramadan Revolution * 1963 Syrian coup d\'état * Vietnam War * 1964 Brazilian coup d\'état * United States occupation of the Dominican Republic (1965–66) * South African Border War * Transition to the New Order * Domino theory * ASEAN Declaration * Laotian Civil War * 1966 Syrian coup d\'état * Argentine Revolution * Korean DMZ Conflict * Greek military junta of 1967–74 * USS _Pueblo_ incident * Six-Day War * War of Attrition * Dhofar Rebellion * Protests of 1968 * French May * Cultural Revolution * Prague Spring * Communist insurgency in Malaysia * Invasion of Czechoslovakia * Iraqi Ba\'athist Revolution * Goulash Communism * Sino-Soviet border conflict * CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion * Corrective Move
* Détente * Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty * Black September in Jordan * Corrective Movement (Syria) * Cambodian Civil War * Realpolitik * Ping-pong diplomacy * 1971 Turkish military memorandum * Corrective Revolution (Egypt) * Four Power Agreement on Berlin * Bangladesh Liberation War * 1972 Nixon visit to China * North Yemen-South Yemen Border Conflict * 1973 Chilean coup d\'état * Yom Kippur War * Carnation Revolution * Strategic Arms Limitation Talks * Rhodesian Bush War * Angolan Civil War * Mozambican Civil War * Ogaden War * Ethiopian Civil War * Lebanese Civil War * Sino-Albanian split * Cambodian–Vietnamese War * Sino-Vietnamese War * Iranian Revolution * Operation _Condor_ * Dirty War * Korean Air Lines Flight 902 * Saur Revolution * New Jewel Movement * 1979 Herat uprising * Seven Days to the River Rhine * Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union
* Soviet reaction
* Contras * Central American crisis * RYAN * Korean Air Lines Flight 007 * Able Archer 83 * Star Wars * People Power Revolution * Nagorno-Karabakh War * Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 * Fall of the Berlin Wall * Revolutions of 1989 * Glasnost * Perestroika
Mongolian Revolution of 1990
Fall of communism in Albania
Breakup of Yugoslavia
* Dissolution of the
* Truman Doctrine * Containment * Eisenhower Doctrine * Domino theory * Hallstein Doctrine * Kennedy Doctrine * Peaceful coexistence * Ostpolitik * Johnson Doctrine * Brezhnev Doctrine * Nixon Doctrine * Ulbricht Doctrine * Carter Doctrine * Reagan Doctrine * Rollback * Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War