French Revolutionary Wars
18 May 1804
2 December 1804
Treaty of Tilsit
7 July 1807
Invasion of Russia
24 June 1812
Treaty of Fontainebleau
11 April 1814
20 March – 7 July 1815
860,000 km2 (330,000 sq mi)
French First Republic
Kingdom of Holland
Kingdom of France
Principality of the Netherlands
The First French Empire (French:
Empire FrançaisNote 1) was the
Napoleon Bonaparte of
France and the dominant power in much
of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although
France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning
in the 17th century, historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the
Empire because he was the first ruler of
France since the days
Franks to take an imperial title.
On 18 May 1804,
Napoleon was granted the title
Emperor of the French
(L'Empereur des Français, pronounced [lɑ̃.pʁœʁ de
fʁɑ̃.sɛ]) by the French Sénat and was crowned on 2 December
1804, signifying the end of the
French Consulate and of the French
First Republic. The French
Empire earned a few notable victories in
War of the Third Coalition
War of the Third Coalition against Austria, Prussia, Russia,
Portugal, and allied nations, notably at the
Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Austerlitz in
1805. Additionally, during the War of the Fourth Coalition, it won
Battle of Friedland
Battle of Friedland in 1807.
A series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended
French influence to much of Western Europe and into Poland. At its
height in 1812, the French
Empire had 130 departments, ruled over 70
million subjects, maintained an extensive military presence in
Germany, Italy, Spain, and the Duchy of Warsaw, and counted Prussia
and Austria as nominal allies. Early French victories exported many
ideological features of the
French Revolution throughout Europe: the
introduction of the
Napoleonic Code throughout the continent increased
legal equality, established jury systems and legalised divorce, and
seigneurial dues and seigneurial justice were abolished, as were
aristocratic privileges in all places except Poland.
2 Early victories
3 Height of the Empire
4 Intrigues and unrest
5 The Fall
6 Nature of Bonaparte's rule
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
18 Brumaire and French Consulate
Napoleon Bonaparte was confronted by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès
– one of five Directors constituting the executive branch of the
French government—who sought his support for a coup d'état to
overthrow the Constitution of the Year III. The plot included
Bonaparte's brother Lucien, then serving as speaker of the Council of
Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, and Talleyrand. On 9
November 1799 (
18 Brumaire (VIII under the French Republican
Calendar)) and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized
control.[clarification needed] They dispersed the legislative
councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès and
Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government. Although
Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was
outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year
VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. He thus became the
most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the
Constitution of the Year X, which made him First Consul for life.
Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo (14 June 1800) inaugurated the political idea
that was to continue its development until Napoleon's Moscow campaign.
Napoleon planned only to keep the
Duchy of Milan
Duchy of Milan for France, setting
aside Austria, and was thought[by whom?] to prepare a new campaign in
the East. The Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a
temporary truce. He gradually extended his authority in
annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma, Tuscany and
Naples, and added this Italian territory to his Cisalpine Republic.
Then he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of
1801 to control the material claims of the pope. When he recognised
his error of raising the authority of the pope from that of a
Napoleon produced the Articles Organiques (1802) with the
goal of becoming the legal protector of the papacy, like Charlemagne.
To conceal his plans before their actual execution, he aroused French
colonial aspirations against Britain and the memory of the 1763 Treaty
of Paris, exacerbating British envy of France, whose borders now
extended to the
Rhine and beyond, to Hanover, Hamburg and Cuxhaven.
Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie
and the old aristocracy.
On 12 May 1802, the French
Tribunat voted unanimously, with the
exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader
of France. This action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif.
A general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes
aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802 (14 Thermidor, An X),
Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life.
Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres,
Pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through
Germany aided by the "Recess
of 1803", which brought Bavaria,
Baden to France's
side. William Pitt the Younger, back in power over Britain, appealed
once more for an Anglo-Austro-Russian coalition against
stop the ideals of revolutionary
France from spreading.
On 18 May 1804,
Napoleon was given the title of "
Emperor of the
French" by the Senate; finally, on 2 December 1804, he was solemnly
crowned, after receiving the Iron Crown of the Lombard kings, and was
Pius VII in Notre-Dame de Paris.Note 3
In four campaigns, the
Emperor transformed his "Carolingian" feudal
republican and federal empire into one modelled on the Roman Empire.
The memories of imperial Rome were for a third time, after Julius
Caesar and Charlemagne, used to modify the historical evolution of
France. Though the vague plan for an invasion of Great Britain was
never executed, the
Battle of Ulm
Battle of Ulm and the Battle of Austerlitz
overshadowed the defeat of Trafalgar, and the camp at Boulogne put at
Napoleon's disposal the best military resources he had commanded, in
the form of La Grande Armée.
In the War of the Third Coalition,
Napoleon swept away the remnants of
the old Holy
Roman Empire and created in southern
Germany the vassal
states of Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt and Saxony,
which were reorganized into the Confederation of the Rhine. The Treaty
of Pressburg, signed on 26 December 1805, extracted extensive
territorial concessions from Austria, on top of a large financial
indemnity. Napoleon's creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the occupation
of Ancona, and his annexation of Venetia and its former Adriatic
territories marked a new stage in his Empire's progress.
The Battle of Austerlitz
To create satellite states,
Napoleon installed his relatives as rulers
of many European states. The Bonapartes began to marry into old
European monarchies, gaining sovereignty over many nations. Joseph
Bonaparte replaced the dispossessed Bourbons in Naples; Louis
Bonaparte was installed on the throne of the Kingdom of Holland,
formed from the Batavian Republic;
Joachim Murat became Grand-Duke of
Jérôme Bonaparte was made son-in-law to the King of
Württemberg; and Eugène de Beauharnais was appointed to be the King
Stéphanie de Beauharnais
Stéphanie de Beauharnais married the son of the
Grand Duke of Baden. In addition to the vassal titles, Napoleon's
closest relatives were also granted the title of French Prince and
formed the Imperial House of France.
Met with opposition,
Napoleon would not tolerate any neutral power. On
6 August 1806 the Habsburgs abdicated their title of Holy Roman
Emperor in order to prevent
Napoleon from becoming the next Emperor,
ending a political power which had endured for over a thousand years.
Prussia had been offered the territory of
Hanover to stay out of the
Third Coalition. With the diplomatic situation changing, Napoleon
offered Great Britain the province as part of a peace proposal. This,
combined with growing tensions in
Germany over French hegemony,
Prussia responded by forming an alliance with
Russia and sending
Bavaria on 1 October 1806. In this War of the Fourth
Napoleon destroyed the armies of Frederick William at
Jena-Auerstedt. Successive victories at Eylau and Friedland against
the Russians finally ruined Frederick the Great's formerly mighty
Prussia to make peace with
Height of the Empire
The Arc de Triomphe, ordered by
Napoleon in honour of his Grande
Armée, is one of the several landmarks whose construction was started
Paris during the First French Empire.
Treaties of Tilsit
Treaties of Tilsit ended the war between
Russia and the French
Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that held power
of much of the rest of Europe. The two empires secretly agreed to aid
each other in disputes.
France pledged to aid
Russia against Ottoman
Russia agreed to join the
Continental System against the
Napoleon also forced Alexander to enter the
Anglo-Russian War and to instigate the
Finnish War against Sweden in
order to force Sweden to join the Continental System.
More specifically, the Tsar agreed to evacuate
Wallachia and Moldavia,
which had been occupied by Russian forces as part of the Russo-Turkish
War of 1806–1812. The
Ionian Islands and Cattaro, which had been
captured by Russian admirals Ushakov and Senyavin, were to be handed
over to the French. In recompense,
Napoleon guaranteed the sovereignty
Duchy of Oldenburg
Duchy of Oldenburg and several other small states ruled by the
Tsar's German relatives.
The treaty removed about half of Prussia's territory:
to Saxony, the left bank of the
Elbe was awarded to the newly created
Kingdom of Westphalia,
Białystok was given to Russia, and the rest of
Polish lands in the Prussian possession were set up as the Duchy of
Prussia was ordered to reduce their army to 40,000 and to pay
an indemnity of 100,000,000 francs. Observers in
Prussia viewed the
treaty as unfair and as a national humiliation.
Napoleon reviews the Imperial Guard before the Battle of Jena, 1806
Talleyrand had advised
Napoleon to pursue milder terms; the treaties
marked an important stage in his estrangement from the emperor. After
the Treaties of Tilsit, instead of trying to reconcile Europe, as
Talleyrand had advised,
Napoleon wanted to defeat Britain and complete
his Italian dominion. To the coalition of the northern powers, he
added the league of the Baltic and Mediterranean ports, and to the
Copenhagen by a
Royal Navy fleet he responded by a
second decree of blockade, dated from Milan on 17 December 1807.
The application of the Concordat and the taking of
Naples led to the
first struggles with the Pope, centered around
Pius VII renewing the
theocratic affirmations of
Pope Gregory VII. The Emperor's Roman
ambition was made more visible by the occupation of the Kingdom of
Naples and of the Marches, and by the entry of Miollis into Rome;
while Junot invaded Portugal,
Joachim Murat took control of formerly
Roman Spain, whither
Joseph Bonaparte transferred afterwards.
Napoleon tried to succeed in the
Iberian Peninsula as he had done in
Italy, in the Netherlands, and in Hesse. However, the exile of the
Royal Family to Bayonne, together with the enthroning of Joseph
Bonaparte, turned the Spanish against Napoleon. After the Dos de Mayo
riots and subsequent reprisals, the Spanish government began an
effective guerrilla campaign, under the oversight of a local Juntas.
The Peninsula became a war zone from the Pyrenees to the Straits of
Gibraltar and saw Imperial Armies facing the remnants of the Spanish
Army, as well as British and Portuguese Forces. Dupont capitulated at
Bailén to General Castaños, and Junot at Sintra, Portugal to General
Aftermath of the Battle of Eylau, 1807
Spain used up the soldiers needed for Napoleon's other fields of
battle, and they had to be replaced by conscripts. Spanish resistance
affected Austria, and indicated the potential of national resistance.
The provocations of
Talleyrand and Britain strengthened the idea that
Austrians could emulate the Spaniards. On April 10, 1809, Austria
invaded France's ally, Bavaria. The campaign of 1809, however, would
not be nearly as long and troublesome for
France as the Spanish one.
After a short and decisive action in Bavaria,
Napoleon opened up the
Vienna for a second time. At Aspern-Essling,
his first serious tactical defeat, along with the death of Jean
Lannes, an able Marshall and dear friend of the Emperor. The victory
at Wagram, however, forced Austria to sue for peace. The Treaty of
Schönbrunn, 14 December 1809, annexed the
Illyrian Provinces and
recognized past French conquests.
Pope was forcibly deported to Savona, and his domains were
incorporated into the Empire. The Senate's decision on 17 February
1810 created the title of King of Rome, and made Rome the capital of
Italy. Between 1810 and 1812 Napoleon's divorce of Joséphine, and his
marriage with Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria, followed by the
birth of the king of Rome, shed light upon his future policy. He
gradually withdrew power from his siblings and concentrated his
affection and ambition on his son, the guarantee of the continuance of
his dynasty. This was the high point of the empire.
Intrigues and unrest
Undermining forces, however, had already begun to impinge on the
faults inherent in Napoleon’s achievements. Britain, protected by
the English Channel and its navy, was persistently active, and
rebellion of both the governing and of the governed broke out
everywhere. Napoleon, though he underrated it, soon felt his failure
in coping with the Spanish uprising. Men like Baron von Stein, August
von Hardenberg and Johann von Scharnhorst had secretly started
preparing Prussia's retaliation.
Napoleon demanded that Alexander I of
Russia and Frederick William III
Prussia meet him at Tilsit in July 1807
The alliance arranged at Tilsit was seriously shaken by the Austrian
marriage, the threat of Polish restoration to Russia, and the
Continental System. The very persons whom he had placed in power were
counteracting his plans. With many of his siblings and relations
performing unsuccessfully or even betraying him,
himself obliged to revoke their power.
Caroline Bonaparte conspired
against her brother and against her husband Murat; the hypochondriac
Louis, now Dutch in his sympathies, found the supervision of the
blockade taken from him, and also the defense of the Scheldt, which he
had refused to ensure.
Jérôme Bonaparte lost control of the blockade
North Sea shores. The very nature of things was against the new
dynasties, as it had been against the old.
After national insurrections and family recriminations came treachery
from Napoleon's ministers.
Talleyrand betrayed his designs to
Metternich and suffered dismissal. Joseph Fouché, corresponding with
Austria in 1809 and 1810, entered into an understanding with Louis and
also with Britain, while
Bourrienne was convicted of speculation. By
consequence of the spirit of conquest
Napoleon had aroused, many of
his marshals and officials, having tasted victory, dreamed of
sovereign power: Bernadotte, who had helped him to the Consulate,
Napoleon false to win the crown of Sweden. Soult, like Murat,
coveted the Spanish throne after that of Portugal, thus anticipating
the treason of 1812.
The country itself, though flattered by conquests, was tired of
self-sacrifice. The unpopularity of conscription policies gradually
turned many of Napoleon’s subjects against him. Amidst profound
silence from the press and the assemblies, a protest was raised
against imperial power by the literary world, against the
excommunicated sovereign by Catholicism, and against the author of the
continental blockade by the discontented bourgeoisie, ruined by the
crisis of 1811. Even as he lost his military principles, Napoleon
maintained his gift for brilliance. His Six Days Campaign, which took
place at the very end of the Sixth Coalition, is often regarded as his
greatest display of leadership and military prowess. But by then it
was the end (or "the finish"), and it was during the years before when
the nations of Europe conspired against France. While the
his holdings idled and worsened, the rest of Europe agreed to avenge
the revolutionary events of 1792.
Main articles: Napoleon's Invasion of Russia, Sixth Coalition, and
Napoleon and his staff during the War of the Sixth Coalition,
Napoleon had hardly succeeded in putting down the revolt in Germany
when the Tsar of
Russia himself headed a European insurrection against
Napoleon. To put a stop to this, to ensure his own access to the
Mediterranean and exclude his chief rival,
Napoleon made an effort in
1812 against Russia. Despite his victorious advance, the taking of
Smolensk, the victory on the Moskva, and the entry into Moscow, he was
defeated by the country and the climate, and by Alexander's refusal to
make terms. After this came the terrible retreat in the harsh Russian
winter, while all Europe was concentrating against him. Pushed back,
as he had been in Spain, from bastion to bastion, after the action on
Napoleon had to fall back upon the frontiers of 1809,
and then—having refused the peace offered to him by Austria at the
Congress of Prague (4 June–10 August 1813), from a dread of losing
Italy, where each of his victories had marked a stage in the
accomplishment of his dream—on those of 1805, despite Lützen and
Bautzen, and on those of 1802 after his defeat at Leipzig, when
Bernadotte – now Crown Prince of Sweden – turned upon him, General
Moreau also joined the Allies, and longstanding allied nations, such
Saxony and Bavaria, forsook him as well.
Following his retreat from Russia,
Napoleon continued to retreat, this
time from Germany. After the loss of Spain, reconquered by an allied
army led by Wellington, the rising in the
Netherlands preliminary to
the invasion and the manifesto of Frankfort (1 December 1813)
which proclaimed it, he had to fall back upon the frontiers of 1795;
and then later was driven yet farther back upon those of
1792—despite the brilliant campaign of 1814 against the invaders.
Paris capitulated on 30 March 1814, and the Delenda Carthago,
pronounced against Britain, was spoken of Napoleon. The
fell with Napoleon's abdication at Fontainebleau on 11 April 1814.
After a brief exile at the island of Elba,
Napoleon escaped, with a
ship, a few men, and four cannons. The King sent Marshal Ney to arrest
him. Upon meeting Ney's army,
Napoleon dismounted and walked into
firing range, saying "If one of you wishes to kill his emperor, here I
am!" But instead of firing, they went to join Napoleon's side shouting
Napoleon recaptured the throne temporarily in 1815,
Empire in what is known as the Hundred Days. However, he
was defeated by the Seventh
Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo. He
surrendered himself to the
Coalition and was exiled to Saint Helena, a
remote island in the South Atlantic, where he remained until his death
in 1821. After the
Hundred Days (just less than a third of a year),
the Bourbon monarchy was restored, with Louis XVIII regaining the
throne of France, while the rest of Napoleon's conquests were disposed
of in the Congress of Vienna.
Nature of Bonaparte's rule
Organigramme of the Consulate and later the Empire
The Napoleonic Code.
Napoleon gained support by appealing to some common concerns of French
people. These included dislike of the emigrant nobility who had
escaped persecution, fear by some of a restoration of the Ancien
Régime, a dislike and suspicion of foreign countries that had tried
to reverse the Revolution – and a wish by Jacobins to extend
France's revolutionary ideals.
Napoleon attracted power and imperial status and gathered support for
his changes of French institutions, such as the Concordat of 1801
which confirmed the Catholic Church as the majority church of France
and restored some of its civil status.
Napoleon by this time however
was not a democrat, nor a republican. He was, he liked to think, an
enlightened despot, the sort of man
Voltaire might have found
appealing. He preserved numerous social gains of the Revolution while
suppressing political liberty. He admired efficiency and strength and
hated feudalism, religious intolerance, and civil inequality.
Enlightened despotism meant political stability. He knew his Roman
history well, as after 500 years of republicanism, Rome became an
empire under Augustus Caesar.
Although a supporter of the radical Jacobins during the early days of
the Revolution (more out of pragmatism than any real ideology),
Napoleon became increasingly autocratic as his political career
progressed and once in power embraced certain aspects of both
liberalism and authoritarianism – for example, public education, a
generally liberal restructuring of the French legal system, and the
emancipation of the Jews – while rejecting electoral democracy and
freedom of the press.
French départements in 1801 during the Consulate
French départements in 1812.
Map of the "First French
Empire in 1812, divided into 133
départements, with the kingdoms of Spain, Portugal,
Italy and Naples
and the Confederation of the Rhine, Illyria and Dalmatia"
Napoleonic Wars portal
History of France
List of Napoleonic battles
Military career of
Paris under Napoleon
^ Domestically styled as French Republic until 1808: compare the
French franc minted in 1808  and in 1809, as well as Article 1
of the Constitution of the Year XII, which reads in English The
Government of the' Republic is vested in an Emperor, who takes the
Emperor of the French.
^ According to his father's will only. Between 23 June and 7 July
France was held by a Commission of Government of five members, which
Napoleon II as emperor in any official act, and no
regent was ever appointed while waiting the return of the king.
Napoleon seized the crown out of the hands of
Pope Pius VII
during the ceremony – to avoid subjecting himself to the authority
of the pontiff – are apocryphal; the coronation procedure had been
agreed in advance. See also:
^ a b The official bulletin of laws of the French Empire
^ Le Chant du Départ, Fondation Napoléon, 2008, retrieved 16 May
^ Words and Music, Fondation Napoléon, 2008, retrieved 6 July
Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns
of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies
Quarterly. 41 (3): 501. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. Retrieved 16
^ Thierry, Lentz. "The Proclamation of
Empire by the Sénat
Conservateur". napoleon.org. Fondation Napoléon. Retrieved 15 August
^ "Battle of Austerlitz". Britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica.
Retrieved 15 August 2014.
^ Hickman, Kennedy. "Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Friedland".
militaryhistory.about.com. about.com. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
^ Martyn Lyons,
Napoleon Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French
Revolution. p. 232
^ Martyn Lyons p. 234–36
^ Haine, Scott. The History of
France (1st ed.). Greenwood Press.
p. 92. ISBN 0-313-30328-2.
^ Fremont-Barnes, Gregory (2006). The encyclopedia of the French
revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: a political, social, and military
history, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 211. ISBN 978-1851096466.
Elected to the Tribunate in 1802, he [Carnot] showed himself
increasingly alienated by Napoleon's personal ambition and voted
against both the Consul for Life and the proclamation of the Empire.
Unlike many former Revolutionaries, Carnot had little (...)
^ Chandler, David G. (2000). Napoleon. Pen and Sword. p. 57.
^ Bulletin des Lois
^ The Frankfort Declaration, 1 December 1813:
Bruun, Geoffrey. Europe and the French Imperium, 1799-1814 (1938)
Bryant, Arthur. Years of Endurance 1793–1802 (1942); and Years of
Victory, 1802–1812 (1944) well-written surveys of the British story
Colton, Joel and Palmer, R.R. A History of the Modern World. New York:
McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. ISBN 0-07-040826-2
Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon's Wars: An International History,
1803–1815 (2008); 645pp excerpt and text search a standard scholarly
Fisher, Todd & Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. The Napoleonic Wars: The
Rise and Fall of an Empire. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2004.
Godechot, Jacques; et al. (1971). The
Napoleonic era in Europe. Holt,
Rinehart and Winston.
Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe (Macmillan,
2003), country by country analysis
Hazen, Charles Downer. The
French Revolution and
Lefebvre, Georges (1969).
18 Brumaire to Tilsit,
1799-1807. Columbia University Press. influential wide-ranging
Lefebvre, Georges (1969). Napoleon; from Tilsit to Waterloo,
1807-1815. Columbia University Press.
Napoleon Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French
Revolution. (St. Martin's Press, 1994)
Muir, Rory. Britain and the Defeat of Napoleon: 1807–1815 (1996)
Lieven, Dominic (2009).
Russia Against Napoleon: The Battle for
Europe, 1807 to 1814. Allen Lane/The Penguin Press.
p. 617. 
Schroeder, Paul W. (1996). The Transformation of European Politics
1763-1848. Oxford U.P. pp. 177–560.
ISBN 9780198206545. advanced diplomatic history of Napoleon
and his era
Pope, Stephen (1999). The Cassel Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars.
Cassel. ISBN 0-304-35229-2.
Rapport, Mike. The Napoleonic Wars: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford
Ross, Steven T. European Diplomatic History, 1789–1815: France
Against Europe (1969)
Rothenberg, Gunther E. (1988). "The Origins, Causes, and Extension of
the Wars of the
French Revolution and Napoleon". Journal of
Interdisciplinary History. 18 (4): 771–793. JSTOR 204824.
Schroeder, Paul W. The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848
(1994) 920pp; online; advanced analysis of diplomacy
Dwyer, Philip. Napoleon: The Path to Power (2008) excerpt vol 1;
Napoleon in Power (2013) excerpt and text search v 2;
most recent scholarly biography
Englund, Steven (2010). Napoleon: A Political Life. Scribner.
McLynn, Frank. Napoleon: A Biography. New York: Arcade Publishing
Inc., 1997. ISBN 1-55970-631-7
Johnson, Paul (2002). Napoleon: A life. Penguin Books.
ISBN 0-670-03078-3. ; 200pp; quite hostile
Markham, Felix (1963). Napoleon. Mentor. ; 303pp; short biography
by an Oxford scholar
McLynn, Frank (1998). Napoleon. Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6247-2.
ASIN 0712662472. ; well-written popular history
Mowat, R. B. (1924) The Diplomacy of
Napoleon (1924) 350pp online
Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon: A Life (2014)
Thompson, J.M. (1951).
Napoleon Bonaparte: His Rise and Fall. Oxford
U.P. , 412pp; by an Oxford scholar
Bell, David A. The First Total War: Napoleon's Europe and the Birth of
Warfare as We Know It (2008) excerpt and text search
Broers, Michael, et al. eds. The Napoleonic
Empire and the New
European Political Culture (2012) excerpt and text search
Chandler, David G. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Simon &
Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-02-523660-1
Elting, John R. Swords Around a Throne: Napoleon's Grande Armée. New
York: Da Capo Press Inc., 1988. ISBN 0-306-80757-2
Gates, David. The
Napoleonic Wars 1803-1815 (NY: Random House, 2011)
Haythornthwaite, Philip J. Napoleon's Military Machine (1995) excerpt
and text search
Uffindell, Andrew. Great Generals of the Napoleonic Wars. Kent:
Spellmount, 2003. ISBN 1-86227-177-1
Rothenberg, E. Gunther. The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon
Smith, Digby George. The Greenhill
Napoleonic Wars Data Book: Actions
and Losses in Personnel, Colours, Standards and Artillery (1998)
Napoleon, His Armies and Battles
Client states of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
Europe at the height of Napoleon's Empire
Confederation of the Rhine
Lucca and Piombino
Massa and Carrara
Territories annexed to the First French
Former French departments (now parts of Belgium, Germany, Italy,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland) created from
Bouches-de-l'Èbre / Bouches-de-l'Èbre-Montserrat
Sègre / Sègre-Ter
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Early modern era
Long nineteenth century
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Provisional Government of the French Republic
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ancient great powers
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Coordinates: 48°49′N 2°29′E / 48.817°N 2.483°E /