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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

French victory; Peace of Basel
Peace of Basel
, Treaty of Campo Formio

* Establishment and survival of the French First Republic * French annexation of the Austrian Netherlands
Austrian Netherlands
, the Left Bank of the Rhine
Rhine
and other smaller territories * Several French "sister republics " established * Hostilities resume in 1798 with the formation of a Second Coalition against France

BELLIGERENTS

FIRST COALITION: Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire

* Habsburg Monarchy * Prussia (until 1795)

Great Britain Army of Condé Spain
Spain
(until 1795) Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
(until 1795) Portugal
Portugal
Sardinia
Sardinia
(until 1796) Naples Other Italian states

* Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
(until 1792) * French First Republic (from 1792)

FRENCH SATELLITES AND SUBDUED FORMER ENEMIES:

* Spain
Spain
(from 1796) * Batavian Republic (from 1795)

* Sister republic Polish Legions (from 1797)

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

* Francis II * Frederick William II * William Pitt

* Charles IV (Until 1795) * Mary I * Victor Amadeus III * Ferdinand IV padding-left:0.25em">

* Jacques Pierre Brissot
Jacques Pierre Brissot
* Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre

* Paul Barras (From 1795) * Charles IV (From 1796)

* v * t * e

War of the First Coalition

* Porrentruy * Marquain * Verdun * Thionville * Valmy * Lille * Mainz
Mainz
* Jemappes * 1st Limburg (fr) * Anderlecht (fr) * Namur (fr) * Maastricht * 1st Aldenhoven * Neerwinden * Condé * 2nd Mainz
Mainz
* Raismes * Famars * Bellegarde * San Pietro and Sant\'Antioco * 1st Saorgio * 1st Arlon * Valenciennes * Perpignan * Caesar\'s Camp * Lincelles * Landau * Dunkirk * Le Quesnoy * Hondshoote * Avesnes-le-Sec * Menin * Méribel * Pirmasens * Epierre * Peyrestortes * Toulon
Toulon
* Truillas * Maubeuge * 1st Wissembourg * Fort-Louis * Wattignies * Haguenau * 1st Kaiserslautern * 1st Collioure * Froeschwiller * 2nd Wissembourg * Fort-Dauphin * Martinique
Martinique
* Saint-Florent * Le Cateau * Bastia * Guadeloupe * 2nd Arlon * 1st Landrecies * Villers-en-Cauchies * 2nd Saorgio * Beaumont * Mouscron * Boulou * 2nd Collioure * Courtrai * Grandreng * Tourcoing * 3rd Arlon * Tournay * 2nd Kaiserslautern * Erquelinnes * Ushant * Gosselies * Aldudes (fr) * Ypres * Lambusart * Fleurus * Calvi * Vosges * Baztan * San-Lorenzo * Sprimont * 3rd Kaiserslautern * 1st Dego * 2nd Aldenhoven * Orbaizeta * Luxembourg * Black Mountain * Roses * Helder * Gulf of Roses * Fréjus * Genoa * Groix * Quiberon * Hyères * Ceylon * Handschuhsheim * Höchst * 3rd Mainz
Mainz
* Pfeddersheim * Mannheim
Mannheim
* Loano * Voltri * Montenotte * Millesimo * 2nd Dego * Ceva * Mondovì * Cherasco * Fombio * Lodi * Borghetto * Altenkirchen * Wetzlar * 1st Kehl * Mantua
Mantua
* Ettlingen * Lonato * Castiglione * Peschiera (fr) * Neresheim * Friedberg, Hessen (fr) * Amberg * Friedberg, Bavaria
Bavaria
* Newfoundland * Würzburg * Rovereto * 1st Bassano * 2nd Limburg * 2nd Kehl * Biberach * Emmendingen * Schliengen * Hüningen * 3rd Kehl * 2nd Bassano * Calliano * Caldiero * Arcole * Expédition d\'Irlande * Rivoli * Faenza * Fishguard * Valvasone * Tyrol (fr) * Tarvis * Neuwied * Diersheim * Veronese Easter * Camperdown

-------------------------

* WAR IN THE VENDéE * WAR OF THE PYRENEES * FLANDERS CAMPAIGN * ITALIAN CAMPAIGN * RHINE CAMPAIGN OF 1796 * ANGLO-SPANISH WAR

* v * t * e

French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars

Timeline

* 1792 * 1793 * 1794 * 1795 * 1796 * 1797 * 1798 * 1799 * 1800 * 1801

* v * t * e

Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution

* Bois Caïman * Fort-Dauphin * Jean-Rabel * War of Knives
War of Knives

* Saint-Domingue expedition

* Snake Gully * Crête-à-Pierrot * Blockade of Saint-Domingue * Vertières

* v * t * e

War of the First Coalition

* Porrentruy * Marquain * Verdun * Thionville * Valmy * Lille * Mainz
Mainz
* Jemappes * 1st Limburg (fr) * Anderlecht (fr) * Namur (fr) * Maastricht * 1st Aldenhoven * Neerwinden * Condé * 2nd Mainz
Mainz
* Raismes * Famars * Bellegarde * San Pietro and Sant\'Antioco * 1st Saorgio * 1st Arlon * Valenciennes * Perpignan * Caesar\'s Camp * Lincelles * Landau * Dunkirk * Le Quesnoy * Hondshoote * Avesnes-le-Sec * Menin * Méribel * Pirmasens * Epierre * Peyrestortes * Toulon
Toulon
* Truillas * Maubeuge * 1st Wissembourg * Fort-Louis * Wattignies * Haguenau * 1st Kaiserslautern * 1st Collioure * Froeschwiller * 2nd Wissembourg * Fort-Dauphin * Martinique
Martinique
* Saint-Florent * Le Cateau * Bastia * Guadeloupe * 2nd Arlon * 1st Landrecies * Villers-en-Cauchies * 2nd Saorgio * Beaumont * Mouscron * Boulou * 2nd Collioure * Courtrai * Grandreng * Tourcoing * 3rd Arlon * Tournay * 2nd Kaiserslautern * Erquelinnes * Ushant * Gosselies * Aldudes (fr) * Ypres * Lambusart * Fleurus * Calvi * Vosges * Baztan * San-Lorenzo * Sprimont * 3rd Kaiserslautern * 1st Dego * 2nd Aldenhoven * Orbaizeta * Luxembourg * Black Mountain * Roses * Helder * Gulf of Roses * Fréjus * Genoa * Groix * Quiberon * Hyères * Ceylon * Handschuhsheim * Höchst * 3rd Mainz
Mainz
* Pfeddersheim * Mannheim
Mannheim
* Loano * Voltri * Montenotte * Millesimo * 2nd Dego * Ceva * Mondovì * Cherasco * Fombio * Lodi * Borghetto * Altenkirchen * Wetzlar * 1st Kehl * Mantua
Mantua
* Ettlingen * Lonato * Castiglione * Peschiera (fr) * Neresheim * Friedberg, Hessen (fr) * Amberg * Friedberg, Bavaria
Bavaria
* Newfoundland * Würzburg * Rovereto * 1st Bassano * 2nd Limburg * 2nd Kehl * Biberach * Emmendingen * Schliengen * Hüningen * 3rd Kehl * 2nd Bassano * Calliano * Caldiero * Arcole * Expédition d\'Irlande * Rivoli * Faenza * Fishguard * Valvasone * Tyrol (fr) * Tarvis * Neuwied * Diersheim * Veronese Easter * Camperdown

-------------------------

* WAR IN THE VENDéE * WAR OF THE PYRENEES * FLANDERS CAMPAIGN * ITALIAN CAMPAIGN * RHINE CAMPAIGN OF 1796 * ANGLO-SPANISH WAR

* v * t * e

United Irishmen Rebellion

* Ballymore-Eustace * Naas * Rathangan * Prosperous * Kilcullen * Carnew * Dunlavin * Carlow * Harrow * Tara Hill * Oulart Hill * Enniscorthy * Gibbet Rath * Newtownmountkennedy * Three Rocks * Bunclody * Tuberneering * New Ross /Scullabogue * Antrim * Arklow * Saintfield * Ballynahinch * Ovidstown * Foulksmills * Vinegar Hill * Ballyellis * Castlebar * Collooney * Ballinamuck * Killala * Tory Island

* v * t * e

War of the Second Coalition

* Nicopolis * Corfu * Ostrach * Feldkirch * 1st Stockach * Verona * Magnano * Cassano * Bassignana * Winterthur * 1st Zurich * Modena * Trebbia * Mantua
Mantua
* Novi * Callantsoog * Vlieter Incident * Krabbendam * Mannheim
Mannheim
* Bergen * 2nd Zurich * Alkmaar * Castricum * Genola * Wiesloch * Genoa * Hohentwiel * 2nd Stockach * Messkirch * Biberach * Fort Bard * Montebello * Marengo * Höchstädt * Neuburg * Ampfing * Hohenlinden * Mincio * Copenhagen * Algeciras (1st • 2nd ) * Porto Ferrajo

-------------------------

* MEDITERRANEAN CAMPAIGN * EGYPTIAN CAMPAIGN * SWISS CAMPAIGN * DUTCH CAMPAIGN * ITALIAN CAMPAIGN

* v * t * e

Quasi-War

* USS Delaware vs La Croyable * USS Constellation vs L\'Insurgente * Action of 1 January 1800 * USS Constellation vs La Vengeance * Jacmel * Puerto Plata Harbor * USS Boston vs Berceau * USS Enterprise vs Flambeau * Curaçao

* v * t * e

Italian Campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars

* 1st Saorgio * Epierre * 2nd Saorgio * 1st Dego * Loano * Voltri * Montenotte * Millesimo * 2nd Dego * Ceva * Mondovì * Fombio * Lodi * Borghetto * Lonato * Castiglione * Rovereto * 1st Bassano * 2nd Bassano * Calliano * Caldiero * Arcole * Rivoli * 1st Mantua
Mantua
* Faenza * Valvasone * Tarvis * Veronese Easter * Verona * Magnano * Cassano * Bassignana * Modena * Trebbia * 2nd Mantua
Mantua
* Novi * Genola * Genoa * Montebello * Marengo * Pozzolo

* v * t * e

East Indies theatre of the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars

* Pondicherry * Sunda Strait * 5 May 1794 * Île Ronde * Ceylon * Cape Colony * Saldanha Bay * Sumatra * Bali Strait * Manila * Macau * 9 February 1799 * 28 February 1799 * Port Louis * Mahé

* v * t * e

Naval Battles of the French Revolutionary Wars

* Sardinia
Sardinia
* Toulon
Toulon
* 1st Genoa * Guernsey * May 1794 * Ushant * Alexander * Croisière du Grand Hiver * Gulf of Roses * 2nd Genoa * April 1795 * Cornwallis\'s Retreat * Groix * Hyères * 1st St Vincent * Saldanha Bay * Newfoundland expedition

* Expédition d\'Irlande

* Droits de l\'Homme

* 2nd St Vincent * Camperdown * Raz de Sein * Îles Saint-Marcouf * Nile * Tory Island * Croisière de Bruix * Dunkirk * Malta * Copenhagen

* Algeciras

* 1st * 2nd

* Boulogne * Mahé

* v * t * e

Royalist Revolts of the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars

* VENDéE * CHOUANNERIE

* Toulon
Toulon
* Lyon * Quiberon * 13 Vendémiaire * Peasants\' War (1798)

The WAR OF THE FIRST COALITION (French : Guerre de la Première Coalition) is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic . Despite the collective strength of these nations compared with France, they were not really allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement. Each power had its eye on a different part of France
France
they wanted to appropriate after a French defeat, which never occurred.

France
France
declared war on the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria
Austria
on 20 April 1792. In July 1792, an army under the Duke of Brunswick and composed mostly of Prussians joined the Austrian side and invaded France, only to be rebuffed at the Battle of Valmy in September.

Subsequently these powers made several invasions of France
France
by land and sea, with Prussia and Austria
Austria
attacking from the Austrian Netherlands and the Rhine
Rhine
and the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
supporting revolts in provincial France
France
and laying siege to Toulon
Toulon
in October 1793 . France
France
suffered reverses (Battle of Neerwinden , 18 March 1793) and internal strife ( War in the Vendée
War in the Vendée
) and responded with draconian measures. The Committee of Public Safety formed (6 April 1793) and the levée en masse drafted all potential soldiers aged 18 to 25 (August 1793). The new French armies counterattacked, repelled the invaders, and advanced beyond France.

The French established the Batavian Republic as a sister republic (May 1795) and gained Prussian recognition of French control of the Left Bank of the Rhine by the first Peace of Basel
Peace of Basel
. With the Treaty of Campo Formio , the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
ceded the Austrian Netherlands to France
France
and Northern Italy was turned into several French sister republics. Spain
Spain
made a separate peace accord with France
France
(Second Treaty of Basel) and the French Directory carried out plans to conquer more of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(German States, and Austria
Austria
under the same rule.)

North of the Alps
Alps
, Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen redressed the situation in 1796 but Napoleon
Napoleon
carried all before him against Sardinia and Austria
Austria
in northern Italy (1796–1797) near the Po Valley , culminating in the Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
and the Treaty of Campo Formio (October 1797). The First Coalition collapsed, leaving only Britain in the field fighting against France.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 1.1 Revolution in France
France

* 2 1792 * 3 1793 * 4 1794 * 5 1795 * 6 1796 * 7 1797 * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

BACKGROUND

REVOLUTION IN FRANCE

As early as 1791, other monarchies in Europe were watching the developments in France
France
with alarm, and considered intervening, either in support of Louis XVI or to take advantage of the chaos in France. The key figure, the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold II , brother to the French Queen Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
, had initially looked on the Revolution calmly. He became increasingly concerned as the Revolution grew more radical, although he still hoped to avoid war. On 27 August 1791, Leopold and King Frederick William II of Prussia , in consultation with emigrant French nobles, issued the Declaration of Pillnitz , which declared the concern of the monarchs of Europe for the well-being of Louis and his family, and threatened vague but severe consequences if anything should befall them. Although Leopold saw the Pillnitz Declaration as a way of taking action that would enable him to avoid actually doing anything about France, at least for the moment, Paris saw the Declaration as a serious threat and the revolutionary leaders denounced it.

In addition to the ideological differences between France
France
and the monarchical powers of Europe, disputes continued over the status of Imperial estates in Alsace
Alsace
, and the French authorities became concerned about the agitation of emigré nobles abroad, especially in the Austrian Netherlands
Austrian Netherlands
and in the minor states of Germany. In the end, France
France
declared war on Austria
Austria
first, with the Assembly voting for war on 20 April 1792, after the presentation of a long list of grievances by the newly appointed foreign minister Dumouriez .

1792

See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1792

Dumouriez prepared an invasion of the Austrian Netherlands, where he expected the local population to rise against Austrian rule. However, the revolution had thoroughly disorganized the French army, which had insufficient forces for the invasion. Its soldiers fled at the first sign of battle, deserting en masse, in one case murdering General Théobald Dillon .

While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganized its armies, an allied army under Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Koblenz
Koblenz
on the Rhine. In July 1792 the invasion commenced. Brunswick's army, composed mostly of Prussian veterans, took the fortresses of Longwy
Longwy
and Verdun . The Duke then issued a declaration on 25 July 1792, which had been written by the brothers of Louis XVI, that declared his intent to restore the French King to his full powers and to treat any person or town who opposed him as rebels to be condemned to death by martial law. This motivated the revolutionary army and government to oppose the Prussian invaders by any means necessary, and led almost immediately to the overthrow of the King by a crowd which stormed the Tuileries Palace .

The invaders continued on, but at the Battle of Valmy on 20 September 1792 they came to a stalemate against Dumouriez and Kellermann in which the highly professional French artillery distinguished itself. Although the battle was a tactical draw, it bought time for the revolutionaries and gave a great boost to French morale. Furthermore, the Prussians, facing a campaign longer and more costly than predicted, decided against the cost and risk of continued fighting, and determined to retreat from France
France
to preserve their army.

Meanwhile, the French had been successful on several other fronts, occupying Savoy
Savoy
and Nice
Nice
in Italy, while General Custine invaded Germany, capturing Speyer
Speyer
, Worms and Mainz
Mainz
along the Rhine, and reaching as far as Frankfurt
Frankfurt
. Dumouriez went on the offensive in Belgium
Belgium
once again, winning a great victory over the Austrians at Jemappes on 6 November 1792, and occupying the entire country by the beginning of winter.

1793

See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1793 The British evacuation of Toulon
Toulon
in December 1793

On 21 January the revolutionary government executed Louis XVI after a trial. This united all European governments, including Spain, Naples , and the Netherlands against the Revolution. France
France
declared war against Britain and the Netherlands on 1 February 1793 and soon afterwards against Spain. In the course of the year 1793 the Holy Roman Empire (on 23 March ), the kings of Portugal
Portugal
and Naples, and the Grand-Duke of Tuscany declared war against France. Thus the First Coalition was formed.

France
France
introduced a new levy of hundreds of thousands of men, beginning a French policy of using mass conscription to deploy more of its manpower than the other states could, and remaining on the offensive so that these mass armies could commandeer war material from the territory of their enemies. The French government sent Citizen Genet to the United States to encourage them into entering the war on France's side. The newly formed nation refused and remained neutral throughout the conflict.

After a victory in the Battle of Neerwinden in March, the Austrians suffered twin defeats at the battles of Wattignies and Wissembourg . British land forces were defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September.

1794

See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1794 The Glorious First of June
Glorious First of June
, 1 June 1794

1794 brought increased success to the revolutionary armies. A major victory against combined coalition forces at the Battle of Fleurus gained all of Belgium
Belgium
and the Rhineland
Rhineland
for France. Although the British navy maintained its supremacy at sea, it was unable to support effectively any land operations after the fall of the Belgian provinces. The Prussians were slowly driven out of the eastern departments and by the end of the year they had retired from any active part in the war. Against Spain, the French made successful incursions in both Catalonia
Catalonia
and Navarre
Navarre
.

Action extended into the French colonies in the West Indies
West Indies
. A British fleet successfully captured Martinique
Martinique
, St. Lucia , and Guadeloupe , although a French fleet arrived later in the year and recovered the latter.

1795

See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1795

After seizing the Low Countries
Low Countries
in a surprise winter attack, France established the Batavian Republic as a puppet state . Even before the close of 1794 the king of Prussia retired from any active part in the war, and on 5 April 1795 he concluded with France
France
the Peace of Basel
Peace of Basel
, which recognized France's occupation of the left bank of the Rhine
Rhine
. The new French-dominated Dutch government bought peace by surrendering Dutch territory to the south of that river. A treaty of peace between France
France
and Spain
Spain
followed in July. The grand duke of Tuscany had been admitted to terms in February. The coalition thus fell into ruin and France
France
proper would be free from invasion for many years.

Britain attempted to reinforce the rebels in the Vendée by landing French Royalist troops at Quiberon , but failed, and attempts to overthrow the government at Paris by force were foiled by the military garrison led by Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte , leading to the establishment of the Directory .

On the Rhine
Rhine
frontier, General Pichegru , negotiating with the exiled Royalists , betrayed his army and forced the evacuation of Mannheim and the failure of the siege of Mainz
Mainz
by Jourdan .

1796

See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1796 Strategic situation in Europe in 1796

The French prepared a great advance on three fronts, with Jourdan and Jean Victor Marie Moreau
Jean Victor Marie Moreau
on the Rhine
Rhine
and the newly promoted Napoleon Bonaparte in Italy. The three armies were to link up in Tyrol and march on Vienna
Vienna
.

In the Rhine Campaign of 1796 , Jourdan and Moreau crossed the Rhine River and advanced into Germany. Jourdan advanced as far as Amberg in late August while Moreau reached Bavaria
Bavaria
and the edge of Tyrol by September. However Jourdan was defeated by Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen and both armies were forced to retreat back across the Rhine.

Napoleon, on the other hand, was successful in a daring invasion of Italy. In the Montenotte Campaign , he separated the armies of Sardinia
Sardinia
and Austria
Austria
, defeating each one in turn, and then forced a peace on Sardinia
Sardinia
. Following this, his army captured Milan
Milan
and started the Siege of Mantua
Mantua
. Bonaparte defeated successive Austrian armies sent against him under Johann Peter Beaulieu , Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser and József Alvinczi
József Alvinczi
while continuing the siege.

The rebellion in the Vendée was also crushed in 1796 by Louis Lazare Hoche . Hoche's subsequent attempt to land a large invasion force in Munster
Munster
to aid the United Irishmen was unsuccessful.

1797

See also: French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1797 Napoleon at the Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
, 14 January 1797

On 2 February Napoleon
Napoleon
finally captured Mantua
Mantua
, with the Austrians surrendering 18,000 men. Archduke Charles of Austria
Austria
was unable to stop Napoleon
Napoleon
from invading the Tyrol , and the Austrian government sued for peace in April. At the same time there was a new French invasion of Germany
Germany
under Moreau and Hoche.

On 22 February, a French invasion force consisting of 1,400 troops from the La Legion Noire (The Black Legion) under the command of Irish American Colonel William Tate landed near Fishguard in Wales
Wales
. They were met by a quickly assembled group of around 500 British reservists , militia and sailors under the command of John Campbell, 1st Baron Cawdor . After brief clashes with the local civilian population and Lord Cawdor's forces on 23 February, Tate was forced into an unconditional surrender by 24 February. This would be the only battle fought on British soil during the Revolutionary Wars.

Austria
Austria
signed the Treaty of Campo Formio in October, ceding Belgium to France
France
and recognizing French control of the Rhineland
Rhineland
and much of Italy. The ancient Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
was partitioned between Austria and France. This ended the War of the First Coalition, although Great Britain and France
France
remained at war.

SEE ALSO

* War of the Second Coalition

NOTES

* ^ Nominally the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, of which the Austrian Netherlands and the Duchy of Milan
Milan
were under direct Austrian rule. Also encompassed many other Italian states, as well as other House of Habsburg states such as the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
* ^ Left the war after signing the Peace of Basel
Peace of Basel
with France. * ^ Left the war after signing the Peace of Basel
Peace of Basel
with France. * ^ Left the war after signing the Treaty of Paris with France. * ^ Virtually all of the Italian states, including the neutral Papal States
Papal States
and the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
, were conquered following Napoleon
Napoleon
's invasion in 1796 and became French satellite states. * ^ Re-entered the war as an ally of France
France
after signing the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso . * ^ The French Revolutionary Army
French Revolutionary Army
overthrew the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and established the Batavian Republic as a puppet state in its place. * ^ Formed in French-allied Italy in 1797, following the abolition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
after the Third Partition in 1795. * ^ A B C D E Holland 1911 , Battle of Valmy. * ^ (in Dutch) Noah Shusterman – De Franse Revolutie (The French Revolution). Veen Media, Amsterdam, 2015. (Translation of: The French Revolution. Faith, Desire, and Politics. Routledge, London/New York, 2014.) Chapter 7 (p. 271–312) : The federalist revolts, the Vendée and the beginning of the Terror (summer–fall 1793). * ^ A B Holland 1911 , The king and the nonjurors. * ^ A B C D Holland 1911 , War declared against Austria. * ^ Holland 1911 , The revolutionary Commune of Paris. * ^ Holland 1911 , Rising of the 10th of August. * ^ Holland 1911 , Trial and execution of Louis XVI. * ^ A B C D Holland 1911 , The Revolutionary War. Republican successes.. * ^ A B C Holland 1911 , Progress of the war.. * ^ A B Hannay 1911 , p. 204. * ^ One of more of the preceding sentences text from a publication now in the public domain : Holland 1911 , Progress of the war * ^ Holland 1911 , Progress of the war. * ^ Holland 1911 , Insurrection of 13 Vendémiaire. * ^ Holland 1911 , Character of the Directory. * ^ A B C Hannay 1911 , p. 182. * ^ A B C D Holland 1911 , Military triumphs under the Directory. Bonaparte. * ^ A B C Hannay 1911 , p. 193.

REFERENCES

* Hannay, David (1911). "French Revolutionary Wars". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

* Holland, Arthur William (1911). "French Revolution, The". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

FURTHER READING

* Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. The French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
(2013) * Gardiner, Robert. Fleet Battle And Blockade: The French Revolutionary War 1793–1797 (2006) * Lefebvre, Georges . The French Revolution Volume II: from 1793 to 1799 (1964). * Ross, Steven T. Quest for Victory; French Military Strategy, 1792–1799 (1973)

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to War of the First Coalition at

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