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French victory; Peace of Basel, Treaty of Campo Formio

Establishment and survival of the French First Republic French annexation of the Austrian Netherlands, the Left Bank of the Rhine
Rhine
and other smaller territories Several French "sister republics" established Hostilities resume in 1798 with the formation of a Second Coalition against France

Belligerents

First Coalition:  Holy Roman Empire[1]

Habsburg Monarchy  Prussia (until 1795)[2]

 Great Britain Army of Condé Spain
Spain
(until 1795)[3]   Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
(until 1795)  Portugal   Sardinia
Sardinia
(until 1796)[4]  Naples Other Italian states[5]

Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
(until 1792) French Republic (from 1792)

French satellites and subdued former enemies:

Spain
Spain
(from 1796)[6]   Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
(from 1795)[7] Sister republics Polish Legions (from 1797)[8]

Commanders and leaders

Francis II Frederick William II William Pitt Charles IV (Until 1795) Mary I Victor Amadeus III Ferdinand IV & III Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel

Jacques Pierre Brissot  Maximilien Robespierre  Paul Barras (From 1795) Charles IV (From 1796)

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War of the First Coalition

Porrentruy Marquain Verdun Thionville Valmy Lille Mainz Flanders Campaign Royalist Revolts Chouannerie Naval Battles Mediterranean campaign of 1793–1796 War in the Vendée War of the Pyrenees Rhine
Rhine
Campaign of 1793-94 Italian Campaigns East Indies Theatre Martinique Guadeloupe Atlantic campaign of May 1794 Helder Rhine
Rhine
Campaign of 1795 Rhine
Rhine
Campaign of 1796 Anglo-Spanish War Fishguard Neuwied Diersheim

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French Revolutionary Wars

Timeline

1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800 1801

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Haitian Revolution

Bois Caïman Fort-Dauphin Jean-Rabel War of Knives Saint-Domingue expedition

Snake Gully Crête-à-Pierrot Blockade of Saint-Domingue Vertières

v t e

War of the First Coalition

Porrentruy Marquain Verdun Thionville Valmy Lille Mainz Flanders Campaign Royalist Revolts Chouannerie Naval Battles Mediterranean campaign of 1793–1796 War in the Vendée War of the Pyrenees Rhine
Rhine
Campaign of 1793-94 Italian Campaigns East Indies Theatre Martinique Guadeloupe Atlantic campaign of May 1794 Helder Rhine
Rhine
Campaign of 1795 Rhine
Rhine
Campaign of 1796 Anglo-Spanish War Fishguard Neuwied Diersheim

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United Irishmen
United Irishmen
Rebellion

Ballymore-Eustace Naas Rathangan Prosperous Kilcullen Carnew Dunlavin Carlow Harrow Tara Hill Oulart Hill Enniscorthy Gibbet Rath Newtownmountkennedy Three Rocks Bunclody Tubberneering New Ross/Scullabogue Antrim Arklow Saintfield Ballynahinch Ovidstown Foulksmills Vinegar Hill Ballyellis Castlebar Collooney Ballinamuck Killala Tory Island

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War of the Second Coalition

Nicopolis Corfu Ostrach Feldkirch 1st Stockach Verona Magnano Cassano Bassignana Winterthur 1st Zurich Modena Trebbia Mantua Novi Callantsoog Vlieter Incident Krabbendam Mannheim Bergen 2nd Zurich Alkmaar Castricum Genola Wiesloch Genoa Hohentwiel 2nd Stockach Messkirch Biberach Fort Bard Montebello Marengo Höchstädt Neuburg Ampfing Hohenlinden Mincio Copenhagen Algeciras (1st • 2nd) Porto Ferrajo

Mediterranean Campaign Egyptian Campaign Swiss Campaign Dutch Campaign Italian Campaign

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Quasi-War

USS Delaware vs La Croyable USS Constellation vs L'Insurgente Action of 1 January 1800 USS Constellation vs La Vengeance Jacmel Puerto Plata Harbor USS Boston vs Berceau USS Enterprise vs Flambeau Curaçao

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Italian Campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars

1st Saorgio Méribel Epierre 2nd Saorgio 1st Dego Loano Montenotte Campaign Fombio Lodi Borghetto Lonato Castiglione Peschiera (fr) Rovereto 1st Bassano 2nd Bassano Calliano Caldiero Arcole Rivoli 1st Mantua Faenza Valvasone Tyrol (fr) Tarvis Veronese Easter Verona Magnano Cassano Bassignana Modena Trebbia 2nd Mantua Novi Genola Genoa Montebello Marengo Pozzolo

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Mediterranean campaign of 1793–1796

Sardinia Toulon

Burning of the French fleet

Genoa Raid 22 October 1793 Corsica

San Fiorenzo Bastia Calvi

Martin's cruise Mykonos Berwick Genoa 24 June 1795 Hyères Islands Richery's expedition

Levant Convoy

Ganteaume's expedition 13 October 1796 19 December 1796

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East Indies theatre of the French Revolutionary Wars

Pondicherry Sunda Strait 5 May 1794 Île Ronde Ceylon Cape Colony Saldanha Bay Sumatra Bali Strait Manila Macau 9 February 1799 28 February 1799 Port Louis Mahé

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Naval Battles of the French Revolutionary Wars

Sardinia Toulon 1st Genoa Guernsey May 1794 Ushant Alexander Croisière du Grand Hiver Gulf of Roses 2nd Genoa April 1795 Cornwallis's Retreat Groix Hyères Levant Convoy Saldanha Bay Newfoundland expedition Expédition d'Irlande

Droits de l'Homme

2nd St Vincent Camperdown Raz de Sein Îles Saint-Marcouf Nile Tory Island Croisière de Bruix Dunkirk Malta Copenhagen Algeciras

1st 2nd

Boulogne Mahé

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Royalist Revolts of the French Revolutionary Wars

Vendée Chouannerie

Toulon Lyon Quiberon 13 Vendémiaire Peasants' War (1798)

The War of the First Coalition
War of the First Coalition
(French: Guerre de la Première Coalition) is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic.[9] Despite the collective strength of these nations compared with France, they were not really allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement. Each power had its eye on a different part of France
France
it wanted to appropriate after a French defeat, which never occurred.[10] France
France
declared war on the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
(cf. the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
etc.) on 20 April 1792. In July 1792, an army under the Duke of Brunswick and composed mostly of Prussians joined the Austrian side and invaded France, only to be rebuffed at the Battle of Valmy
Battle of Valmy
in September. Subsequently these powers made several invasions of France
France
by land and sea, with Prussia and Austria attacking from the Austrian Netherlands and the Rhine, and the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
supporting revolts in provincial France
France
and laying siege to Toulon
Toulon
in October 1793. France suffered reverses (Battle of Neerwinden, 18 March 1793) and internal strife (War in the Vendée) and responded with draconian measures. The Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety
formed (6 April 1793) and the levée en masse drafted all potential soldiers aged 18 to 25 (August 1793). The new French armies counterattacked, repelled the invaders, and advanced beyond France. The French established the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
as a sister republic (May 1795) and gained Prussian recognition of French control of the Left Bank of the Rhine
Rhine
by the first Peace of Basel. With the Treaty of Campo Formio, the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
ceded the Austrian Netherlands
Austrian Netherlands
to France
France
and Northern Italy was turned into several French sister republics. Spain
Spain
made a separate peace accord with France
France
(Second Treaty of Basel) and the French Directory
French Directory
carried out plans to conquer more of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(German States, and Austria under the same rule). North of the Alps, Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen
redressed the situation in 1796, but Napoleon
Napoleon
carried all before him against Sardinia
Sardinia
and Austria in northern Italy (1796–1797) near the Po Valley, culminating in the Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
and the Treaty of Campo Formio (October 1797). The First Coalition collapsed, leaving only Britain in the field fighting against France.

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Revolution in France

2 1792 3 1793 4 1794 5 1795 6 1796 7 1797 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Background[edit] Revolution in France[edit] As early as 1791, other monarchies in Europe were watching the developments in France
France
with alarm, and considered intervening, either in support of Louis XVI or to take advantage of the chaos in France. The key figure, the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold II, brother of the French Queen Marie Antoinette, had initially looked on the Revolution calmly. He became increasingly concerned as the Revolution grew more radical, although he still hoped to avoid war. On 27 August 1791, Leopold and King Frederick William II of Prussia, in consultation with émigré French nobles, issued the Declaration of Pillnitz, which declared the concern of the monarchs of Europe for the well-being of Louis and his family, and threatened vague but severe consequences if anything should befall them. Although Leopold saw the Pillnitz Declaration as a way of taking action that would enable him to avoid actually doing anything about France, at least for the moment, Paris saw the Declaration as a serious threat and the revolutionary leaders denounced it.[11] In addition to the ideological differences between France
France
and the monarchical powers of Europe, disputes continued over the status of Imperial estates in Alsace,[11] and the French authorities became concerned about the agitation of émigré nobles abroad, especially in the Austrian Netherlands
Austrian Netherlands
and in the minor states of Germany. In the end, France
France
declared war on Austria first, with the Assembly voting for war on 20 April 1792, after the presentation of a long list of grievances by the newly appointed foreign minister Dumouriez.[12] 1792[edit] See also: Campaigns of 1792 in the French Revolutionary Wars Dumouriez prepared an invasion of the Austrian Netherlands, where he expected the local population to rise against Austrian rule. However, the revolution had thoroughly disorganized the French army, which had insufficient forces for the invasion. Its soldiers fled at the first sign of battle, deserting en masse, in one case murdering General Théobald Dillon.[12] While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganized its armies, an allied army under Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Koblenz
Koblenz
on the Rhine. The invasion commenced in July 1792. Brunswick's army, composed mostly of Prussian veterans, took the fortresses of Longwy
Longwy
and Verdun.[13] The Duke then issued a declaration on 25 July 1792, which had been written by the brothers of Louis XVI, that declared his [Brunswick's] intent to restore the French King to his full powers, and to treat any person or town who opposed him as rebels to be condemned to death by martial law.[12] This motivated the revolutionary army and government to oppose the Prussian invaders by any means necessary,[12] and led almost immediately to the overthrow of the King by a crowd which stormed the Tuileries Palace.[14] The invaders continued on, but at the Battle of Valmy
Battle of Valmy
on 20 September 1792 they came to a stalemate against Dumouriez and Kellermann in which the highly professional French artillery distinguished itself. Although the battle was a tactical draw, it bought time for the revolutionaries and gave a great boost to French morale. Furthermore, the Prussians, facing a campaign longer and more costly than predicted, decided against the cost and risk of continued fighting, and determined to retreat from France
France
to preserve their army.[9] Meanwhile, the French had been successful on several other fronts, occupying Savoy
Savoy
and Nice
Nice
in Italy, while General Custine invaded Germany, capturing Speyer, Worms and Mainz
Mainz
along the Rhine, and reaching as far as Frankfurt. Dumouriez went on the offensive in Belgium
Belgium
once again, winning a great victory over the Austrians at Jemappes on 6 November 1792, and occupying the entire country by the beginning of winter.[9] 1793[edit] See also: Campaigns of 1793 in the French Revolutionary Wars

The British evacuation of Toulon
Toulon
in December 1793

On 21 January the revolutionary government executed Louis XVI after a trial.[15] This united all European governments, including Spain, Naples, and the Netherlands against the Revolution. France
France
declared war against Britain and the Netherlands on 1 February 1793 and soon afterwards against Spain. In the course of the year 1793 the Holy Roman Empire (on 23 March), the kings of Portugal
Portugal
and Naples, and the Grand-Duke of Tuscany declared war against France. Thus the First Coalition was formed.[9] France
France
introduced a new levy of hundreds of thousands of men, beginning a French policy of using mass conscription to deploy more of its manpower than the other states could,[9] and remaining on the offensive so that these mass armies could commandeer war material from the territory of their enemies. The French government sent Citizen Genet to the United States to encourage them into entering the war on France's side. The newly formed nation refused and remained neutral throughout the conflict. After a victory in the Battle of Neerwinden in March, the Austrians suffered twin defeats at the battles of Wattignies and Wissembourg.[16] British land forces were defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September.[16] 1794[edit] See also: Campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars

The Glorious First of June, 1 June 1794

1794 brought increased success to the revolutionary armies. A major victory against combined coalition forces at the Battle of Fleurus gained all of Belgium
Belgium
and the Rhineland
Rhineland
for France.[16] Although the British navy maintained its supremacy at sea, it was unable to support effectively any land operations after the fall of the Belgian provinces.[17] The Prussians were slowly driven out of the eastern departments[16] and by the end of the year they had retired from any active part in the war.[17] Against Spain, the French made successful incursions in both Catalonia
Catalonia
and Navarre.[17] Action extended into the French colonies in the West Indies. A British fleet successfully captured Martinique, St. Lucia, and Guadeloupe, although a French fleet arrived later in the year and recovered the latter.[18] 1795[edit] See also: Campaigns of 1795 in the French Revolutionary Wars After seizing the Low Countries
Low Countries
in a surprise winter attack, France established the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
as a puppet state. Even before the close of 1794 the king of Prussia retired from any active part in the war, and on 5 April 1795 he concluded with France
France
the Peace of Basel, which recognized France's occupation of the left bank of the Rhine. The new French-dominated Dutch government bought peace by surrendering Dutch territory to the south of that river. A treaty of peace between France
France
and Spain
Spain
followed in July. The grand duke of Tuscany had been admitted to terms in February. The coalition thus fell into ruin and France
France
proper would be free from invasion for many years.[19] Britain attempted to reinforce the rebels in the Vendée
Vendée
by landing French Royalist troops at Quiberon, but failed,[20] and attempts to overthrow the government at Paris by force were foiled by the military garrison led by Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte, leading to the establishment of the Directory.[21][22] On the Rhine
Rhine
frontier, General Pichegru, negotiating with the exiled Royalists, betrayed his army and forced the evacuation of Mannheim
Mannheim
and the failure of the siege of Mainz
Mainz
by Jourdan.[23] 1796[edit] See also: Campaigns of 1796 in the French Revolutionary Wars Main article: Rhine
Rhine
Campaign of 1796

Strategic situation in Europe in 1796

The French prepared a great advance on three fronts, with Jourdan and Jean Victor Marie Moreau
Jean Victor Marie Moreau
on the Rhine
Rhine
and the newly promoted Napoleon Bonaparte in Italy. The three armies were to link up in Tyrol and march on Vienna. In the Rhine
Rhine
Campaign of 1796, Jourdan and Moreau crossed the Rhine River and advanced into Germany. Jourdan advanced as far as Amberg
Amberg
in late August while Moreau reached Bavaria
Bavaria
and the edge of Tyrol by September. However Jourdan was defeated by Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen and both armies were forced to retreat back across the Rhine.[23][24] Napoleon, on the other hand, was successful in a daring invasion of Italy. In the Montenotte Campaign, he separated the armies of Sardinia and Austria, defeating each one in turn, and then forced a peace on Sardinia. Following this, his army captured Milan
Milan
and started the Siege of Mantua. Bonaparte defeated successive Austrian armies sent against him under Johann Peter Beaulieu, Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser and József Alvinczi
József Alvinczi
while continuing the siege.[24][23] The rebellion in the Vendée
Vendée
was also crushed in 1796 by Louis Lazare Hoche.[24] Hoche's subsequent attempt to land a large invasion force in Munster
Munster
to aid the United Irishmen
United Irishmen
was unsuccessful.[18] 1797[edit] See also: Campaigns of 1797 in the French Revolutionary Wars

Napoleon
Napoleon
at the Battle of Rivoli, 14 January 1797

On 2 February Napoleon
Napoleon
finally captured Mantua,[25] with the Austrians surrendering 18,000 men. Archduke Charles of Austria was unable to stop Napoleon
Napoleon
from invading the Tyrol, and the Austrian government sued for peace in April. At the same time there was a new French invasion of Germany
Germany
under Moreau and Hoche.[25] On 22 February, a French invasion force consisting of 1,400 troops from the La Legion Noire (The Black Legion) under the command of Irish American Colonel William Tate landed near Fishguard in Wales. They were met by a quickly assembled group of around 500 British reservists, militia and sailors under the command of John Campbell, 1st Baron Cawdor. After brief clashes with the local civilian population and Lord Cawdor's forces on 23 February, Tate was forced into an unconditional surrender by 24 February. This would be the only battle fought on British soil during the Revolutionary Wars. Austria signed the Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
in October,[25] ceding Belgium
Belgium
to France
France
and recognizing French control of the Rhineland
Rhineland
and much of Italy.[24] The ancient Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
was partitioned between Austria and France. This ended the War of the First Coalition, although Great Britain and France
France
remained at war. See also[edit]

War of the Second Coalition

Notes[edit]

^ Nominally the Holy Roman Empire, of which the Austrian Netherlands and the Duchy of Milan
Milan
were under direct Austrian rule. Also encompassed many other Italian states, as well as other House of Habsburg states such as the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
and Liechtenstein ^ Left the war after signing the Peace of Basel
Peace of Basel
with France. ^ Left the war after signing the Peace of Basel
Peace of Basel
with France. ^ Left the war after signing the Treaty of Paris with France. ^ Virtually all of the Italian states, including the neutral Papal States and the Republic of Venice, were conquered following Napoleon's invasion in 1796 and became French satellite states. ^ Re-entered the war as an ally of France
France
after signing the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso. ^ The French Revolutionary Army
French Revolutionary Army
overthrew the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
and established the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
as a puppet state in its place. ^ Formed in French-allied Italy in 1797, following the abolition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
after the Third Partition in 1795. ^ a b c d e Holland 1911, Battle of Valmy. ^ (in Dutch) Noah Shusterman – De Franse Revolutie (The French Revolution). Veen Media, Amsterdam, 2015. (Translation of: The French Revolution. Faith, Desire, and Politics. Routledge, London/New York, 2014.) Chapter 7 (p. 271–312) : The federalist revolts, the Vendée
Vendée
and the beginning of the Terror (summer–fall 1793). ^ a b Holland 1911, The king and the nonjurors. ^ a b c d Holland 1911, War declared against Austria. ^ Holland 1911, The revolutionary Commune of Paris. ^ Holland 1911, Rising of the 10th of August. ^ Holland 1911, Trial and execution of Louis XVI. ^ a b c d Holland 1911, The Revolutionary War. Republican successes.. ^ a b c Holland 1911, Progress of the war.. ^ a b Hannay 1911, p. 204. ^ One of more of the preceding sentences text from a publication now in the public domain: Holland 1911, Progress of the war ^ Holland 1911, Progress of the war. ^ Holland 1911, Insurrection of 13 Vendémiaire. ^ Holland 1911, Character of the Directory. ^ a b c Hannay 1911, p. 182. ^ a b c d Holland 1911, Military triumphs under the Directory. Bonaparte. ^ a b c Hannay 1911, p. 193.

References[edit]

 Hannay, David (1911). "French Revolutionary Wars". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.   Holland, Arthur William (1911). "French Revolution, The". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Further reading[edit]

Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. The French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
(2013) Gardiner, Robert. Fleet Battle And Blockade: The French Revolutionary War 1793–1797 (2006) Lefebvre, Georges. The French Revolution
French Revolution
Volume II: from 1793 to 1799 (1964). Ross, Steven T. Quest for Victory; French Military Strategy, 1792–1799 (1973)

External links[edit]

Media related to War of the First Coalition
War of the First Coalition
at Wikimedia Commons

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French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798
Irish Rebellion of 1798
(23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

Authority control

LCCN: sh85048583 GND: 4164327-6 SUDOC: 028710746 BNF: cb12049126d (d

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