First-tier Tribunal



The First-tier Tribunal is part of the courts and tribunals service of the United Kingdom. It was created in 2008 as part of a programme, enacted in the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007, to rationalise the
tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. For example, an advocate who appears before a court with a single ...
system, and has since taken on the functions of 20 previously existing tribunals. It is administered by
His Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service His Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service (HMCTS) is an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice. It was created on 1 April 2011 (as Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service) by the merger of Her Majesty's Courts Service and the Tribuna ...

Chambers and jurisdiction

The tribunal currently consists of seven chambers, structured around subject areas (although the General Regulatory Chamber has a very broad remit). The chambers may be divided into sections, mirroring the jurisdictions inherited from the tribunals which have been merged into the First-tier Tribunal. Different jurisdictions have been transferred into the tribunal in a programme which began in 2008 and is continuing.


The judiciary of the First-tier Tribunal comprises tribunal judges and other members. Legally qualified members of the former tribunals became Tribunal Judges of the First-tier Tribunal when their jurisdiction was transferred, whilst the lay members (often with expertise in the subject matter of the former tribunal) became other members. New judges and members are appointed by the
Judicial Appointments Commission The Judicial Appointments Commission (JAC) is an independent commission that selects candidates for judicial office in courts and tribunals in England and Wales and for some tribunals whose jurisdiction extends to Scotland or Northern Ireland. S ...
. In addition, the following may also sit as Judges of the First-tier Tribunal: * Judges of the Upper Tribunal * Court of Appeal judges *
Court of Session The Court of Session is the supreme civil court of Scotland and constitutes part of the College of Justice; the supreme criminal court of Scotland is the High Court of Justiciary. The Court of Session sits in Parliament House in Edinburgh ...
judges * High Court judges * Circuit judges and sheriffs * District judges and district judges (magistrates' courts) The First-tier Tribunal is presided over by the
Senior President of Tribunals The Senior President of Tribunals is a senior judge in the United Kingdom who presides over the UK tribunal system. The Senior President is appointed by the monarch of the United Kingdom on the advice of the Lord Chancellor following the recom ...
, since 19 September 2020 Sir Keith Lindblom. Each chamber of the First-tier Tribunal is headed by a chamber president, and within each chamber each section or jurisdiction is headed by a principal judge. In most cases, decisions are made by a judge and two other members, although this can vary between chambers and sections, and also depending on the case concerned. Judges may be permanent office hours, known as salaried judges, or part time, known as fee paid judges.


In most cases, appeals against decisions of the First-tier Tribunal can be made to the Upper Tribunal, but only with the permission of the First-tier Tribunal or the Upper Tribunal. Before deciding whether to grant permission to Appeal to the Upper Tribunal, the First Tier Tribunal must consider whether to subject its own decision to 'Reconsideration'. In the case of Criminal Injuries Compensation and Asylum Support cases, there is technically no right of appeal, but a decision may be reviewed by way of an application to the Upper Tribunal for
judicial review Judicial review is a process under which executive, legislative and administrative actions are subject to review by the judiciary. A court with authority for judicial review may invalidate laws, acts and governmental actions that are incomp ...
of the First-tier Tribunal's decision.

External links

Ministry of Justice
Tribunal Decisions
Judiciary of England and Wales


{{reflist Law of the United Kingdom United Kingdom administrative law United Kingdom tribunals 2008 establishments in the United Kingdom Courts and tribunals established in 2008