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Fiorello Henry La Guardia (/fiəˈrɛloʊ ləˈɡwɑːrdiə/; born Fiorello Enrico La Guardia, Italian pronunciation: [fjoˈrɛllo enˈriːko la ˈɡwardja])[2] (December 11, 1882 – September 20, 1947) was an American politician. He is best known for being the 99th Mayor of New York City
Mayor of New York City
for three terms from 1934 to 1945 as a Republican. Previously he had been elected to Congress in 1916 and 1918, and again from 1922 through 1930. Irascible, energetic, and charismatic, he craved publicity and is acclaimed as one of the greatest mayors in American history.[3] Only five feet, two inches (1.57 m) tall, he was called "the Little Flower" (Fiorello is Italian for "little flower"). La Guardia, a Republican who appealed across party lines, was very popular in New York during the 1930s. As a New Dealer, he supported President Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Democrat, and in turn Roosevelt heavily funded the city and cut off patronage for La Guardia's enemies. La Guardia revitalized New York City
New York City
and restored public faith in City Hall. He unified the transit system, directed the building of low-cost public housing, public playgrounds, and parks, constructed airports, reorganized the police force, defeated the powerful Tammany Hall
Tammany Hall
political machine, and reestablished employment on merit in place of patronage jobs.[4] La Guardia is also remembered for his WNYC radio program " Talk
Talk
to the People," which aired from December 1941 till December 1945.[5] La Guardia was seen as a domineering leader who verged on authoritarian but whose reform politics were carefully tailored to address the sentiments of his diverse constituency. He won elections against the historically corrupt Tammany Hall
Tammany Hall
political system, presided during the Great Depression
Great Depression
and World War II, implemented New Deal welfare and public works programs in the city, and gave political support to immigrants and ethnic minorities. He was also supported by President Roosevelt. La Guardia was known as a reform mayor who helped clean out corruption, brought in experts, and made the city responsible for its own citizens. His administration engaged new groups that had been kept out of the political system, gave New York its modern infrastructure, and raised expectations of new levels of urban possibility.

Contents

1 Early life and career

1.1 Marriages and family

2 Early political career

2.1 Elected to Congress 2.2 President of the Board of Aldermen

2.2.1 Immigration

2.3 Return to Congress

2.3.1 Foreign policy 2.3.2 Champion of the progressive movement 2.3.3 Prohibition 2.3.4 Defeats in 1929 and 1932

3 Mayor of New York

3.1 1933 election 3.2 Agenda 3.3 Ethnic politics 3.4 Crime 3.5 Public works 3.6 1939 3.7 Reform 3.8 Germany

3.8.1 Gemma La Guardia Gluck

4 World War II 5 Later life and death

5.1 Legacy

6 Memorials 7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 Further reading 10 External links

Early life and career[edit] La Guardia was born in Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
in New York City. His father, Achille La Guardia, was a lapsed Catholic from Cerignola, Italy, and his mother, Irene Coen, was a Jewish
Jewish
woman from Trieste, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire; his maternal grandmother Fiorina Luzzatto Coen was a Luzzatto, a member of the prestigious Italian- Jewish
Jewish
family of scholars, kabbalists, and poets and had among her ancestors the famous rabbi Samuel David Luzzatto. It was in Trieste
Trieste
that Achille La Guardia met and married Irene.[6] Fiorello La Guardia was raised an Episcopalian and practiced that religion all his life. His middle name "Enrico" was anglicized to "Henry" when he was a child. He moved to Arizona
Arizona
with his family, where his father had a bandmaster position at Fort Whipple in the U.S. Army. La Guardia attended public schools and high school in Prescott, Arizona.[7] After his father was discharged from his bandmaster position in 1898, Fiorello lived in Trieste.[8] He graduated from the Dwight School, a private school on the Upper West Side of New York City. La Guardia joined the State Department
State Department
and served in U.S. consulates in Budapest, Trieste
Trieste
(Austria-Hungary, now Italy), and Fiume (Austria-Hungary, now Rijeka, Croatia), (1901–1906). He returned to the United States to continue his education at New York University. From 1907 to 1910, he worked as an interpreter for the U.S. Bureau of Immigration at the Ellis Island
Ellis Island
immigration station. He graduated from New York University
New York University
School of Law in 1910, was admitted to the bar the same year, and began a law practice in New York City.[7] Marriages and family[edit] La Guardia married twice. His first wife was Thea Almerigotti, an Istrian immigrant, whom he married on March 8, 1919. In June 1920 they had a daughter, Fioretta Thea, who died May 9, 1921, of spinal meningitis. His first wife died of tuberculosis on November 29, 1921, at the age of 26.[9] In 1929 he married Marie Fisher (1895–1984) who had been his secretary while in Congress; they adopted two children, Eric Henry (born 1930) and Jean Marie (1928–62), the biological daughter of Thea's sister.[10][11]

La Guardia between two Italian officers in front of a Ca.44, c. 1918

Early political career[edit] Elected to Congress[edit] La Guardia became Deputy Attorney General of New York
Attorney General of New York
in January 1915.[12] In 1916, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he had a reputation as a fiery and devoted reformer.[13] As a Representative, La Guardia represented an ethnically diverse slum district in East Harlem
East Harlem
and, although barred from important committee posts because of his political independence, he was a tireless and vocal champion of progressive causes.[14] La Guardia took office on March 4, 1917, but soon was commissioned into the United States Army
United States Army
Air Service; he rose to the rank of major in command of a unit of Ca.44 bombers on the Italian-Austrian front in World War I. He resigned his seat in Congress on December 31, 1919. President of the Board of Aldermen[edit]

New York Times
New York Times
front page November 5, 1919

La Guardia during his time in Congress, c. 1929.

In 1919, La Guardia was chosen to run as the Republican candidate for the office of President of the New York City
New York City
Board of Aldermen. His Democratic opponent was Robert L. Moran, an alderman from the Bronx who had succeeded to the Board presidency in 1918 when Alfred E. Smith, who had been elected board president in 1917, became governor.[15] Michael "Dynamite Mike" Kelly, commander of New York's Third "Shamrock" Battalion, also joined the race. Tammany Hall
Tammany Hall
looked with alarm upon Kelly's entrance into the campaign and tried to persuade him to withdraw his candidacy and throw his support behind Moran. When he refused, Tammany went to the New York Supreme Court
New York Supreme Court
and successfully sued to keep Kelly's name off the ballot.[16] When Election Day arrived, over 3,500 of Kelly's supporters wrote Kelly's name on the ballot.[16] This number was sufficient to defeat Moran, who lost to La Guardia by 1,363 votes.[17] Immigration[edit] As the son of Italian immigrants and an interpreter on Ellis Island between 1907 and 1910, La Guardia had experienced how immigration policies affected the families that came to the United States. He wanted a change for the immigrants, especially with the immigrant medical examinations that took place on Ellis Island. His passion for justice among immigrants, and his ability to speak Italian, Yiddish, and Croatian helped him in his endeavor for justice amongst immigrant factory workers and set him on his path in public service.[18] Return to Congress[edit] La Guardia, running as a Republican, won a seat in Congress from the Italian stronghold of East Harlem
East Harlem
in 1922 and served in the House until March 3, 1933.[14] A leading liberal reformer, La Guardia sponsored labor legislation and railed against immigration quotas. His major legislation was the Norris–La Guardia Act, cosponsored with Nebraska senator George Norris in 1932. It circumvented Supreme Court limitations on the activities of labor unions, especially as those limitations were imposed between the enactment of the Clayton Antitrust Act in 1914 and the end of the 1920s. Based on the theory that the lower courts are creations not of the Constitution but of Congress, and that Congress therefore has wide power in defining and restricting their jurisdiction, the act forbids issuance of injunctions to sustain anti-union contracts of employment, to prevent ceasing or refusing to perform any work or remain in any relation of employment, or to restrain acts generally constituting component parts of strikes, boycotts, and picketing. It also said courts could no longer enforce yellow-dog contracts, which are labor contracts prohibiting a worker from joining a union.[19][20] Foreign policy[edit] Never an isolationist, he supported using American influence abroad on behalf of democracy or for national independence or against autocracy. Thus he supported the Irish independence movement and the anti-czarist Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917, but did not approve of Vladimir Lenin. Unlike most progressive colleagues, such as Norris, La Guardia consistently backed internationalism, speaking in favor of the League of Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union as well as peace and disarmament conferences. In domestic policies he tended toward socialism and wanted to nationalize and regulate; however he was never close to the Socialist Party and never bothered to read Karl Marx.[21] Champion of the progressive movement[edit] As a congressman, La Guardia was a tireless and vocal champion of progressive causes, from allowing more immigration and removing U.S. troops from Nicaragua to speaking up for the rights and livelihoods of striking miners, impoverished farmers, oppressed minorities, and struggling families. A thorn in the side of the era's plutocrats and their enablers in government, he fought for progressive income taxes, greater government oversight of Wall Street, and national employment insurance for workers idled by the Great Depression.[14] Prohibition[edit] La Guardia was one of the first Republicans to voice his opinion about prohibition, urging that the Dry cause "would prove disastrous in the long run". This was breaking a taboo, given the fact that both parties "avoided taking a stand on prohibition issues" at the time.[22][23] Defeats in 1929 and 1932[edit] As a Republican, La Guardia had to support Harding in 1920; he had to be silent in the 1928 campaign although he favored Al Smith, a Democrat. In 1929, he lost the election for mayor to incumbent Democrat Jimmy Walker
Jimmy Walker
by a landslide.[24] In 1932 he was defeated for re-election to the House by James J. Lanzetta, the Democratic candidate; 1932 was not a good year for Republican candidates like La Guardia, and the 20th Congressional district was shifting from a Jewish
Jewish
and Italian-American population to a Puerto Rican population. However, it has also been argued that powerful Tammany Hall
Tammany Hall
boss Jimmy Hines was able to successfully get enough votes forged to get La Guardia unseated in this election as well.[25] Mayor of New York[edit] 1933 election[edit] Walker and his Irish-run Tammany Hall
Tammany Hall
were forced out of office by scandal and La Guardia was determined to replace him. First he had to win the nomination of both the Republican party and also the "Fusion" group of independents. He was not the first choice of either, for they distrusted Italians. On the other hand, La Guardia had enormous determination, high visibility, the support of reformer Samuel Seabury and the ability to ruin the prospects of any rival by a divisive primary contest. He secured the nominations and expected an easy win against hapless incumbent Mayor John P. O'Brien. However, at the last minute Joseph V. McKee
Joseph V. McKee
entered the race as the nominee of the new "Recovery party". McKee was a formidable opponent because he was sponsored by Bronx Democratic boss Edward J. Flynn and apparently was favored by President Franklin Roosevelt. La Guardia made corruption his main issue. The campaign saw mud slung three ways, with La Guardia denounced as a far-left "Red", O'Brien as a pawn of the bosses, and McKee as an anti-Semite. La Guardia's win was based on a complex coalition of regular Republicans (mostly middle class German Americans in the boroughs outside Manhattan), a minority of reform-minded Democrats, some Socialists, a large proportion of middle-class Jews, and the great majority of Italians. The Italians had been loyal to Tammany; their switch proved decisive.[26] Agenda[edit]

La Guardia and Franklin D. Roosevelt

La Guardia came to office in January 1934 with five main goals:[27]

Restore the financial health and break free from the bankers' control Expand the federally funded work-relief program for the unemployed End corruption in government and racketeering in key sectors of the economy Replace patronage with a merit-based civil service, with high prestige Modernize the infrastructure, especially transportation and parks

He achieved most of the first four goals in his first hundred days, as FDR gave him 20% of the entire national CWA budget for work relief. La Guardia then collaborated closely with Robert Moses, with support from the governor, Democrat Herbert Lehman, to upgrade the decaying infrastructure. The city was favored by the New Deal
New Deal
in terms of funding for public works projects. Ethnic politics[edit] La Guardia governed in an uneasy alliance with New York's Jews and liberal WASPs, together with ethnic Italians and Germans.[28] La Guardia was not an orthodox Republican. He also ran as the nominee of the American Labor Party, a union-dominated anti-Tammany left wing group that supported Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
for president beginning in 1936. La Guardia supported Roosevelt, chairing the Committee of Independent Voters for Roosevelt and Wallace with Senator George Norris during the 1940 presidential election. La Guardia was the city's first Italian-American mayor, but was not a typical Italian New Yorker. He was a Republican Episcopalian who had grown up in Arizona
Arizona
and had a Triestine Jewish
Jewish
mother[6] and a lapsed Catholic father. He spoke several languages, reportedly including Hebrew, Croatian, German, Italian, and Yiddish.[citation needed] It served him well during a contentious congressional campaign in 1922. When Henry Frank, a Jewish
Jewish
opponent, accused him of anti-Semitism, La Guardia rejected the suggestion that he publicly disclose that his mother was Jewish
Jewish
as "self-serving". Instead, La Guardia dictated an open letter in Yiddish that was also printed in Yiddish. In it, he challenged Frank to publicly and openly debate the issues of the campaign "ENTIRELY IN THE YIDDISH LANGUAGE." Frank, although he was Jewish, could not speak the language and was forced to decline—and lost the election.[citation needed] Crime[edit] La Guardia loathed the gangsters who brought a negative stereotype and shame to the Italian community.[29] His first action as mayor was to order the chief of police to arrest mob boss Lucky Luciano
Lucky Luciano
on whatever charges could be found. La Guardia then went after the gangsters with a vengeance, stating in a radio address to the people of New York in his high-pitched, squeaky voice, "Let's drive the bums out of town". In 1934 he went on a search-and-destroy mission looking for mob boss Frank Costello's slot machines, which La Guardia executed with gusto, rounding up thousands of the "one armed bandits", swinging a sledgehammer and dumping them off a barge into the water for the newspapers and media. In 1935 La Guardia appeared at The Bronx Terminal Market to institute a citywide ban on the sale, display, and possession of artichokes, whose prices were inflated by mobs. When prices went down, the ban was lifted.[30] In 1936, La Guardia had special prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey, a future Republican presidential candidate, single out Lucky Luciano
Lucky Luciano
for prosecution. Dewey led a successful investigation into Luciano's lucrative prostitution operation, eventually sending Luciano to jail with a 30–50 year sentence. The case was made into the 1937 movie Marked Woman, starring Bette Davis. La Guardia proved successful in shutting down the burlesque theaters, whose shows offended his puritanical sensibilities.[31] Public works[edit] La Guardia's admirers credit him with, among other things, restoring the economic lifeblood of New York City
New York City
during and after the Great Depression. He is given credit for many massive public works programs administered by his powerful Parks Commissioner Robert Moses
Robert Moses
and employed thousands of voters. The mayor's relentless lobbying for federal funds allowed New York to develop its economic infrastructure.[32] To obtain large-scale federal money the mayor became a close partner of Roosevelt and New Deal
New Deal
agencies such as CWA, PWA and WPA, which poured $1.1 billion into the city from 1934–39. In turn he gave FDR a showcase for New Deal
New Deal
achievement, helped defeat FDR's political enemies in Tammany Hall
Tammany Hall
(the Democratic party machine in Manhattan). He and Moses built highways, bridges and tunnels, transforming the physical landscape of New York City. The West Side Highway, East River Drive, Brooklyn Battery Tunnel, Triborough Bridge, and two airports (LaGuardia Airport, and, later, Idlewild, now JFK Airport) were built during his mayoralty.[33] 1939[edit] 1939 was a busy year, as he opened the 1939 New York World's Fair
1939 New York World's Fair
at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens, opened New York Municipal Airport No. 2 in Queens (later renamed Fiorello H. LaGuardia Field), and had the city buy out the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, thus completing the public takeover of the subway system. When the city's newspapers were closed by a strike he famously read the comics on the radio.[34] Reform[edit] Responding to popular disdain for the sometimes corrupt City Council, La Guardia successfully proposed a reformed 1938 City Charter that created a powerful new New York City
New York City
Board of Estimate, similar to a corporate board of directors. Germany[edit] He was an outspoken and early critic of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and the Nazi regime. In a public address in 1934, La Guardia warned that "part of Hitler's program is the complete annihilation of the Jews in Germany". In 1937, speaking before the Women's Division of the American Jewish Congress, he called for the creation of a special pavilion at the upcoming New York World's Fair, "a chamber of horrors" for "that brown-shirted fanatic".[35] He also encouraged the boycotting of German goods, led anti-Nazi rallies, and promoted legislation to facilitate the U.S. rescue of the Jewish
Jewish
refugees.[36] Gemma La Guardia Gluck[edit] La Guardia's sister, Gemma La Guardia Gluck (1881–1962),[37] and brother-in-law, Herman Gluck (a Hungarian Jew whom she met while teaching English in Europe), were living in Hungary and were arrested by the Gestapo
Gestapo
on June 7, 1944,[38] when the Nazis took control of Budapest. Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann
and Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
knew that Gemma was La Guardia's sister and ordered her to be held as a political prisoner. She and Herman Gluck were deported to Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria, where he died, as Gemma learned from reading a newspaper account a year after her own release.[39][40] She was transferred from Mauthausen to the notorious women's concentration camp at Ravensbrück, located some fifty miles from Berlin, where unbeknownst to Gemma at the time, her daughter Yolanda[37] (whose husband also died in the camps[41]) and baby grandson were also held for a year in a separate barracks.[42] Gemma Gluck, who was held in Block II of the camp and assigned prisoner #44139,[38] was one of the few survivors of this camp[43] and wrote about her time at Ravensbrück. [44][45] She also wrote that the Soviets were "violating girls and women of all ages", and about her, her daughter's and grandson's suffering as displaced persons in postwar Berlin, where the Germans abandoned them for a possible hostage exchange in April 1945, as the Russians were advancing. Gemma and her family did not speak German, and had no identity papers, money, or means of documenting where they had been. Gemma finally managed to get word to the Americans who contacted La Guardia, who had no idea where they were. He worked to get them on the immigration lists, but asserted in a letter, included in the appendix of Gemma's memoir, that her "case was the same as that of hundreds of thousands of displaced people" and "no exceptions can be made". Thus, despite Gemma's intimate connection with a powerful American politician, who was then director of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), it took two years for her to be cleared and sent to the United States. She returned to New York in May 1947, where she was reunited with her brother only four months before he died. As he had made no provision for her, she lived in very reduced circumstances, in a public housing project in Queens, New York, until her death in 1962.[37][46] Gluck is one of the few American-born women interned by the Nazis. (Another was Virginia d'Albert-Lake.) World War II[edit] In 1941 during the run-up to American involvement in World War II, President Roosevelt appointed La Guardia first director of the new Office of Civilian Defense
Office of Civilian Defense
(OCD). Roosevelt was an admirer of La Guardia; after meeting Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
for the first time he described him as "an English Mayor La Guardia".[47] The OCD was the national agency responsible for preparing for blackouts, air raid wardens, sirens, and shelters in case of German air raids. The government knew that such air raids were impossible but the goal was to psychologically mobilize many thousands of middle class volunteers to make them feel part of the war effort. La Guardia remained Mayor of New York, shuttling back and forth with three days in Washington and four in the city in an effort to do justice to two herculean jobs. On top of this, he still performed other gestures, such as arranging police protection with his personal assurances for local artists Joe Simon and Jack Kirby, when they were threatened by Nazi supporters for their new patriotic comic book superhero, Captain America.[48] After the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, his role was turned over to full-time director of OCD, James M. Landis. La Guardia's popularity slipped away and he ran so poorly in straw polls in 1945 that he did not run for a fourth term.[49] Unemployment ended, and the city was a gateway for military supplies and soldiers sent to Europe, with the Brooklyn Navy Yard
Brooklyn Navy Yard
providing many of the warships and the garment trade providing uniforms. The city's great financiers, however, were less important in decision making than the policy makers in Washington, and very high wartime taxes were not offset by heavy war spending. New York was not a center of heavy industry and did not see a wartime boom, as defense plants were built elsewhere.[50] FDR refused to make La Guardia a general and was unable to provide fresh money for the city. By 1944 the city was short of funds to pay for La Guardia's new programs.[51] Later life and death[edit]

The grave of Fiorello La Guardia

La Guardia was the director general for the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) in 1946. A man of short stature, La Guardia's height is sometimes given as 5 feet 0 inches (1.52 m). According to an article in The New York Times, however, his actual height was 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m).[52] La Guardia was a Freemason and was a member of Garibaldi Lodge #542, in New York City.[53] He died of pancreatic cancer in his home at 5020 Goodridge Avenue, in the Riverdale section of The Bronx
The Bronx
on September 20, 1947, aged 64[54] and is interred at Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx, New York City.[55] Legacy[edit] La Guardia was ranked first among the nation's mayors in a 1993 poll of historians and social scientists.[4][56] According to biographer Mason B. Williams, his close collaboration with Roosevelt's New Deal proved a striking success in linking national money and local needs.[57] La Guardia enabled the political recognition new groups that had been largely excluded from the political system, such as Jews and Italians.[58] His administration (in cooperation with Robert Moses) gave New York its modern infrastructure.[32] His far-sighted goals raised ambitions for new levels of urban possibility. According to Thomas Kessner, trends since his tenure mean that "people would be afraid of allowing anybody to take that kind of power".[4] Memorials[edit]

14¢ Fiorello LaGuardia U.S. postage stamp issued April 24, 1972.

The footstone of Fiorello La Guardia

In 1972 the United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
honored La Guardia with a 14-cent postage stamp. New York's LaGuardia Airport, LaGuardia Community College, and other parks and buildings around New York City
New York City
are named for him. A strong supporter of Zionism, LaGuardia Street and LaGuardia interchange both in Tel Aviv, Israel, were named in his honor. Known for his love of music, La Guardia was noted for spontaneously conducting professional and student orchestras and was instrumental in the creation of the High School of Music & Art in 1936, now renamed the Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts.[59] La Guardia was a fictionalized character in many films – in Ghostbusters II
Ghostbusters II
La Guardia's ghost talks to New York Mayor Lenny (played by David Margulies). He was also the subject of the hit Broadway musical Fiorello!, portrayed by actor Tom Bosley
Tom Bosley
and in The Little Flower, portrayed by Tony Lo Bianco. Fiorello!
Fiorello!
won a Pulitzer Prize, and ran for two years (1959–1961). See also[edit]

Fiorello H. La Guardia
Fiorello H. La Guardia
(Estern), Manhattan La Guardia and Wagner Archives La Guardia Commission, a study on marijuana in U.S. society List of mayors of New York City New York City
New York City
mayoral elections for votes in 1929, 1933, 1937 and 1941. Timeline of New York City, 1930s–1940s Streaming audio of Mayor La Guardia's regular WNYC Sunday program, " Talk
Talk
to the People." 1942-1945.

Footnotes[edit]

^ "The Green Book: Mayors of the City of New York" Archived May 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. on the official NYC website. ^ He signed his surname as a single word with no space between the "La" and the capitalized "G" which follows, but also with no space between his initial "F" and the surname; in his lifetime his surname was almost always written as two words. ^ He was ranked first in Melvin G. Holli, The American Mayor (1993) ^ a b c Kessner, Thomas (1989). Fiorello H. LaGuardia and the Making of Modern New York.  ^ " Talk
Talk
to the People WNYC". WNYC. Retrieved 2018-04-05.  ^ a b Gross, Daniela. "Le radici triestine di Fiorello LaGuardia leggendario sindaco di New York City". Newspaper article (in Italian). Il Piccolo. p. 1. Retrieved April 23, 2010.  ^ a b United States Congress. "LA GUARDIA, Fiorello Henry (id: L000007)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress ^ For one biographical account about Achille La Guardia, see Foraker, Sheila. "Achille La Guardia: Bandmaster of the 11th U.S. Infantry Territorial Brass". Retrieved December 1, 2010.  ^ " La Guardia and Wagner Archives Photo Collection – Family Album # 2". Retrieved December 1, 2010.  ^ "Fiorello H. LaGuardia Foundation - promoting global sustainable development". www.laguardiafoundation.org.  ^ Lerner, Michael A. (2007). Dry Manhattan: Prohibition in New York City. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 235, 236. ISBN 978-0-674-03057-2.  ^ Zinn, Howard
Zinn, Howard
(2010). LaGuardia in Congress. Cornell University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-8014-7617-4. Retrieved November 13, 2011.  ^ Zinn, Howard
Zinn, Howard
(1997). The Zinn Reader. Seven Stories Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-583229-46-0.  ^ a b c Zinn, La Guardia in Congress (1959) ^ "R. L. Moran Led City Alderman" (fee). New York Times. August 19, 1954. ^ a b "Major Kelly Killed by His Own Pistol" (fee). New York Times. July 23, 1930. ^ "This Election Near A Collapse for Tammany", New York Times, November 6, 1919. ^ La Guardia, Fiorello. "An Insurgent's Origin: Immigration and Unions in New York" (PDF). Retrieved March 27, 2013.  ^ Zinn, La Guardia in Congress pp. 226–30 ^ Bernstein, Irving (1966). The Lean Years: A History of the American Worker, 1920–1933. pp. 406–9. ^ Zinn, La Guardia in Congress pp. 267–70 ^ LERNER, Michael A. Dry Manhattan: Prohibition in New York City. Harvard University Press. p. 234. ISBN 9780674040090.  ^ Teaching, Mitchell Shelton, The Harvey Goldberg Center for Excellence in. "Fiorella LaGuardia on Prohibition Temperance & Prohibition". prohibition.osu.edu.  ^ Joseph McGoldrick, "The New York City
New York City
Election of 1929," The American Political Science Review, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Aug., 1930), pp. 688–690 in JSTOR ^ Stolberg, Mary M. Fighting Organised Crime: Politics, Justice, and the Legacy of Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
(1995) pg. 229 ^ Arthur H. Mann, La Guardia Comes to Power 1933 (1969) ^ Thomas Kessner, Fiorello H. LaGuardia and the Making of Modern New York (1989) ch 8–9 ^ Ronald H. Bayor, Fiorello La Guardia: Ethnicity and Reform (1993) ^ Thomas Kessner, Fiorello H. LaGuardia and the Making of Modern New York (1989) pp 350–68 ^ Gray, Christopher (May 8, 1994). "Streetscapes/Bronx Terminal Market; Trying to Duplicate the Little Flower's Success". New York Times. Retrieved July 6, 2011.  ^ Friedman, Andrea (October 1996). "'The Habitats of Sex-Crazed Perverts': Campaigns against Burlesque
Burlesque
in Depression-Era New York City". Journal of the History of Sexuality Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 203–238. ^ a b Martin Shefter (1992). Political Crisis/fiscal Crisis: The Collapse and Revival of New York City. Columbia UP. p. 30.  ^ Mason B. Williams, City of Ambition: FDR, LaGuardia, and the Making of Modern New York (2014) pp 197, 256-58, 318 ^ H. Paul Jeffers, The Napoleon of New York (2002) pp 275-90 ^ David M. Esposito, and Jackie R. Esposito, "La Guardia and the Nazis, 1933–1938." American Jewish
Jewish
History 1988 78(1): 38–53. ISSN 0164-0178; quote from H. Paul Jeffers, The Napoleon of New York (2002) p. 233. ^ "They Spoke Out: American Voices Against The Holocaust". dep.disney.go.com. Retrieved 2016-05-02.  ^ a b c Robert Leiter; Jewish
Jewish
Exponent Staff (January 31, 2008). "Pain & Triumph: The journey of a New York mayor's family". The Jewish Exponent.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b Nanda Herbermann; Hester Baer; Elizabeth Roberts Baer. The Blessed Abyss: Inmate #6582 in Ravensbrück Concentration Camp for Women. googlebooks. Retrieved September 28, 2012.  ^ Jon Kalish (June 26, 2007). "Ravensbruck's Famous Survivor: Memoir". The Jewish
Jewish
Daily Forward. Retrieved September 28, 2012.  ^ Donald Reid (May–August 2008). "America so far from Ravensbrück". Histoire@Politique: Politique, culture, société, N°5. Retrieved September 26, 2012.  ^ Gemma La Guardia Gluck (1961). My Life.  ^ Mulligan, Katherine. "New book Reveals Holocaust Plight of La Guardia's Sister". Jewish
Jewish
Federation of Rockland County. Retrieved September 26, 2012.  ^ "Adolf Eichmann's List". Times Online.  ^ Sandee Brawarsky – Jewish
Jewish
Book Critic (April 13, 2007). "Mayor LaGuardia's Sister". The Jewish
Jewish
Week. Rememberwomen.org. Retrieved September 29, 2012.  ^ Gemma La Guardia Gluck (2007) [originally published as My Story in 1961]. Rochelle G. Saidel, ed. Fiorello's Sister: Gemma La Guardia Gluck's Story (Religion, Theology, and the Holocaust). Syracuse University Press.  access-date= requires url= (help)CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "Book reviews at Rememberwomen.org of Fiorello's Sister: Gemma La Guardia Gluck's Story, New Expanded Edition (2007) edited by Rochelle G. Saidel of My Story by Gemma La Guardia Gluck (1961), edited by S. L. Shneiderman". Retrieved September 29, 2012.  ^ Thompson, Kenneth W. (1996). Virginia Papers on the Presidency. Lanham: University Press of America. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7618-0545-8. Retrieved November 13, 2011.  ^ Cronin, Brian (2009). Was Superman a Spy?. Plume: The Penguin Group. pp. 135–136.  ^ Erwin Hargrove, "The Dramas of Reform," in James D. Barber, ed. Political Leadership in American Government (1964), p. 94. ^ Karl Drew Hartzell, The Empire State At War, World War II
World War II
(1949) ^ Thomas Kessner, "Fiorello H. LaGuardia" in History Teacher (1993) 26(2): 151–159 ^ Chan, Sewell (December 4, 2006). "The Empire Zone: The Mayor's Tall Tales". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2008.  ^ "Famous Masons". MWGLNY. January 2014. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013.  ^ Jackson, Nancy Beth. "If You're Thinking of Living In/Fieldston; A Leafy Enclave in the Hills of the Bronx" on September 20, 1947. The New York Times. February 17, 2002. Retrieved May 3, 2008. "Fiorello H. La Guardia, a three-time mayor of New York, lived and died at 5020 Goodridge Avenue." ^ "La Guardia Is Dead; City Pays Homage To 3-Time Mayor". New York Times.  ^ Roberts, Sam (April 18, 2008). "The Giuliani Years: History; LaGuardia's Legacy Is Formidable, But It May Be Surpassed". New York Times.  ^ Mason B. Williams, City of Ambition: FDR, LaGuardia, and the Making of Modern New York (2014). ^ Ronald H. Bayor, Fiorello La Guardia: Ethnicity and Reform (1993). ^ Steigman, Benjamin: Accent on Talent – New York's High School of Music & Art Wayne State University Press, 1984; pg. ???

Further reading[edit]

Bayor, Ronald H. (1993). Fiorello La Guardia: Ethnicity and Reform. Arlington Heights, IL: Harlan Davidson. ISBN 0-88295-894-1. Brodsky, Alyn. (2003). The Great Mayor: Fiorello La Guardia and the Making of the City of New York. New York: Truman Talley Books. Civil Rights in New York City, 1941–1943," The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Apr., 1977), pp. 160–173 in JSTOR Caro, Robert. (1974). The Power Broker: Robert Moses
Robert Moses
and the Fall of New York. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-48076-7. Elliott, Lawrence. (1983). Little Flower: The Life and Times of Fiorello La Guardia. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-02057-7. Garrett, Charles. (1961). The La Guardia Years: Machine and Reform Politics in New York City. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Goldstein, Richard. Helluva Town: The Story of New York City
New York City
During World War II
World War II
(2010) Online review Gunther, John (1947). "The Not-So-Little Flower". Inside U.S.A. New York, London: Harper & Brothers. pp. 578–588.  Hecksher II, August. (1978). When La Guardia Was Mayor: New York's Legendary Years. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-07534-6. Jeffers, H. Paul. (2002). The Napoleon of New York: Mayor Fiorello La Guardia. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-02465-1. online edition. Kaufman, Herbert. "Fiorello H. La Guardia, Political Maverick" Political Science Quarterly
Political Science Quarterly
1990 105(1): 113–122. ISSN 0032-3195 in Jstor Kessner, Thomas. "Fiorello H. LaGuardia." History Teacher 1993 26(2): 151–159. ISSN 0018-2745 in Jstor Kessner, Thomas. (1989). Fiorello H. LaGuardia and the Making of Modern New York. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-034244-X. La Guardia, Fiorello H. (1948). The Making of an Insurgent: An Autobiography. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. La Guardia Gluck, Gemma. (1961). Fiorello's Sister: Gemma La Guardia Gluck's Story. Reissued in 2007 with new material, edited by Rochelle Saidel. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-8156-0861-6. Mann, Arthur H. (1959). La Guardia: A Fighter Against His Times 1882–1933. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. Mann, Arthur H. (1965). La Guardia Comes to Power 1933. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. Williams, Mason B. (2013). City of Ambition: FDR, La Guardia, and the Making of Modern New York. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-06691-6. Zinn, Howard. (1969). LaGuardia in Congress. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-00488-0. online edition

External links[edit]

Obituary, New York Times, September 21, 1947 La Guardia Is Dead; City Pays Homage To 3-Time Mayor La Guardia and Wagner Archives/ Fiorello H. La Guardia
Fiorello H. La Guardia
Collection

oral interviews from the La Guardia and Wagner Archives/Fiorello H. La Guardia Oral History database

Tiziano Thomas Dossena, "Fiorello La Guardia" in Bridge Apulia USA, No.3 (Italy, 1998) 1919 passport photo of Fiorello La Guardia WNYC Archives blogs featuring Mayor La Guardia

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by Michael F. Farley Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York's 14th congressional district March 4, 1917 – December 31, 1919 (resigned) Succeeded by Nathan D. Perlman

Preceded by Isaac Siegel Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York's 20th congressional district March 4, 1923 – March 3, 1933 Succeeded by James J. Lanzetta

Party political offices

Preceded by Frank D. Waterman Republican Nominee for Mayor of New York City 1929 Succeeded by Lewis H. Pounds

Political offices

Preceded by John P. O'Brien Mayor of New York City 1934–1945 Succeeded by William O'Dwyer

Government offices

Preceded by None Director of Civilian Defense 1941–1942 Succeeded by James Landis

Non-profit organization positions

Preceded by Herbert H. Lehman Director-General of the UNRRA 1946 Succeeded by General Lowell Rooks

v t e

Mayors of the City of New York since the 1898 Consolidation

Van Wyck (1898–1901) Low (1902–03) McClellan (1904–09) Gaynor (1910–13) Kline (1913) Mitchel (1914–17) Hylan (1918–25) Walker (1926–32) McKee (1932) O'Brien (1933) LaGuardia (1934–45) O'Dwyer (1946–50) Impelitteri (1950–53) Wagner (1954–65) Lindsay (1966–73) Beame (1974–77) Koch (1978–89) Dinkins (1990–93) Giuliani (1994–2001) Bloomberg (2002–13) de Blasio (2014–)

v t e

Republican Party nominees for Mayor of the City of New York since the 1898 Consolidation

Benjamin F. Tracy Seth Low William Mills Ivins Sr. Otto Bannard John Purroy Mitchel William M. Bennett Henry H. Curran Frank D. Waterman Fiorello H. La Guardia Lewis H. Pounds Fiorello H. La Guardia Jonah J. Goldstein Newbold Morris Edward F. Corsi Harold Riegelman Robert Christenberry Louis Lefkowitz John Lindsay John J. Marchi Roy M. Goodman Ed Koch Diane McGrath Rudy Giuliani Michael Bloomberg Joe Lhota Nicole Malliotakis

v t e

Presidents of the United States Conference of Mayors

Murphy Curley Walmsley Hoan La Guardia Kelly Welsh Green Lawrence Kennelly Burke Robinson Hynes Wagner Poulson R. J. Daley Dilworth Burns Celebrezze Lee Selland Tucker Blaisdell Cavanagh Barr Schrunk Maltester Tate Maier Welch Martin Alioto M. E. Landrieu Gibson Alexander McNichols Carver Hatcher Boosalis Young Fulton Padilla E. Morial Riley Berkley Holland Whitmire Isaac Flynn Althaus Abramson Ashe Rice R. M. Daley Helmke Corradini Webb Coles M. Morial Menino Garner Plusquellic O'Neill Guido Palmer Diaz Nickles Kautz Villaraigosa Nutter Smith Johnson Rawlings-Blake Cornett M. J. Landrieu

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 42633908 LCCN: n50041744 ISNI: 0000 0000 8121 8052 GND: 11877848X SELIBR: 231443 SUDOC: 076352374 BNF: cb12372329f (data) MusicBrainz: a11ae47a-9638-4a02-8dcc-85da2f44b05b US Congress: L000

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