In European academic traditions, FINE ART is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art that also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork.
Historically, the five main fine arts were painting , sculpture , architecture , music , and poetry , with performing arts including theatre and dance . Today, the fine arts commonly include additional forms, such as film , photography , video production /editing , design , sequential art , conceptual art , and printmaking . However, in some institutes of learning or in museums, fine art and frequently the term fine arts (pl.) as well, are associated exclusively with visual art forms.
One definition of fine art is "a visual art considered to have been created primarily for aesthetic and intellectual purposes and judged for its beauty and meaningfulness, specifically, painting, sculpture, drawing, watercolor, graphics, and architecture." In that sense, there are conceptual differences between the fine arts and the applied arts. As originally conceived, and as understood for much of the modern era, the perception of aesthetic qualities required a refined judgment usually referred to as having good taste , which differentiated fine art from popular art and entertainment.
The word "fine" does not so much denote the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline according to traditional Western European canons. This definition originally excluded the applied or decorative arts , and the products of what were regarded as crafts . In contemporary practice these distinctions and restrictions have become essentially meaningless, as the concept or intention of the artist is given primacy, regardless of the means through which this is expressed.
* 1 History * 2 Cultural perspectives
* 3.1 Two-dimensional works
* 3.2 Three-dimensional works
* 5 Other
* 6 Academic study
* 6.1 Africa
* 6.2 Asia
* 6.3 Europe
* 6.4 South America
* 7 References * 8 Further reading
* v * t * e
According to some writers the concept of a distinct category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art: A Cultural History (2003) locates the invention in the 18th century: "There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. (Other traditional cultures still have a similar system.) In that system, an artist or artisan was a skilled maker or practitioner, a work of art was the useful product of skilled work, and the appreciation of the arts was integrally connected with their role in the rest of life. “Art,” in other words, meant approximately the same thing as the Greek word techne, or in English “skill”, a sense that has survived in phrases like “the art of war,” “the art of love,” and “the art of medicine.” Similar ideas have been expressed by Paul Oskar Kristeller , Pierre Bourdieu , and Terry Eagleton (e.g. The Ideology of the Aesthetic), though the point of invention is often placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance .
The separation of arts and crafts that often exists in Europe and the US is not shared by all other cultures. In Japanese aesthetics the activities of everyday life are depicted by integrating not only art with craft but man-made with nature. Traditional Chinese art distinguished within Chinese painting between the mostly landscape literati painting of scholar gentlemen and the artisans of the schools of court painting and sculpture. A high status was also given to many things that would be seen as craft objects in the West, in particular ceramics, jade carving , weaving, and embroidery. Latin American art was dominated by European colonialism until the 20th-century, when indigenous art began to reassert itself inspired by the Constructivist Movement , which reunited arts with crafts based upon socialist principles.
Mosaics are images formed with small pieces of stone or glass, called tesserae . They can be decorative or functional. An artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaic artist or a mosaicist.
Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing , normally on paper . Except in the case of monotyping , the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print. Each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy. The reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium — for instance, a painting — but rather an image designed from inception as a print. An individual print is also referred to as an impression. Prints are created from a single original surface, known technically as a matrix . Common types of matrices include: plates of metal, usually copper or zinc for engraving or etching ; stone, used for lithography ; blocks of wood for woodcuts , linoleum for linocuts and fabric in the case of screen-printing . But there are many other kinds, discussed below. Multiple nearly identical prints can be called an edition . In modern times each print is often signed and numbered forming a "limited edition." Prints may also be published in book form, as artist\'s books . A single print could be the product of one or multiple techniques.
One field where "fine" remains a valid technical term is pottery , especially in archaeology . "Fine wares" are high-quality pottery, often painted, moulded or otherwise decorated, and in many periods distinguished from "coarse" wares, which are basic utilitarian pots used by the mass of the population, or in the kitchen rather than for more formal purposes.
Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in
the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material
concerns. The inception of the term in the 1960s referred to a strict
and focused practice of idea-based art that often defied traditional
visual criteria associated with the visual arts in its presentation as
text. However, through its association with the Young British Artists
Modern Western theatre is dominated by realism , including drama and
comedy . Another popular Western form is musical theatre . Classical
forms of theatre, including Greek and Roman drama , classic English
Fine arts film is a term that encompasses motion pictures and the
field of film as a fine art form. A fine arts movie theater is a
venue, usually a building, for viewing such movies. Films are produced
by recording images from the world with cameras , or by creating
images using animation techniques or special effects . Films are
cultural artifacts created by specific cultures , which reflect those
cultures, and, in turn, affect them.
Cinematography is the discipline of making lighting and camera choices when recording photographic images for the cinema . It is closely related to the art of still photography , though many additional issues arise when both the camera and elements of the scene may be in motion.
Independent filmmaking often takes place outside of Hollywood , or other major studio systems . An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio . Creative, business, and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century.
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Avant-garde music is frequently considered both a performing art
and a fine art.
See also: List of art schools
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