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The _FINANCIAL TIMES_ (_FT_) is an English-language international daily newspaper with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

The paper, published and owned by Nikkei Inc. in Tokyo
Tokyo
, was founded in 1888 by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley , and merged in 1945 with its closest rival, the _Financial News _ (which had been founded in 1884).

The _Financial Times_ has an average daily readership of 2.2 million people worldwide (PwC audited figures, November 2011). FT.com has 4.5 million registered users and over 285,000 digital subscribers, as well as 600,000 paying users. FT Chinese has more than 1.7 million registered users. The world editions of the _Financial Times_ newspaper had a combined average daily circulation of 234,193 copies (88,000 for the UK edition) in January 2014. In February 2014 the combined sale of the world editions of the _Financial Times_ was 224,000 copies. In October 2013 the combined paid print and digital circulation of the _Financial Times_ reached nearly 629,000 copies (282,000 for print and 387,000 for online sales), the highest circulation in its 125-year history. In December 2016 print sales for the paper stood at 193,211.

On 23 July 2015 Nikkei Inc. agreed to buy the _Financial Times_ from Pearson for £844m ($1.32 billion). On 30 November 2015 Nikkei completed the acquisition.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Audience

* 3 Content

* 3.1 The _Lex_ column

* 4 _FT Weekend_

* 4.1 _How to Spend It_

* 5 Editorial stance * 6 Ownership and related publications * 7 Indices * 8 People * 9 Editors * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links

HISTORY

_ The front page of the Financial Times_ on 13 February 1888.

The _FT_ was launched as the _LONDON FINANCIAL GUIDE_ on 10 January 1888, renaming itself the _Financial Times_ on 13 February the same year. Describing itself as the friend of "The Honest Financier, the Bona Fide Investor, the Respectable Broker, the Genuine Director, and the Legitimate Speculator", it was a four-page journal. The readership was the financial community of the City of London
City of London
, its only rival being the slightly older and more daring _Financial News_. On 2 January 1893 the _FT_ began printing on light salmon pink paper to distinguish it from the similarly named _Financial News_: at the time it was also cheaper to print on unbleached paper (several other more general newspapers such as _ The Sporting Times _ had the same policy), but nowadays it is more expensive as the paper has to be dyed specially.

After 57 years of rivalry the _Financial Times_ and the _Financial News_ were merged in 1945 by Brendan Bracken to form a single six-page newspaper. The _Financial Times_ brought a higher circulation while the _Financial News_ provided much of the editorial talent. The _Lex_ column was also introduced from _Financial News_.

Pearson bought the paper in 1957. Over the years the paper grew in size, readership and breadth of coverage. It established correspondents in cities around the world, reflecting early moves in the world economy towards globalisation . As cross-border trade and capital flows increased during the 1970s, the _FT_ began international expansion, facilitated by developments in technology and the growing acceptance of English as the international language of business. On 1 January 1979 the first _FT_ (Continental Europe edition) was printed outside the UK, in Frankfurt. Since then, with increased international coverage, the _FT_ has become a global newspaper, printed in 22 locations with five international editions to serve the UK, continental Europe, the U.S., Asia and the Middle East.

The European edition is distributed in continental Europe and Africa. It is printed Monday to Saturday at five centres across Europe reporting on matters concerning the European Union
European Union
, the Euro
Euro
and European corporate affairs.

In 1994 _FT_ launched a luxury lifestyle magazine, _How To Spend It_. In 2009 it launched a standalone website for the magazine.

On 13 May 1995 the _Financial Times_ group made its first foray into the online world with the launch of FT.com. This provided a summary of news from around the globe, which was supplemented in February 1996 with stock price coverage; the second-generation site was launched in spring 1996. The site was funded by advertising and contributed to the online advertising market in the UK in the late 1990s. Between 1997 and 2000 the site underwent several revamps and changes of strategy, as the FT Group and Pearson reacted to changes online. _FT_ introduced subscription services in 2002. FT.com is one of the few UK news sites successfully funded by individual subscription. _ The London offices of the Financial Times_ at One Southwark Bridge (2013).

In 1997 the _FT_ launched a U.S. edition, printed in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Dallas, Atlanta, Orlando and Washington, D.C., although the newspaper was first printed outside New York City in 1985. In September 1998 the _FT_ became the first UK-based newspaper to sell more copies internationally than within the UK.

In 2000 the _Financial Times_ started publishing a German-language edition, _ Financial Times Deutschland _, with a news and editorial team based in Hamburg. Its initial circulation in 2003 was 90,000. It was originally a joint venture with a German publishing firm, Gruner + Jahr . In January 2008 the _FT_ sold its 50% stake to its German partner. _FT Deutschland_ never made a profit and is said to have accumulated losses of €250 million over 12 years. It closed on 7 December 2012.

The _Financial Times_ launched a new weekly supplement for the fund management industry on 4 February 2002. _FT fund management_ (FTfm) was and still is distributed with the paper every Monday. FTfm is the world's largest-circulation fund management title.

Since 2005 the _FT_ has sponsored the annual \'\'Financial Times\'\' and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award .

On 23 April 2007 the _FT_ unveiled a "refreshed" version of the newspaper and introduced a new slogan, "We Live in Financial Times."

In 2007 the _FT_ pioneered a metered paywall , which lets visitors to its site read a limited number of free articles during any one month before asking them to pay. Four years later the _FT_ launched its HTML5
HTML5
mobile internet app. Smartphones and tablets now drive 12% of subscriptions and 19% of traffic to FT.com. In 2012 the number of digital subscribers surpassed the circulation of the newspaper for the first time and the _FT_ drew almost half of its revenue from subscriptions rather than advertising.

Since 2010 the _FT_ has been available on Bloomberg Terminal
Bloomberg Terminal
.

Since 2013 the _FT_ has been available on Wisers platform.

AUDIENCE

According to the Global Capital Markets Survey, which measures readership habits amongst most senior financial decision makers in the world's largest financial institutions, the _Financial Times_ is considered the most important business read, reaching 36% of the sample population, 11% more than _ The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
_ (WSJ), its main rival. _ The Economist _, which was once 50% owned by _FT_, reaches 32%. _FT'_s _ The Banker _ also proved vital reading, reaching 24%. In addition _FT_ was regarded as the most credible publication in reporting financial and economic issues among the Worldwide Professional Investment Community audience. _The Economist_ was also rated the third most credible title by most influential professional investors (those who personally managed asset funds worth $5 billion or more), while the _WSJ_ was second.

CONTENT

The _FT_ is split into two sections. The first section covers domestic and international news, editorial commentary on politics and economics from _FT_ journalists such as Martin Wolf , Gillian Tett and Edward Luce , and opinion pieces from globally renowned leaders, policymakers, academics and commentators. The second section consists of financial data and news about companies and markets. Despite being generally regarded as primarily a financial newspaper, it does also contain TV listings, weather and other more informal articles.

About 110 of its 475 journalists are outside the UK.

THE _LEX_ COLUMN

The _Lex_ column is a daily feature on the back page of the first section. It features analyses and opinions covering global economics and finance. The _FT_ calls _Lex_ its agenda-setting column. The column first appeared on Monday, 1 October 1945. The name may originally have stood for _Lex Mercatoria_, a Latin expression meaning literally "merchant law". It was conceived by Hargreaves Parkinson for the _Financial News_ in the 1930s and moved to the _Financial Times_ when the two merged.

_Lex_ boasts some distinguished alumni who have gone on to make careers in business and government – including Nigel Lawson (former Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer), Richard Lambert (CBI director and former member of the Bank of England's monetary policy committee), Martin Taylor (former chief executive of Barclays), John Makinson (chairman and chief executive of Penguin), John Gardiner (former chairman of Tesco), David Freud (former UBS banker and Labour adviser, now a Conservative peer), John Kingman (former head of UKFI and a banker at Rothschild's), George Graham (RBS banker), Andrew Balls (head of European portfolio management at PIMCO) and Jo Johnson (Conservative Member of Parliament for Orpington).

_FT WEEKEND_

The _FT_ publishes a Saturday edition of the newspaper called the _ Financial Times
Financial Times
Weekend_. It consists of international economic and political news, _Companies & Markets_, _Life & Arts_, _House "FT Money", a weekly personal finance supplement in "FT Weekend"; _FT Wealth_, a magazine for the global high-net-worth community and FTfm, a weekly review of the global fund management industry, _Money Management _ and _Financial Adviser_ (a publication targeted at professional advisers). The institutional segment includes: _The Banker _, _ This Is Africa _, _fDi _ _Intelligence_ and _Professional Wealth Management_ (PWM). Money-Media, a separate arm of Financial Publishing, delivers a range of digital information services for fund management professionals around the globe, including: Ignites, Ignites Europe, Ignites Asia, FundFire and BoardIQ. Financial Publishing includes publications (_ Pensions Expert _ and _Deutsche Pensions this was replaced by the _Financial News Index_—which was then renamed the _ Financial Times
Financial Times
(FT) Index_—on 1 January 1947. The index started as an index of industrial shares, and companies with dominant overseas interests were excluded, such as the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (later BP ), British-American Tobacco , Lever Brothers (later Unilever
Unilever
) and Shell . The oil and financial sectors were included decades later.

The FTSE All-Share Index , the first of the FTSE series of indices, was created in 1962, comprising the largest 594 UK companies by market capitalisation. The letters F-T-S-E represented that FTSE was a joint venture between the Financial Times
Financial Times
(F-T) and the London
London
Stock Exchange (S-E). On 13 February 1984 the FTSE 100 was introduced, representing about eighty percent of the London
London
Stock Exchange's value. In 1995 FTSE Group was made an independent company. The first of several overseas offices was opened in New York City in 1999; Paris followed in early 2000, Hong Kong, Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and San Francisco in 2001, Madrid
Madrid
in 2002 and Tokyo
Tokyo
in 2003.

Other well-known FTSE indices include the FTSE 350 Index , the FTSE SmallCap Index , the FTSE AIM UK 50 Index and FTSE AIM 100 Index as well as the FTSE AIM All-Share Index for stocks, and the FTSE UK Gilt Indices for government bonds.

PEOPLE

Editor Lionel Barber speaking at the newspaper's 125th anniversary party in London
London
, 2013

* Lionel Barber (Editor) (1 January 2006 – present) * Gillian Tett (Markets and Finance Columnist; Assistant Editor) * Lucy Kellaway (Management Columnist) * Tim Harford (Senior Columnist) * Gideon Rachman (Chief International Affairs Commentator) * Martin Wolf (Chief Economics Commentator) * Jurek Martin (Columnist and former Washington Bureau Chief) * Michael Skapinker (Columnist and Associate Editor) * Edward Luce (Washington, D.C., Bureau Chief) * Roula Khalaf (Foreign Editor; Assistant Editor) * Philip Stephens (Associate Editor)

In July 2006 the _FT_ announced a "New Newsroom" project to integrate the newspaper more closely with FT.com. At the same time it announced plans to cut the editorial staff from 525 to 475. In August 2006 it announced that all the required job cuts had been achieved through voluntary layoffs.

A number of former _FT_ journalists have gone on to high-profile jobs in journalism, politics and business. Robert Thomson , previously the paper's US managing editor, was the editor of _ The Times _ and is now the publisher of the _Wall Street Journal_. Will Lewis , a former New York correspondent and News Editor for the _FT_, is the current editor of the _ Daily Telegraph
Daily Telegraph
_. Dominic Lawson went on to become editor of the _ Sunday Telegraph _ until he was sacked in 2005. Andrew Adonis , a former education correspondent, became an adviser on education to the then British Prime Minister, Tony Blair
Tony Blair
, and was given a job as an education minister and a seat in the House of Lords
House of Lords
after the 2005 election. Ed Balls became chief economic adviser to the Treasury, working closely with Gordon Brown , the chancellor of the exchequer (or finance minister), before being elected a Member of Parliament in 2005, and became Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families in July 2007. Bernard Gray , a former defence correspondent and Lex columnist, was chief executive of the publishing company CMP before becoming chief executive of TSL Education, publisher of the _Times Educational Supplement _. David Jones, at one time the FT Night Editor, then became Head of IT. He was a key figure in the newspaper's transformation from hot metal to electronic composition and then onto full-page pagination in the 1990s. He went on to become Head of Technology for the Trinity Mirror
Trinity Mirror
Group.

Sir Geoffrey Owen was the editor of the _Financial Times_ from 1981 to 1990. He joined the Centre for Economic Performance (CEP) at the London
London
School of Economics as Director of Business Policy in 1991 and was appointed Senior Fellow, Institute of Management, in 1997. He continues his work there. During his tenure at the FT he had to deal with rapid technological change and issues related to it, for example repetitive strain injury (RSI), which affected dozens of FT journalists, reporters and staff in the late 1980s.

EDITORS

1889: Douglas MacRae 1890: William Ramage Lawson 1892: Sydney Murray 1896: A. E. Murray 1909: C. H. Palmer 1924: D. S. T. Hunter 1937: Archibald Chisholm 1940: Albert George Cole 1945: Hargreaves Parkinson 1949: Sir Gordon Newton 1981: Sir Geoffrey Owen 1991: Richard Lambert 2001: Andrew Gowers 2006: Lionel Barber

SEE ALSO

* _ London
London
portal * Journalism portal

* Business Journalism * Financial Times_ and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award

* Financial Times Person of the Year * List of newspapers in the United Kingdom * Periodical publication

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ "Print ABCs: Seven UK national newspapers losing print sales at more than 10 per cent year on year". _Press Gazette_. Retrieved 28 January 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "About Us". _Financial Times_. Retrieved 28 February 2011. * ^ Sweney, Mark (14 February 2014). "The Sun enjoys post-Christmas sales bounce with 8.3% rise". _The Guardian_. Retrieved 15 July 2014. * ^ Greenslade, Roy (30 October 2013). " Financial Times
Financial Times
reaches highest circulation in its 125-year history". _ The Guardian
The Guardian
_. Retrieved 20 January 2014. * ^ " Financial Times
Financial Times
sold to Nikkei by Pearson for £844m". _BBC News_. * ^ "Nikkei completes acquisition of Financial Times". _Nikkei_. * ^ "About the newspaper". _ft.com_. Financial Times. Retrieved 4 May 2015. * ^ "A brief history of the FT by David Kynaston, author of _The Financial Times: A Centenary History_." (PDF). Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "International Directory of Company Histories: Pearson plc History". Fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "FT\'s Media Kit: FT Heritage and Innovation". Fttoolkit.co.uk. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "FT tour". Financialtimes.net. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ " Financial Times
Financial Times
launches How To Spend It online". Pearson. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "FT.com to launch improved website with new content and services for users, subscribers and advertisers". Pearson. 30 April 2002. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "Pearson to sell its FT Deutschland stake to Gruner + Jahr". Pearson. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ Wiesmann, Gerrit (23 November 2012). "FT Deutschland closure date confirmed". Ft.com. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "So farewell then, FTD". Economist.com. 8 December 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ " Financial Times
Financial Times
to expand fund management coverage with new weekly supplement". Pearson. 28 January 2002. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "Why there is a need for this award". _Financial Times_. 10 April 2005. Retrieved 30 May 2012. * ^ " Financial Times
Financial Times
unveils global refresh". Pearson. 23 April 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ " Special
Special
report: The news industry". Economist.com. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "FT Web App hits two million users". Aboutus.ft.com. 12 April 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ Barber, Lionel (12 February 2013). "FT at 125: The world in focus". Ft.com. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ " Gillian Tett keynote remarks at the Knight-Bagehot 37th Anniversary Gala". Aboutus.ft.com. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ " Financial Times
Financial Times
now available on Bloomberg Professional". Pearson.com. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ https://aboutus.ft.com/en-gb/announcements/financial-times-launches-on-wisers-services/ * ^ "Global Capital Markets Survey 2011". Gcmsurvey.com. Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "Worldwide Professional Investment Community Study 2010.". Retrieved 15 October 2013. * ^ "About Lex". _Financial Times_. Retrieved 4 September 2007. * ^ "Julia Carrick". _FT Conferences_. Retrieved 5 September 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Allen, Katie (2 October 2009). "How To Spend It goes online – FT lures advertisers into uncharted waters". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved 5 September 2011. * ^ "Howtospendit.com". Howtospendit.com. Retrieved 15 January 2012. * ^ Oborne, Peter (11 August 2011). "The moral decay of our society is as bad at the top as the bottom". _The Daily Telegraph_. London. Retrieved 5 September 2011. * ^ Flynn, Paul (29 August 2011). "Why Absolutely Fabulous now looks absolutely prescient". _Guardian_. London. Retrieved 5 September 2011. * ^ Walker, Portia (11 August 2011). "Under the broken city, families explore Gaddafi\'s warren". _The Independent_. London. Retrieved 15 October 2012. * ^ "Too Big to Fail undermines the free market faith". _Financial Times_. * ^ "Margaret Thatcher: Right about nearly everything". _Financial Times_. * ^ "Demise of Reaganomics poses grave intellectual challenge to Republicans". _Financial Times_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lionel Barber (12 February 2013). "FT at 125: The world in focus". _Financial Times_. Retrieved 12 February 2013. * ^ "Europe needs a bold reformer". FT.com. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014. * ^ "Obama is the better choice". _Financial Times_. Retrieved 22 April 2013. * ^ "Obama the wiser bet for crisis-hit US". _Financial Times_. 5 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012. * ^ " Financial Times
Financial Times
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Financial Times
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Financial Times
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