Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned, English-language
international daily newspaper with a special emphasis on business and
The paper was founded in 1888 by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley,
and merged in 1945 with its closest rival, the Financial News (which
had been founded in 1884).
Financial Times has an average daily readership of
2.2 million people worldwide (PwC audited figures, November
2011). FT.com has 4.5 million registered users and over 285,000
digital subscribers, as well as 600,000 paying users. FT Chinese has
more than 1.7 million registered users. The world editions of
Financial Times newspaper had a combined average daily circulation
of 234,193 copies (88,000 for the UK edition) in January 2014. In
February 2014 the combined sale of the world editions of the Financial
Times was 224,000 copies. In October 2013 the combined paid print and
digital circulation of the
Financial Times reached nearly 629,000
copies (282,000 for print and 387,000 for online sales), the highest
circulation in its 125-year history. In December 2016 print sales
for the paper stood at 193,211.
On 23 July 2015 Nikkei Inc. agreed to buy the
Financial Times from
Pearson for £844m ($1.32 billion). On 30 November 2015 Nikkei
completed the acquisition.
3.1 The Lex column
4 FT Weekend
4.1 How to Spend It
5 Editorial stance
6 Ownership and related publications
10 See also
12 External links
The front page of the
Financial Times on 13 February 1888.
The FT was launched as the
London Financial Guide on 10 January 1888,
renaming itself the
Financial Times on 13 February the same year.
Describing itself as the friend of "The Honest Financier, the Bona
Fide Investor, the Respectable Broker, the Genuine Director, and the
Legitimate Speculator", it was a four-page journal. The readership was
the financial community of the City of London, its only rival being
the slightly older and more daring Financial News. On 2 January 1893
the FT began printing on light salmon pink paper to distinguish it
from the similarly named Financial News: at the time it was also
cheaper to print on unbleached paper (several other more general
newspapers such as
The Sporting Times
The Sporting Times had the same policy), but
nowadays it is more expensive as the paper has to be dyed
After 57 years of rivalry the
Financial Times and the Financial News
were merged in 1945 by Brendan Bracken to form a single six-page
Financial Times brought a higher circulation while the
Financial News provided much of the editorial talent. The Lex column
was also introduced from Financial News.
Pearson bought the paper in 1957. Over the years the paper grew in
size, readership and breadth of coverage. It established
correspondents in cities around the world, reflecting early moves in
the world economy towards globalisation. As cross-border trade and
capital flows increased during the 1970s, the FT began international
expansion, facilitated by developments in technology and the growing
acceptance of English as the international language of business. On 1
January 1979 the first FT (Continental Europe edition) was printed
outside the UK, in Frankfurt. Since then, with increased international
coverage, the FT has become a global newspaper, printed in 22
locations with five international editions to serve the UK,
continental Europe, the U.S., Asia and the Middle East.
The European edition is distributed in continental Europe and Africa.
It is printed Monday to Saturday at five centres across Europe
reporting on matters concerning the European Union, the
European corporate affairs.
In 1994 FT launched a luxury lifestyle magazine, How To Spend It. In
2009 it launched a standalone website for the magazine.
On 13 May 1995 the
Financial Times group made its first foray into the
online world with the launch of FT.com. This provided a summary of
news from around the globe, which was supplemented in February 1996
with stock price coverage; the second-generation site was launched in
spring 1996. The site was funded by advertising and contributed to the
online advertising market in the UK in the late 1990s. Between 1997
and 2000 the site underwent several revamps and changes of strategy,
as the FT Group and Pearson reacted to changes online. FT introduced
subscription services in 2002. FT.com is one of the few UK news
sites successfully funded by individual subscription.
London offices of the
Financial Times at One Southwark Bridge
In 1997 the FT launched a U.S. edition, printed in New York, Chicago,
Los Angeles, San Francisco, Dallas, Atlanta, Orlando and Washington,
D.C., although the newspaper was first printed outside New York City
in 1985. In September 1998 the FT became the first UK-based newspaper
to sell more copies internationally than within the UK.
In 2000 the
Financial Times started publishing a German-language
Financial Times Deutschland, with a news and editorial team
based in Hamburg. Its initial circulation in 2003 was 90,000. It was
originally a joint venture with a German publishing firm, Gruner +
Jahr. In January 2008 the FT sold its 50% stake to its German
partner. FT Deutschland never made a profit and is said to have
accumulated losses of €250 million over 12 years. It closed on 7
Financial Times launched a new weekly supplement for the fund
management industry on 4 February 2002. FT fund management (FTfm) was
and still is distributed with the paper every Monday. FTfm is the
world's largest-circulation fund management title.
Since 2005 the FT has sponsored the annual ''Financial Times'' and
Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award.
On 23 April 2007 the FT unveiled a "refreshed" version of the
newspaper and introduced a new slogan, "We Live in Financial
In 2007 the FT pioneered a metered paywall, which lets visitors to its
site read a limited number of free articles during any one month
before asking them to pay. Four years later the FT launched its
HTML5 mobile internet app. Smartphones and tablets now drive 12% of
subscriptions and 19% of traffic to FT.com. In 2012 the number of
digital subscribers surpassed the circulation of the newspaper for the
first time and the FT drew almost half of its revenue from
subscriptions rather than advertising.
Since 2010 the FT has been available on Bloomberg Terminal.
Since 2013 the FT has been available on Wisers platform.
In 2016, the
Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Alpha
Grid, a London-based media company specialising in the development and
production of quality branded content across a range of channels,
including broadcast, video, digital, social and events. 
In 2018, he
Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Longitude,
a specialist provider of thought leadership and research services to a
multinational corporate and institutional client base.  This
investment builds on the Financial Times’ recent growth in several
business areas, including branded content via the acquisition of Alpha
Grid, and conferences and events through
Financial Times Live and
extends the FT’s traditional commercial offering into a wider set of
According to the Global Capital Markets Survey, which measures
readership habits amongst most senior financial decision makers in the
world's largest financial institutions, the
Financial Times is
considered the most important business read, reaching 36% of the
sample population, 11% more than
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal (WSJ), its
main rival. The Economist, which was once 50% owned by FT, reaches
The Banker also proved vital reading, reaching 24%. In
addition FT was regarded as the most credible publication in reporting
financial and economic issues among the Worldwide Professional
Investment Community audience.
The Economist was also rated the third
most credible title by most influential professional investors (those
who personally managed asset funds worth $5 billion or more), while
the WSJ was second.
The FT is split into two sections. The first section covers domestic
and international news, editorial commentary on politics and economics
from FT journalists such as Martin Wolf,
Gillian Tett and Edward Luce,
and opinion pieces from globally renowned leaders, policymakers,
academics and commentators. The second section consists of financial
data and news about companies and markets. Despite being generally
regarded as primarily a financial newspaper, it does also contain TV
listings, weather and other more informal articles.
About 110 of its 475 journalists are outside the UK.
The Lex column
The Lex column is a daily feature on the back page of the first
section. It features analyses and opinions covering global economics
and finance. The FT calls Lex its agenda-setting column. The column
first appeared on Monday, 1 October 1945. The name may originally have
stood for Lex Mercatoria, a Latin expression meaning literally
"merchant law". It was conceived by
Hargreaves Parkinson for the
Financial News in the 1930s and moved to the
Financial Times when the
Lex boasts some distinguished alumni who have gone on to make careers
in business and government – including
Nigel Lawson (former
Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer),
Richard Lambert (CBI
director and former member of the Bank of England's monetary policy
committee), Martin Taylor (former chief executive of Barclays), John
Makinson (chairman and chief executive of Penguin), John Gardiner
(former chairman of Tesco),
David Freud (former UBS banker and Labour
adviser, now a Conservative peer), John Kingman (former head of UKFI
and a banker at Rothschild's), George Graham (RBS banker), Andrew
Balls (head of European portfolio management at PIMCO) and Jo Johnson
(Conservative Member of Parliament for Orpington).
The FT publishes a Saturday edition of the newspaper called the
Financial Times Weekend. It consists of international economic and
political news, Companies & Markets, Life & Arts, House &
Home and FT Magazine.
How to Spend It
How to Spend It is a monthly magazine published with FT Weekend.
Founded and launched by Julia Carrick with Lucia van der Post as
founding editor, its articles concern luxury goods such as yachts,
mansions, apartments, horlogerie, haute couture and automobiles, as
well as fashion and columns by individuals in the arts, gardening,
food, and hotel and travel industries. To celebrate its 15th
anniversary, FT launched the on-line version of this publication,
howtospendit.com, on 3 October 2009.
Some media commentators were taken aback by the online launch of a
website supporting conspicuous consumption during the financial
austerity of the late-2000s recession. The magazine has been
derided in rival publishers' blogs, as "repellent" in the
Telegraph and "a latter-day Ab Fab manual" in the Guardian. A
'well-thumbed' copy of the supplement was found when rebel forces
broke into Colonel Gaddafi's Tripoli compound during the 2011 Libyan
The FT advocates free markets and is in favour of globalisation.
During the 1980s it supported
Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan's
monetarist policies. It has supported the UK Labour Party in
the past, including at the general election in 1992 when Neil Kinnock
was Labour leader.
The FT's editorials tend to be moderately pro-Europe, supporting the
European Union in the context of a common economic market and opposing
political integration. The FT was firmly opposed to the Iraq
In the U.S. presidential election in 2008 the
Financial Times endorsed
Barack Obama. While it raised concerns over hints of protectionism, it
praised his ability to "engage the country's attention," his calls for
a bipartisan politics, and his plans for "comprehensive health-care
reform". The FT favoured Obama again in 2012.
In the general election in the UK in 2010 the FT was receptive to the
Liberal Democrats' positions on civil liberties and political reform,
and praised the then Labour leader
Gordon Brown for his response to
the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, but on balance it backed
the Conservatives while questioning their tendency to
Euroscepticism. At the subsequent general election in 2015, the FT
called for the continuation of the Conservative-Liberal Democrat
coalition that had governed for the previous five years.
In the 2017 UK general election the
Financial Times backed the
Ownership and related publications
Financial Times Group, a division of
Pearson PLC since 1957, was
sold in July 2015 to the Japanese company Nikkei for £844m. Until
August 2015 the FT group had a 50% shareholding in The Economist,
which was sold to the Agnelli family for £469 million.
Related publications include the Financial Times, FT.com, FT Search
Inc., the publishing imprint
FT Press and numerous joint ventures. In
November 2013 it agreed to sell Mergermarket, an online intelligence
reporting business, to the
London private equity investor BC
Partners. In addition, the FT Group has a unit called FT Business,
which is a provider of specialist information on retail, personal and
institutional finance segments. It publishes The Banker, Money
Management and Financial Adviser (a publication targeted at
professional advisers), This Is Africa, fDi intelligence and
Professional Wealth Management (PWM).
Financial Times Group announced the beta launch of newssift,
part of FT Search, in March 2009. Newssift.com is a next-generation
search tool for business professionals that indexes millions of
articles from thousands of global business news sources, not just the
Financial Times Group acquired Money Media (an online news
and commentary site for the industry) and Exec-Appointments (an
online recruitment specialist site for the executive jobs market). The
FT Group once had a 13.85% stake in
Business Standard Ltd of India,
the publisher of the Business Standard. It sold this stake in April
2008 and has entered into an agreement with
Network 18 to launch the
Financial Times in India, though it is speculated that they
may find it difficult to do so, as the brand 'Financial Times' in
India is owned by
The Times Group, the publisher of
The Times of
India and The Economic Times. The group also publishes America's
Intelligence Wire, a daily general newswire service.
The Financial Times' Financial Publishing division (formerly FT
Business) provides print and online content for retail, personal and
institutional finance audiences. Examples of publications and services
include: Investors Chronicle, a personal finance magazine and website;
"FT Money", a weekly personal finance supplement in "FT Weekend"; FT
Wealth, a magazine for the global high-net-worth community and FTfm, a
weekly review of the global fund management industry, Money Management
and Financial Adviser (a publication targeted at professional
advisers). The institutional segment includes: The Banker, This Is
Africa, fDi Intelligence and Professional Wealth Management (PWM).
Money-Media, a separate arm of Financial Publishing, delivers a range
of digital information services for fund management professionals
around the globe, including: Ignites, Ignites Europe, Ignites Asia,
FundFire and BoardIQ. Financial Publishing includes publications
Pensions Expert and Deutsche Pensions & Investmentnachrichten)
and events (Investment Expert) for the European pensions industry. The
group also publishes MandateWire, a financial information company that
provides sales and market intelligence for investment professionals in
North America, Europe and Asia.
FT Knowledge is an associated company which offers educational
products and services. FT Knowledge has offered the "Introducing the
City" course (which is a series of Wednesday night lectures and
seminars, as well as weekend events) during each autumn and spring
FT Predict is a prediction market contest hosted by the Financial
Times that allows users to buy and sell contracts based on future
financial, political, and news-driven events by spending fictional
Financial Times Dollars (FT$). Based on the assumptions displayed in
James Surowiecki's The Wisdom of Crowds, this contest allows people to
use prediction markets to observe future occurrences while competing
for weekly and monthly prizes.
Financial Times also ran a business-related game called "In the
Pink" (a phrase meaning "in good health", also a reference to the
colour of the newspaper and to the phrase "in the red" meaning to be
making a loss). Each player was put in the virtual role of Chief
Executive and the goal was to have the highest profit when the game
closes. The winner of the game (the player who makes the highest
profit) was to receive a real monetary prize of £10,000. The game ran
from 1 May to 28 June 2006.
Financial Times collates and publishes a number of financial
market indices, which reflect the changing value of their constituent
parts. The longest-running of these was the former Financial News
Index, started on 1 July 1935 by the Financial News. The FT published
a similar index; this was replaced by the Financial News Index—which
was then renamed the
Financial Times (FT) Index—on 1 January 1947.
The index started as an index of industrial shares, and companies with
dominant overseas interests were excluded, such as the Anglo-Iranian
Oil Company (later BP), British-American Tobacco, Lever Brothers
(later Unilever) and Shell. The oil and financial sectors were
included decades later.
The FTSE All-Share Index, the first of the FTSE series of indices, was
created in 1962, comprising the largest 594 UK companies by market
capitalisation. The letters F-T-S-E represented that FTSE was a
joint venture between the
Financial Times (F-T) and the
Exchange (S-E). On 13 February 1984 the
FTSE 100 was introduced,
representing about eighty percent of the
London Stock Exchange's
value. In 1995
FTSE Group was made an independent company. The
first of several overseas offices was opened in New York City in 1999;
Paris followed in early 2000, Hong Kong,
Frankfurt and San Francisco
Madrid in 2002 and Tokyo in 2003.
Other well-known FTSE indices include the FTSE 350 Index, the FTSE
SmallCap Index, the
FTSE AIM UK 50 Index and
FTSE AIM 100 Index as
well as the
FTSE AIM All-Share Index for stocks, and the FTSE UK Gilt
Indices for government bonds.
Lionel Barber speaking at the newspaper's 125th anniversary
party in London, 2013
Lionel Barber (Editor) (1 January 2006 – present)
Gillian Tett (Markets and Finance Columnist; Assistant Editor)
Lucy Kellaway (Management Columnist)
Tim Harford (Senior Columnist)
Gideon Rachman (Chief International Affairs Commentator)
Martin Wolf (Chief Economics Commentator)
Jurek Martin (Columnist and former Washington Bureau Chief)
Michael Skapinker (Columnist and Associate Editor)
Edward Luce (Washington, D.C., Bureau Chief)
Roula Khalaf (Foreign Editor; Assistant Editor)
Philip Stephens (Associate Editor)
Georgina Adam Art writer
In July 2006 the FT announced a "New Newsroom" project to integrate
the newspaper more closely with FT.com. At the same time it announced
plans to cut the editorial staff from 525 to 475. In August 2006 it
announced that all the required job cuts had been achieved through
A number of former FT journalists have gone on to high-profile jobs in
journalism, politics and business. Robert Thomson, previously the
paper's US managing editor, was the editor of
The Times and is now the
publisher of the Wall Street Journal. Will Lewis, a former New York
correspondent and News Editor for the FT, is the current editor of the
Dominic Lawson went on to become editor of the Sunday
Telegraph until he was sacked in 2005. Andrew Adonis, a former
education correspondent, became an adviser on education to the then
British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, and was given a job as an
education minister and a seat in the
House of Lords
House of Lords after the 2005
Ed Balls became chief economic adviser to the Treasury,
working closely with Gordon Brown, the chancellor of the exchequer (or
finance minister), before being elected a Member of Parliament in
2005, and became Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families
in July 2007. Bernard Gray, a former defence correspondent and Lex
columnist, was chief executive of the publishing company CMP before
becoming chief executive of TSL Education, publisher of the Times
Educational Supplement. David Jones, at one time the FT Night Editor,
then became Head of IT. He was a key figure in the newspaper's
transformation from hot metal to electronic composition and then onto
full-page pagination in the 1990s. He went on to become Head of
Technology for the
Trinity Mirror Group.
Sir Geoffrey Owen
Sir Geoffrey Owen was the editor of the
Financial Times from 1981 to
1990. He joined the Centre for Economic Performance (CEP) at the
London School of Economics as Director of Business Policy in 1991 and
was appointed Senior Fellow, Institute of Management, in 1997. He
continues his work there. During his tenure at the FT he had to
deal with rapid technological change and issues related to it, for
example repetitive strain injury (RSI), which affected dozens of FT
journalists, reporters and staff in the late 1980s.
1889: Douglas MacRae
1890: William Ramage Lawson
1892: Sydney Murray
1896: A. E. Murray
1909: C. H. Palmer
1924: D. S. T. Hunter
1937: Archibald Chisholm
1940: Albert George Cole
1945: Hargreaves Parkinson
1949: Sir Gordon Newton
1973: Fredy Fisher
1981: Sir Geoffrey Owen
1991: Richard Lambert
2001: Andrew Gowers
2006: Lionel Barber
Financial Times and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award
Financial Times Person of the Year
List of newspapers in the United Kingdom
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Absolutely Fabulous now looks
absolutely prescient". Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 September
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vote'. The Financial Times. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
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United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum, 2011
"At present, the UK uses the “first past the post” system to elect
MPs to the House of Commons. Should the “alternative vote” system
be used instead?"
Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011
For a "Yes" vote
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^ Carter, Brandon (30 June 2017). "Conservative media outlets gain
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