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The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., film production companies, film studios, cinematography, animation, film production, screenwriting, pre-production, post production, film festivals, distribution; and actors, film directors, and other film crew personnel. Though the expense involved in making films almost immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable film making equipment, and expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve. Hollywood
Hollywood
is the oldest film industry of the world,[1] and the largest in terms of box office gross revenue. Indian cinema (including Bollywood) is the largest film industry in terms of the number of films produced and the number of tickets sold, with 3.5 billion tickets sold annually (compared to Hollywood's 2.6 billion tickets sold annually)[2] and 1,986 feature films produced annually.[3]

Contents

1 Modern film industry

1.1 China 1.2 United States 1.3 United Kingdom 1.4 India 1.5 Nigeria 1.6 Egypt 1.7 Iran 1.8 Japan 1.9 Korea 1.10 Hong Kong 1.11 Turkey 1.12 Pakistan 1.13 Bangladesh 1.14 Indonesia 1.15 Trinidad and Tobago 1.16 Nepal

2 History

2.1 Hollywood 2.2 Bollywood

3 Statistics

3.1 Largest industries by number of film productions 3.2 Largest markets by box office revenue 3.3 Largest markets by number of box office admissions

4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 Bibliography 7 External links

Modern film industry[edit]

World cinema

African cinema Asian cinema

East Asian cinema South Asian cinema Southeast Asian cinema West Asian cinema

European cinema Latin American cinema North American cinema Oceanian cinema

The worldwide theatrical market had a box office of US$38.6 billion in 2016. The top three continents/regions by box office gross were: Asia-Pacific with US$14.9 billion, the U.S. and Canada
Canada
with US$11.4 billion, and Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
Africa
with US$9.5 billion.[4][5] As of 2016, the largest markets by box office were, in decreasing order, the United States, China, Japan, India, and the United Kingdom. As of 2011, the countries with the largest number of film productions were India, Nigeria, and the United States. In Europe, significant centers of movie production are France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom.[6] Distinct from the centers are the locations where movies are filmed. Because of labor and infrastructure costs, many films are produced in countries other than the one in which the company which pays for the film is located. For example, many U.S. movies are filmed in Canada, many Nigerian movies are filmed in Ghana, while many Indian movies are filmed in the Americas, Europe, Singapore
Singapore
etc. China[edit] See also: Cinema of China

Old Chinese Cinema in Qufu, Shandong, China

The Cinema of China
Cinema of China
is one of three distinct historical threads of Chinese-language cinema together with the cinema of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and the cinema of Taiwan. Cinema was introduced in China
China
in 1896 and the first Chinese film, The Battle of Dingjunshan, was made in 1905, with the film industry being centered on Shanghai
Shanghai
in the first decades. China is the home of the largest film studio in the world, the Hengdian World Studios, and in 2010 it had the third largest film industry by number of feature films produced annually. For the next decade the production companies were mainly foreign-owned, and the domestic film industry was centered on Shanghai, a thriving entrepot and the largest city in the Far East. In 1913, the first independent Chinese screenplay, The Difficult Couple, was filmed in Shanghai
Shanghai
by Zheng Zhengqiu and Zhang Shichuan.[7] As the Sixth Generation
Generation
gained international exposure, many subsequent movies were joint ventures and projects with international backers, but remained quite resolutely low-key and low budget. Jia's Platform (2000) was funded in part by Takeshi Kitano's production house,[8] while his Still Life was shot on HD video. Still Life was a surprise addition and Golden Lion
Golden Lion
winner of the 2006 Venice International
International
Film
Film
Festival. Still Life, which concerns provincial workers around the Three Gorges
Three Gorges
region, sharply contrasts with the works of Fifth Generation
Generation
Chinese directors like Zhang Yimou
Zhang Yimou
and Chen Kaige
Chen Kaige
who were at the time producing House of Flying Daggers (2004) and The Promise (2005). It featured no star of international renown and was acted mostly by non-professionals. In 2012 the country became the second-largest market in the world by box office receipts. In 2014, the gross box office in China
China
was ¥29.6 billion (US$4.82 billion), with domestic films having a share of 55%. The country is predicted to have the largest market in the world in 2017 or 2018.[9][10] China
China
has also become a major hub of business for Hollywood
Hollywood
studios.[11][12] In 2013, China's gross box office was ¥21.8 billion (US$3.6 billion), the second-largest film market in the world by box office receipts[13] whereas in 2014, China's box office gross was $4.8 Billion, being the second largest box office grosser in film industry.[14] United States[edit] See also: Cinema of the United States

The Hollywood
Hollywood
Sign

The cinema of the United States, often generally referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. The United States
United States
cinema (Hollywood) is the oldest film industry in the world which originated more than 121 years ago and also the largest film industry in terms of revenue. Hollywood is the primary nexus of the U.S. film industry with established film study facilities such as the American Film
Film
Institute, LA Film
Film
School and NYFA being established in the area.[15] However, four of the six major film studios are owned by East Coast companies. The major film studios of Hollywood
Hollywood
including Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 20th Century Fox, Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
and Lightstorm Entertainment
Lightstorm Entertainment
are the primary source of the most commercially successful movies in the world, such as Gone with the Wind (1939), Star Wars
Star Wars
(1977), Titanic (1997), and Avatar (2009). Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, making the United States
United States
one of the most prolific producers of films in the world. Only The Walt Disney Company — which owns the Walt Disney Studios — is fully based in Southern California.[16] And while Sony Pictures Entertainment
Sony Pictures Entertainment
is headquartered in Culver City, California, its parent company, the Sony Corporation, is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. Most shooting now takes place in California, New York, Louisiana, Georgia and North Carolina. Hollywood is the most popular film industry with the highest number of screens, and is the highest-grossing film industry in the world. Between 2009-2015, Hollywood
Hollywood
consistently grossed $10 billion (or more) annually.[17] Hollywood's award ceremony, the Academy Awards, officially known as The Oscars, is held by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) every year and a total of 2,947 Oscars have been awarded since the inception of the award.[18] The earliest documented account of an exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States
United States
was in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana
Richmond, Indiana
by Charles Francis Jenkins
Charles Francis Jenkins
which makes United States
United States
cinema the earliest cinema in the whole world. Jenkins used his Phantoscope to project his film before an audience of family, friends and reporters. The film featured a vaudeville dancer performing a Butterfly Dance. Jenkins and his new partner Thomas Armat modified the Phantoscope for exhibitions in temporary theaters at the Cotton States Exposition in the fall of 1895. The Phantoscope was later sold to Thomas Edison, who changed the name of the projector to Edison's Vitascope.

Nestor studio, 1911

Nestor Studios
Nestor Studios
was Hollywood's first movie studio, founded on 27 October 1911 It was built by David Horsley
David Horsley
for Nestor Motion Picture Company. It was then owned and operated by David Horsley
David Horsley
and his brother, William Horsley. The first motion picture stage in Hollywood was built behind the tavern. Other East Coast studios had moved production to Los Angeles, prior to Nestor's move west. The California weather allowed for year-round filming and the ambitious studio operated three principal divisions under its Canadian-born general manager, Al Christie. Other filmmakers began opening studios in the Hollywood
Hollywood
area. The Horsleys operated the Nestor Studios
Nestor Studios
at the Sunset and Gower location until 20 May 1912, when the Universal Studios
Universal Studios
was formed, headed by Carl Laemmle. Nestor, along with several other motion picture companies, including Laemmle's Independent Moving Pictures (IMP), was merged with Universal. United Kingdom[edit] Further information: Cinema of the United Kingdom India[edit] Further information: Cinema of India See also: Bollywood, Cinema of West Bengal, and Cinema of South India

A scene from Raja Harishchandra
Raja Harishchandra
(1913) – credited as the first full-length Indian motion picture.

India
India
is the largest producer of films in the world and second oldest film industry in the world which originated around about 105 years ago.[19] In 2009 India
India
produced a total of 2,961 films on celluloid; this figure includes 1,288 feature films.[20] Besides being the largest producer of films in the world, India
India
also has the largest number of admissions.[21] Indian film
Indian film
industry is multi-lingual and the largest in the world in terms of ticket sales but 3rd largest in terms of revenue mainly due to having amongst the lowest ticket prices in the world.[22]The industry is viewed mainly by a vast film-going Indian public, and Indian films have been gaining increasing popularity in the rest of the world—notably in countries with large numbers of expatriate Indians. Indian film
Indian film
industry is also the dominant source of movies and entertainment in its neighboring countries of South Asia. The largest film and most popular industry in India
India
is the Hindi
Hindi
film industry mostly concentrated in Mumbai (Bombay),[23] and is commonly referred to as Bollywood, an amalgamation of Bombay
Bombay
an Hollywood. The other largest film industries are Tamil cinema, Telugu cinema, Kannada cinema, Malayalam cinema, and Bangla cinema
Bangla cinema
(cinema of West Bengal), which are located in Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Kochi, and Kolkata. The remaining majority portion is spread across northern, western, and southern India
India
(with Gujarati, Punjabi, Marathi, Oriya, Bhojpuri, Assamese Cinema). However, there are several smaller centers of Indian film
Indian film
industries in regional languages centered in the states where those languages are spoken. Indian films are made filled with musicals, action, romance, comedy, and an increasing number of special effects. It encloses a number of several artforms like Indian classical music, folk music of different regions throughout the country, Indian classical dance, folk dance and much more. It is even the place for number of artists from the Indian subcontinent to showcase their talent. The Indian film industry produces more than 1000 films a year. Bollywood
Bollywood
is the largest portion of this and is viewed all over the Indian Subcontinent, and is increasingly popular in UK, United States, Australia, New Zealand, Southeast Asia, Africa, the Gulf countries, European countries and China. The largest film studio complex in the world is Ramoji Film
Film
City located at Hyderabad, India, which opened in 1996 and measures 674 ha (1,666 acres). Comprising 47 sound stages, it has permanent sets ranging from railway stations to temples.[24]

Bollywood
Bollywood
represents 43% of Indian net box office revenue, while Telugu and Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema
represent 36%, and the rest of the regional cinema constitute 21%, as of 2014.[25] The highest grossing movie of India
India
is Dangal which is also the 5th highest grossing non-English movie in the world. Nigeria[edit] See also: Cinema of Nigeria The cinema of Nigeria, often referred to informally as Nollywood, is the second largest film industry, in terms of output, and the third largest, in terms of overall revenues generated.[26][27] Its history dates back to as early as the late 19th century and into the colonial era in the early 20th century. The history and development of the Nigerian motion picture industry is sometimes generally classified in four main eras: the Colonial era, Golden Age, Video film era
Video film era
and the emerging New Nigerian cinema.[28] Film
Film
as a medium first arrived Nigeria
Nigeria
in the late 19th century, in the form of peephole viewing of motion picture devices.[29] These were soon replaced in early 20th century with improved motion picture exhibition devices, with the first set of films screened at the Glover Memorial Hall in Lagos
Lagos
from 12 to 22 August 1903.[30] The earliest feature film made in Nigeria
Nigeria
is the 1926 Palaver produced by Geoffrey Barkas; the film was also the first film ever to feature Nigerian actors in speaking roles.[31][32] The first film entirely copyrighted to the Nigerian Film
Film
unit is Fincho (1957) by Sam Zebba; which is also the first Nigerian film to be shot in colour.[33] After Nigeria's independence in 1960, the cinema business rapidly expanded, with new cinema houses being established.[34] As a result, Nigerian content in theatres increased in the late 1960s into the 1970s, especially productions from Western Nigeria, owing to former theatre practitioners such as Hubert Ogunde and Moses Olaiya transitioning into the big screen.[35] In 1972, the Indigenization Decree was issued by Yakubu Gowon, which demands the transfer of ownership of about a total of 300 film theatres from their foreign owners to Nigerians, which resulted in more Nigerians playing active roles in the cinema and film.[36] The oil boom of 1973 through 1978 also contributed immensely to the spontaneous boost of the cinema culture in Nigeria, as the increased purchasing power in Nigeria
Nigeria
made a wide range of citizens to have disposable income to spend on cinema going and on home television sets.[37] After the decline of the Golden era, Nigerian film industry experienced a second major boom in the 1990s, supposedly marked by the release of the direct-to-video film Living in Bondage (1992); the industry peaked in the mid 2000s to become the second largest film industry in the world in terms of the number of annual film productions, placing it ahead of the United States
United States
and behind only India.[26] The films started dominating screens across the African continent and by extension, the Caribbeans and the diaspora,[38] with the movies significantly influencing cultures, and the film actors becoming household names across the continent. The boom also led to a backlash against Nigerian films in several countries, bordering on theories such as the "Nigerialization of Africa".[39][40] Since mid-2000s, the Nigerian cinema have undergone some restructuring to promote quality and professionalism, with The Figurine
The Figurine
(2009) widely regarded as marking the major turn around of contemporary Nigerian cinema. There has since been a resurgence in the proliferation of cinema establishments, and a steady return of the cinema culture in Nigeria.[41] The 2016 film The Wedding Party, directed by Kemi Adetiba, is the highest grossing Nollywood
Nollywood
film of all time. Egypt[edit] See also: Cinema of Egypt Egyptian cinema is the flourishing cinema of North Africa. Since 1976, Cairo has held the annual Cairo International
International
Film
Film
Festival (CIFF), which is accredited by the International
International
Federation of Film
Film
Producers Association. Most of today’s Egyptian movies and TV series are produced in the Egyptian Media Production City which is equipped with the latest equipment for shooting in outdoor and indoor studios.[42] It includes about 64 high tech studios. Censorship, formerly an obstacle to freedom of expression, has decreased remarkably. The Egyptian cinema has witnessed a remarkable shift in terms of the taboos it may address. It has begun to tackle boldly issues ranging from sexual issues[43] to heavy government criticism.[44] The 1940s, 1950s and the 1960s are generally considered the golden age of Egyptian cinema. As in the West, films responded to the popular imagination, with most falling into predictable genres (happy endings being the norm), and many actors making careers out of playing strongly typed parts. In the words of one critic, "If an Egyptian film intended for popular audiences lacked any of these prerequisites, it constituted a betrayal of the unwritten contract with the spectator, the results of which would manifest themselves in the box office."[45] Since the 1990s, Egypt's cinema has gone in separate directions. Smaller art films attract some international attention but sparse attendance at home. Popular films, often broad comedies such as What A Lie!, and the extremely profitable works of comedian Mohamed Saad, battle to hold audiences either drawn to Western films or, increasingly, wary of the perceived immorality of film.[46] Iran[edit] See also: Cinema of Iran The cinema of Iran
Iran
(Persian: سینمای ایران) or cinema of Persia refers to the cinema and film industries in Iran
Iran
which produce a variety of commercial films annually. Iranian art films have garnered international fame and now enjoy a global following.[47] Along with China, Iran
Iran
has been lauded as one of the best exporters of cinema in the 1990s.[48] Some critics now rank Iran
Iran
as the world's most important national cinema, artistically, with a significance that invites comparison to Italian neorealism
Italian neorealism
and similar movements in past decades.[47] A range of international film festivals have honored Iranian cinema in the last twenty years. World-renowned Austrian filmmaker Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke
and German filmmaker Werner Herzog, along with many film critics from around the world, have praised Iranian cinema as one of the world's most important artistic cinemas.[49] Japan[edit] See Cinema of Japan Korea[edit] See also: Cinema of Korea, Cinema of South Korea, and Cinema of North Korea The term "cinema of Korea" (or "Korean cinema") encompasses the motion picture industries of North and South Korea. As with all aspects of Korean life during the past century, the film industry has often been at the mercy of political events, from the late Joseon dynasty
Joseon dynasty
to the Korean War
Korean War
to domestic governmental interference. While both countries have relatively robust film industries today, only South Korean films have achieved wide international acclaim. North Korean films tend to portray their communist or revolutionary themes. South Korean films enjoyed a "Golden age" during the late 1950s, and 1960s, but by the 1970s had become generally considered to be of low quality. Nonetheless, by 2005 South Korea
South Korea
had become one of few nations to watch more domestic than imported films in theatres[50] due largely to laws placing limits on the number of foreign films able to be shown per theatre per year.[51] In the theaters, Korean films must be played for 73 days per year since 2006. On cable TV 25% domestic film quota will be reduced to 20% after KOR-US FTA.[52] The cinema of South Korea
South Korea
had a total box office gross in the country in 2015 of ₩884 billion and had 113,000,000 admissions, 52% of the total admissions. Hong Kong[edit]

Zhuangzi Tests His Wife
Zhuangzi Tests His Wife
(1913) is credited as the first Hong Kong feature film

See also: Cinema of Hong Kong, Cinema of China, and East Asian cinema Hong Kong
Hong Kong
is a filmmaking hub for the Chinese-speaking world (including the worldwide diaspora) and East Asia in general. For decades it was the third largest motion picture industry in the world (after Bollywood
Bollywood
and Hollywood) and the second largest exporter of films.[53] Despite an industry crisis starting in the mid-1990s and Hong Kong's return to Chinese sovereignty in July 1997 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
film has retained much of its distinctive identity and continues to play a prominent part on the world cinema stage. Unlike many film industries, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
has enjoyed little to no direct government support, through either subsidies or import quotas. It has always been a thoroughly commercial cinema, concentrating on crowd-pleasing genres, like comedy and action, and heavily reliant on formulas, sequels and remakes. Typically of commercial cinemas, its heart is a highly developed star system, which in this case also features substantial overlap with the pop music industry. Turkey[edit] The Yeşilçam film industry is firmly established as the second largest European theatrical growth market and the 7th largest theatrical market in terms of admissions, only superseded by the ‘big 5’ EU markets and the Russian Federation. The Turkish film market also stands out in the pan-European landscape as the only market where national films regularly outperform US films.[54] It had 1.2 million number of admissions in film industry and 87 feature films were released in the year 2013.[55] Because of the exceptional box office success of Turkish films on the domestic market, the estimated 12.9 million admissions generated on non-national European markets only account for 7% of total admissions to Turkish films in Europe (including Turkey) between 2004 and 2013. This is the third lowest share among the 30 European markets for which such data are available and clearly illustrates the strong dependence of Turkish films on the domestic market, a feature which is shared by Polish and Russian films.[56] Over the past ten years an increasing number of Turkish films and filmmakers have been selected for international film festivals and received a large number of awards, like Kış Uykusu (Winter's Sleep) won Cannes Film
Film
Festival Award for Best Film
Film
in 2014.[57] In terms of box office Turkey
Turkey
still ranks behind the Netherlands
Netherlands
with just over EUR 200 million as Europe's eight largest box office market ahead of Sweden and Switzerland with a clear gap to the top 6 markets all of which registered GBO between EUR 504 million (Spain) up to over EUR 1 billion in France, the UK, Germany
Germany
and the Russian Federation.[58] Cinema going is comparatively cheap in Turkey. In 2013 a cinema ticket cost on average EUR 4.0 in Turkey, and this is estimated to be the lowest average ticket price - measured in Euro
Euro
- in Europe, marginally cheaper than in several Central and Eastern European markets like Croatia, Romania, Lithuania or Bulgaria.[59] When comparing ticket prices in Euro, one of course has to take into consideration that these comparisons are significantly affected by fluctuations in the exchange rates of the various currencies. Because of devaluation of the Turkish Lira against the Euro, average ticket prices measured in Euro
Euro
remained fairly stable over the past 10 years.[59] Pakistan[edit] See also: Cinema of Pakistan
Cinema of Pakistan
and Lollywood The cinema of Pakistan, or simply, Pakistani cinema (Urdu: پاکستانی سنیما‬‎) refers to Pakistan's film industry. Most of the feature films shot in Pakistan
Pakistan
are in Urdu, the national language, but may also include films in English, the official language, and regional languages such as Punjabi, Pashto, Balochi, and Sindhi. Lahore
Lahore
was the epicentre of Pakistani cinema and Pakistan's largest film industry was Lollywood after The film industry again shifted its base in Karachi
Karachi
& by 2007 Karachi
Karachi
has permanently become the Pakistani film and showbiz industry's headquarters.[citation needed] Before the separation of Bangladesh, Pakistan
Pakistan
had three main film production centres: Lahore, Karachi
Karachi
and Dhaka. The regime of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, VCRs, film piracy, the introduction of entertainment taxes, strict laws based upon ultra-conservative jurisprudence, was an obstacle to the industry's growth.[60] Once thriving, the cinema in Pakistan
Pakistan
had a sudden collapse in the 1980s and by the 2000s "an industry that once produced an average of 80 films annually was now struggling to even churn out more than two films a year.".[61][62] However, the industry has recently made a dramatic and remarkable comeback, evident from the fact that 18 of the 21 highest grossing Pakistani movies were released from 2013 through to the present, with Pakistani films frequently outcompeting Bollywood
Bollywood
movies for the Pakistani audience, the industry is supported by Pakistani channels such as ARY and Geo whose entertainment divisions have invested significantly in Pakistani cinema when expanding from providing news and entertainment on TV channels, the lifting of strict regulations on production of films and reduction of taxes on cinemas helped to fuel an expansion across the industry from which the film industry has seen a revival. Bangladesh[edit] See also: Cinema of Bangladesh
Cinema of Bangladesh
and Dhallywood The cinema of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is the Bengali language
Bengali language
film industry based in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The industry often has been a significant film industry since the early 1970s. The word "Dhallywood" is a portmanteau of the words Dhaka
Dhaka
and Hollywood. The dominant style of Bangladeshi cinema is Melodramatic cinema, which developed from 1947 to 1990 and characterizes most films to this day. Cinema was introduced in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1898 by Bradford Bioscope Company, credited to have arranged the first film release in Bangladesh. Between 1913 and 1914, the first production company named Picture House was opened. A short silent film titled Sukumari (The Good Girl) was the first produced film in the region during 1928. The first full-length film The Last Kiss, was released in 1931. From the separation of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
from Pakistan, Dhaka
Dhaka
is the center of Bangladeshi film industry, and generated the majority share of revenue, production and audiences. The 1960s, 1970s, 1980s and the first half of the 1990s were the golden years for Bangladeshi films as the industry produced many successful films. The Face and the Mask, the first Bengali language
Bengali language
Bangladeshi full-length feature film was produced in 1956.[63][64] Directors such as Fateh Lohani, Zahir Raihan, Alamgir Kabir, Khan Ataur Rahman, Subhash Dutta, Ritwik Ghatak, Ehtesham, Chashi Nazrul Islam, Abdullah al Mamun, Sheikh Niamat Ali, Gazi Mazharul Anwar, Tanvir Mokammel, Tareque Masud, Morshedul Islam, Humayun Ahmed, Gias Uddin Selim, Mostofa Sarwar Farooki, Zahidur Rahman Anjan, Kamar Ahmed Saimon, Bijon Imtiaz, Amitabh Reza Chowdhury
Amitabh Reza Chowdhury
and others have made significant contributions to Bangladeshi mainstream cinema, parallel cinema, art films and won global acclaim. Indonesia[edit] See also: Cinema of Indonesia The biggest film studios in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
has been soft opened on 5 November 2011 on 10 hectares of land in Nongsa, Batam Island, Indonesia. Infinite Frameworks (IFW) is a Singapore-based company (closed to Batam Island) which easy to approach or be approached by international clients and is owned by a consortium with 90 percent of it hold by Indonesian businessman and movie producer, Mike Wiluan.[65] In 2010-2011, due to the substantial increase in value added tax applied to foreign films, cinemas no longer have access to many foreign films, including Oscar-winning films. Foreign films include major box offices from the west, and other major film producers of the world. This has caused a massive ripple effect on the country's economy. It is assumed that this increases the purchase of unlicensed DVDs. However, even copyright violating DVDs now take longer to obtain. The minimum cost to view a foreign film not screened locally, is 1 million Rupiah. This is equivalent to US$100, as it includes a plane ticket to Singapore.[66] Locally made film quality has gone up in 2012, this is attested by the international release of films such as The Raid: Redemption, Modus Anomali, Dilema, Lovely Man, Java Heat, etc. Trinidad and Tobago[edit] See also: List of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
films Trinidad and Tobago’s film sector began emerging in the late fifties to early sixties and by the late seventies, there were a handful of local productions, both feature film and television.[67] The first full-length feature film to be produced in Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
was “The Right and the Wrong” (1970) by Indian director/writer/producer, Harbance Kumar. The screenplay was written by the Trinidadian playwright, Freddie Kissoon.[68] The rest of the 20th century saw a couple more feature films being made in the country, with “Bim” (1974), being singled out by Bruce Paddington as "one of the most important films to be produced in Trinidad and Tobago….and one of the classics of Caribbean
Caribbean
cinema.”[69] It was one of the first films to feature an almost entirely Trinidadian cast and crew.[70] There was a rise in Trinidadian film production in the 2000s. Movies such as “Ivan the Terrible” (2004), “SistaGod” (2006), “I’m Santana: The Movie” (2012) and “God Loves the Fighter” (2013) were released both locally and internationally. “SistaGod” had its world premiere at the 2006 Toronto International
International
Film
Film
Festival.[71] The Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Film
Film
Company is the national agency that was established in 2006 to further development of the film industry. Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
puts on a number of film festivals which are organized by different committees and organizations. These include the Secondary Schools Short Film
Film
Festival and Smartphone Film
Film
Festival organized by Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Film
Film
Company. There is also an annual Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Film
Film
Festival which runs for two weeks in the latter half of September. Nepal[edit] Main article: Kallywood Nepali film does not have a very long movie history, but the industry has its own place in the cultural heritage of the country. It is often referred to as 'Nepali Chalchitra' (which translates to "Nepali movies" in English). The terms Kollywood and Kallywood
Kallywood
are also used, as a portmanteau of "Kathmandu" and "Hollywood"; "Kollywood" however is more frequently used to refer to Tamil cinema.[1] Chhakka Panja
Chhakka Panja
has been considered the highest-grossing movie of all time in Nepali Movie Industry and Kohinoor the second highest. Nepali movies has recently begun receiving international acclaim with films such as The Black Hen (2015), Kagbeni (2006) and others. Nepali feature film White Sun (Seto Surya) has bagged the Best Film
Film
award at the 27th Singapore International
International
Film
Film
Festival (SGIFF)(2016). The Film
Film
Development Board (FDB) was established by the Government of Nepal for the development and promotion of the Nepali film industry. The Board is a liaison to facilitate the conceptualization, making, distribution and exhibition of Nepali films nationally. The Board attempts to bridge the gap between film entrepreneurship and government bureaucracy. The Board is a balance between the people at large, the government, and the process of film making. It is intended to act as the safeguard of the interests of the people, the watchdog of the government, and the advocate of filmmakers. History[edit] Main article: History of film

A still from The Story of the Kelly Gang
The Story of the Kelly Gang
(Australia, 1906; 80 min.)

The first feature film to be made was the 1906 Australian silent The Story of the Kelly Gang, an account of the notorious gang led by Ned Kelly that was directed and produced by the Melburnians Dan Barry and Charles Tait. It ran, continuously, for eighty minutes.[72] By the time other countries began making feature films, in 1911, a further fifteen feature-length films had been made in Australia.[citation needed] In the early 1910s, the film industry had fully emerged with D.W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation. Also in the early 1900s motion picture production companies from New York and New Jersey started moving to California
California
because of the good weather and longer days. Although electric lights existed at that time, none were powerful enough to adequately expose film; the best source of illumination for movie production was natural sunlight. Besides the moderate, dry climate, they were also drawn to the state because of its open spaces and wide variety of natural scenery. Another reason was the distance of Southern California
Southern California
from New Jersey, making it more difficult for Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
to enforce his motion picture patents. At the time, Edison owned almost all the patents relevant to motion picture production and, in the East, movie producers acting independently of Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company were often sued or enjoined by Edison and his agents. Thus, movie makers working on the West Coast could work independently of Edison's control. If he sent agents to California, word would usually reach Los Angeles before the agents did and the movie makers could escape to nearby Mexico.[citation needed] Hollywood[edit] Hollywood
Hollywood
is the oldest film industry in the world which was originated 124 years ago. The earliest documented account of an exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States
United States
was in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana
Richmond, Indiana
by Charles Francis Jenkins. The first movie studio in the Hollywood
Hollywood
area, Nestor Studios, was founded in 1911 by Al Christie
Al Christie
for David Horsley
David Horsley
in an old building on the northwest corner of Sunset Boulevard
Sunset Boulevard
and Gower Street. In the same year, another fifteen Independents settled in Hollywood. Hollywood came to be so strongly associated with the film industry that the word "Hollywood" came to be used colloquially to refer to the entire industry. In 1913 Cecil B. DeMille, in association with Jesse Lasky, leased a barn with studio facilities on the southeast corner of Selma and Vine Streets from the Burns and Revier Studio and Laboratory, which had been established there. DeMille then began production of The Squaw Man (1914). It became known as the Lasky-DeMille Barn
Lasky-DeMille Barn
and is currently the location of the Hollywood
Hollywood
Heritage Museum. The Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
Studios, on the northeast corner of La Brea and De Longpre Avenues just south of Sunset Boulevard, was built in 1917. It has had many owners after 1953, including Kling Studios, which housed production for the Superman TV series with George Reeves; Red Skelton, who used the sound stages for his CBS
CBS
TV variety show; and CBS, who filmed the TV series Perry Mason with Raymond Burr
Raymond Burr
there. It has also been owned by Herb Alpert's A&M Records and Tijuana Brass Enterprises. It is currently The Jim Henson
Jim Henson
Company, home of the Muppets. In 1969 The Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Board named the studio a historical cultural monument. The famous Hollywood Sign
Hollywood Sign
originally read "Hollywoodland." It was erected in 1923 to advertise a new housing development in the hills above Hollywood. For several years the sign was left to deteriorate. In 1949 the Hollywood
Hollywood
Chamber of Commerce stepped in and offered to remove the last four letters and repair the rest. The sign, located at the top of Mount Lee, is now a registered trademark and cannot be used without the permission of the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, which also manages the venerable Walk of Fame. The first Academy Awards
Academy Awards
presentation ceremony took place on 16 May 1929, during a banquet held in the Blossom Room of the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel on Hollywood
Hollywood
Boulevard. Tickets were USD $10.00[citation needed] and there were 250 people in attendance. From about 1930 five major Hollywood
Hollywood
movie studios from all over the Los Angeles area, Paramount, RKO, 20th Century Fox, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
and Warner Bros., owned large, grand theaters throughout the country for the exhibition of their movies. The period between the years 1927 (the effective end of the silent era) to 1948 is considered the age of the " Hollywood
Hollywood
studio system", or, in a more common term, the Golden Age of Hollywood. In a landmark 1948 court decision, the Supreme Court ruled that movie studios could not own theaters and play only the movies of their studio and movie stars, thus an era of Hollywood
Hollywood
history had unofficially ended. By the mid-1950s, when television proved a profitable enterprise that was here to stay, movie studios started also being used for the production of programming in that medium, which is still the norm today. Bollywood[edit] Main article: Bollywood

A shot from Raja Harishchandra
Raja Harishchandra
(1913), the first film of Bollywood.

Bollywood
Bollywood
is the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay), Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; however, it is only a part of the total Indian film
Indian film
industry, which includes other production centres producing films in multiple languages.[73] Bollywood
Bollywood
is the largest film producer in India
India
and one of the largest centres of film production in the world.[74][75][76] Bollywood
Bollywood
is formally referred to as Hindi
Hindi
cinema.[77] Linguistically, Bollywood
Bollywood
films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, mutually intelligible to both Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu speakers,[78][79][80] while modern Bollywood
Bollywood
films also increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish.[78] The Wrestlers (1899) and The Man and His Monkeys (1899), directed and produced by Harischandra Sakharam Bhatawdekar (H. S. Bhatavdekar), were the first two films made by Indian filmmakers, which were both short films. He was also the first Indian filmmaker to direct and produce the first documentary and news related film, titled The Landing of Sir M.M. Bhownuggree. Pundalik (Shree Pundalik) (1912), by Dadasaheb Torne
Dadasaheb Torne
alias Rama Chandra Gopal, and Raja Harishchandra
Raja Harishchandra
(1913), by Dadasaheb Phalke, were the first and second silent feature films respectively made in India.[81][82][83][84] By the 1930s the industry was producing more than 200 films per annum.[85] The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara
Alam Ara
(1931), was a major commercial success.[86] There was clearly a huge market for talkies and musicals; Bollywood
Bollywood
and all the regional film industries quickly switched to sound filming. Joymoti (1935 film) by Jyoti Prasad Agarwalla
Jyoti Prasad Agarwalla
was the first Indian dubbed film, released in Calcutta on 10 March 1935. Till then, all dialogues of all talkies were had to be recorded at locations during the shooting of the film. Through Joymoti (1935 film), dubbing technology was successfully introduced to Indian cinema
Indian cinema
by Assamese filmmaker Jyoti Prasad Agarwalla.[82] The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India
India
was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, and the violence of the Partition. Most Bollywood
Bollywood
films were unabashedly escapist, but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots.[85] In 1937 Ardeshir Irani, of Alam Ara
Alam Ara
fame, made the first colour film in Hindi, Kisan Kanya. The next year, he made another colour film, a version of Mother India. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Following India's independence, the period from the late 1940s to the early 1960s is regarded by film historians as the "Golden Age" of Hindi
Hindi
cinema.[87][88][89] Defining key figures during this time included Raj Kapoor, Guru Dutt,[90] Mehboob Khan,[91][92][93] and Dilip Kumar.[94][95] The 1970s was when the name "Bollywood" was coined,[96][97] and when the quintessential conventions of commercial Bollywood
Bollywood
films were established.[98] Key to this was the emergence of the masala film genre, which combines elements of multiple genres (action, comedy, romance, drama, melodrama, musical). The masala film was pioneered in the early 1970s by filmmaker Nasir Hussain,[99] along with screenwriter duo Salim-Javed, pioneering the Bollywood
Bollywood
blockbuster format.[98] Statistics[edit] Largest industries by number of film productions[edit]

Countries by the number of films produced in 2015

The following is a list of the top 15 countries by the number of feature films (fiction, animation and documentary) produced, as determined by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics as of 2015,[100] unless otherwise noted.

Rank Country Films Year

1 India 1,986 2017[3]

2 Nigeria 997 2011

3 United States 791 2015

4 China 686 2015

5 Japan 594 2017[101]

6 France 300 2015

7 United Kingdom 298 2015

8 South Korea 269 2015

9 Spain 255 2015

10 Germany 226 2015

11 Italy 185 2015

12 Argentina 182 2015

13 Mexico 140 2015

14 Turkey 137 2015

15 Brazil 129 2015

Largest markets by box office revenue[edit]

Rank Country Box office
Box office
revenue (billion US$) Year Box office
Box office
from national films[102]

N/A World 39.92 2017[103] N/A

1  United States 10.31 2016[104] 7001888000000000000♠88.8% (2015)

2  China 8.59 2017[105] 7001538400000000000♠53.84% (2017)[105]

3  India 2.18 2016[106] 7001850000000000000♠85% (2015)

4  Japan 2.1 2017[101] 7001549000000000000♠54.9% (2017)[101]

5  United Kingdom 1.87 2017[107] 7001443000000000000♠44.3% (2015)

6  South Korea 1.57 2016[104] 7001522000000000000♠52.2% (2015)

7  France 1.54 2016[104] 7001337000000000000♠33.7% (2015)

8  Germany 1.17 2016[104] –

9  Canada 1.068 2016[108] –

10  Australia 0.92 2016[104] 7000720000000000000♠7.2% (2015)

11  Mexico 0.87 2016[104] 7000590000000000000♠5.9% (2015)

12  Brazil 0.70 2016[109] 7001118000000000000♠11.8% (2015)

13  Italy 0.70 2016[109] 7001208000000000000♠20.8% (2015)

14  Russia 0.70 2016[109] 7001174009999900000♠17.4% (2015)

15  Spain 0.70 2016[109] 7001194009999900000♠19.4% (2015)

Largest markets by number of box office admissions[edit]

Rank Country Number of admissions (millions of tickets) Year Source

1  India 2,263 2016 [110]

2  China 1,372 2016 [110]

3  United States 1,181 2016 [110]

4  Mexico 331.0 2016 [110]

5  South Korea 218.0 2016 [110]

6  France 213.0 2016 [110]

7  Russia 192.0 2016 [110]

8  Brazil 185.0 2016 [110]

9  Japan 175 2017 [111]

10  United Kingdom 168.0 2016 [110]

See also[edit]

Film
Film
portal

Cinema by country List of cinema of the world Independent films Outline of film Television industry

Footnotes[edit]

^ The earliest documented account of an exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States
United States
was in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana
Richmond, Indiana
by Charles Francis Jenkins ^ Matusitz, J., & Payano, P. (2011). The Bollywood
Bollywood
in Indian and American Perceptions: A Comparative Analysis. India
India
Quarterly: A Journal of International
International
Affairs, 67(1), 65–77. doi:10.1177/097492841006700105 ^ a b "INDIAN FEATURE FILMS CERTIFIED DURING THE YEAR 2017". Film Federation of India. 31 March 2017.  ^ Lang, Brent (22 March 2017). "Global Box Office Hits Record $38.6 Billion in 2016 Even as China
China
Slows Down". Variety. Retrieved 24 June 2017.  ^ "Theatrical Market Statistics 2016" (PDF). MPAA. Retrieved 24 June 2017.  ^ "European Audiovisual
Audiovisual
Council" (PDF) (Press release). European Audiovisual
Audiovisual
Council, Council of Europe. Retrieved 11 May 2009.  ^ Carter, David (4 November 2010). East Asian Cinema. Oldcastle Books, Limited. ISBN 9781842433805.  ^ "A Touch of Sin: Interview with Jia Zhang-ke". Electric Sheep. Retrieved 3 December 2015.  ^ Frater, Patrick (30 September 2015). "IMAX China
China
Sets Cautious IPO Share Price". variety.com. Retrieved 9 October 2015.  ^ Hoad, Phil (31 December 2013). "Marvel rules, franchises dip, China thrives: 2013 global box office in review". theguardian.com. Retrieved 11 January 2014.  ^ Brzeski, Patrick; Coonan, Clifford (3 April 2014). "Inside Johnny Depp's 'Transcendence' Trip to China". The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter. As China's box office continues to boom – it expanded 30 percent in the first quarter of 2014 and is expected to reach $4.64 billion by year's end – Beijing is replacing London and Tokyo
Tokyo
as the most important promotional destination for Hollywood
Hollywood
talent.  ^ FlorCruz, Michelle (2 April 2014). "Beijing Becomes A Top Spot On International
International
Hollywood
Hollywood
Promotional Tours". International
International
Business Times. The booming mainland Chinese movie market has focused Hollywood's attention on the Chinese audience and now makes Beijing more important on promo tours than Tokyo
Tokyo
and Hong Kong  ^ " China
China
B.O. up 27% in 2013". www.filmbiz.asia. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2015.  ^ "Theatrical Market Statistics 2014 - MPAA" (PDF).  ^ Los Angeles Film
Film
Studies ^ Donckels, William. "Disney Raises SoCal Annual Pass Prices 30% - to Keep Locals "Out"". Technorati.com. Retrieved 28 November 2012.  ^ Number of total movies in 2014 are taken from http://www.boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?yr=2014 ^ "Oscar Statuette". Oscars.org Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.  ^ Khanna, "The Business of Hindi
Hindi
Films", 140 ^ "Annual report 2010". Central Board of Film
Film
Certification, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 March 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2010.  ^ According to 2014 Theatrical Market Statistics by MPAA ^ " Hollywood
Hollywood
Film
Film
Revenue in India
India
Rises 10 Percent, Boosted by Dubbed Versions". The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter. Retrieved 2018-03-23.  ^ Raja, Aditi (31 July 2012). " Film
Film
industry threatens it might have to move out of 'unsafe' Mumbai". London: Mail Online India. Retrieved 28 November 2012.  ^ "Largest film studio". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 31 May 2016.  ^ "The Digital March Media & Entertainment in South India" (PDF). Deloitte. Retrieved 21 April 2014.  ^ a b " Nigeria
Nigeria
surpasses Hollywood
Hollywood
as world's second largest film producer – UN". United Nations. 5 May 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ Brown, Funke Osae (24 December 2013). " Nollywood
Nollywood
improves quality, leaps to N1.72trn revenue in 2013". Business Day Newspaper. Business Day Online. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.  ^ Emeagwali, Gloria (Spring 2004). "Editorial: Nigerian Film Industry". Central Connecticut State University. Africa
Africa
Update Vol. XI, Issue 2. Retrieved 16 July 2014.  ^ "X-raying Nigerian Entertainment Industry At 49". Modern Ghana. 30 September 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2015.  ^ Olubomehin, Oladipo O. (2012). "CINEMA BUSINESS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA SINCE 1903". Historical Research Letter. 3. ISSN 2224-3178.  ^ Ekenyerengozi, Michael Chima (21 May 2014). "Recognizing Nigeria's Earliest Movie Stars - Dawiya, King of the Sura and Yilkuba, the Witch Doctor". IndieWire. Shadow and Act. Retrieved 13 April 2015.  ^ "PALAVER: A ROMANCE OF NORTHERN NIGERIA". Colonial Film. Retrieved 13 April 2015.  ^ "Lights, Camera, Africa!!!". Goethe Institute. Retrieved 24 August 2015.  ^ Olubomehin, Oladipo O. (2012). "CINEMA BUSINESS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA SINCE 1903". Historical Research Letter. 3. ISSN 2225-0964.  ^ Adegbola, Tunde (2011). "Coming of Age in Nigerian Moviemaking". African Film
Film
Festival Inc. New York. Retrieved 7 April 2015.  ^ Obiaya, Ikechukwu. "The Blossoming of the Nigerian Video Film Industry". Academia. Retrieved 7 April 2015.  ^ Olubomehin, Oladipo O. (2012). "CINEMA BUSINESS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA SINCE 1903". Historical Research Letter. 3. ISSN 2224-3178.  ^ "Nollywood: Lights, camera, Africa". The Economist. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ Onuzulike, Uchenna (2007). "Nollywood: The Influence of the Nigerian Movie Industry on African Culture". Nollywood
Nollywood
Journal. Retrieved 12 February 2014.  ^ ""Nollywood": What's in a Name?". Nigeria
Nigeria
Village Square. 3 July 2005. Retrieved 20 February 2015. [permanent dead link] ^ "Nigerian films try to move upmarket: Nollywood's new scoreboard". The Economist. The Economist. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2015.  ^ Kandil, Heba. "The Media Free Zone: An Egyptian Media Production City Finesse". TBS. Retrieved 29 November 2012.  ^ Krajeski, Jenna. "Acclaimed Movie "678" Shows the Ubiquity of Sexual Harassment in Egypt". Slate.com. Retrieved 29 November 2012.  ^ El Deeb, Sarah. "Egypt court sentences 8 to death over prophet film". Associated Press. Retrieved 29 November 2012.  ^ Farid, Samir, "Lights, camera...retrospection" Archived 11 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Al-Ahram Weekly, 30 December 1999 ^ Farid, Samir, "An Egyptian Story" Archived 14 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Al-Ahram Weekly, 23–29 November 2006 ^ a b The Iranian Cinema Archived 2 August 2012 at Archive.is ^ Abbas Kiarostami: Articles & Interviews ^ The Iranian Cinema: A Dream With No Awakening Archived 21 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Future Korean Filmmakers Visit UCLA". Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 18 November 2007.  ^ Jameson, Sam (19 June 1989). "U.S. Films Troubled by New Sabotage in South Korea
South Korea
Theater". Los Angeles Times.  ^ 한미FTA 체결, 영화산업 타격은? Archived 23 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine., MBC (Korean) ^ Gorman, Patrick J. " Hong Kong
Hong Kong
to Hollywood: A "ridiculous amount of interest" in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
cinema is redefining Tinseltown". Moviemaker.com. Retrieved 28 November 2012.  ^ "Recherche - Observatoire européen de l'audiovisuel". www.obs.coe.int. Retrieved 4 December 2015.  ^ KANZLER, Martin (2014). The Turkish Film
Film
Industry. European Audiovisual
Audiovisual
Observatory. p. 59.  ^ KANZLER, Martin (2014). The Turkish Film
Film
Industry. European Audiovisual
Audiovisual
Observatory. p. 61.  ^ KANZLER, Martin (2014). The Turkish Film
Film
Industry. European Audiovisual
Audiovisual
Observatory. p. 67.  ^ KANZLER, Martin (2014). The Turkish Film
Film
Industry. European Audiovisual
Audiovisual
Observatory. p. 71.  ^ a b KANZLER, Martin (2014). The Turkish Film
Film
Industry. European Audiovisual
Audiovisual
Observatory. p. 72.  ^ http://www.dawn.com/news/1045365 ^ an industry that once produced an average of 80 films annually was now struggling to even churn out more than two films a year. ^ The Beginner's Guide to Pakistani Cinema ^ "History of Bangladeshi Film". cholochitro.com. Cholochitro. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ "Mukh O Mukhosh". bfa.gov.bd. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.  ^ " Indonesia
Indonesia
Now Home to Southeast Asia's Biggest Movie Studios". 14 November 2011.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2016.  ^ "The Film
Film
Industry".  ^ Kissoon, Freddie (27 March 2008). "First Movie". Newsday.  ^ Paddington, Bruce (November 2004). "Bim, Bim, Sink or Swim". Caribbean
Caribbean
Beat (70).  ^ Mendes-Franco, Janine (9 February 2014). " Bim Fans Go Online". Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Guardian.  ^ Pires, BC. " SistaGod Put a Hand". Trinidad and Tobago Guardian.  ^ "The Story of the Kelly Gang". Australian Screen, National Film
Film
and Sound Archive. Retrieved 29 November 2012.  ^ Corliss, Richard (16 September 1996). "Hooray for Bollywood!". Time Magazine.  ^ Pippa de Bruyn; Niloufer Venkatraman; Keith Bain (2006). Frommer's India. Frommer's. p. 579. ISBN 0-471-79434-1.  ^ Wasko, Janet (2003). How Hollywood
Hollywood
works. SAGE. p. 185. ISBN 0-7619-6814-8.  ^ K. Jha; Subhash (2005). The Essential Guide to Bollywood. Roli Books. p. 1970. ISBN 81-7436-378-5.  ^ Gulzar; Nihalani, Govind; Chatterji, Saibal (2003). Encyclopaedia of Hindi
Hindi
Cinema. Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Pvt Ltd. pp. 10–18. ISBN 81-7991-066-0.  ^ a b "Decoding the Bollywood
Bollywood
poster". National Science and Media Museum. 28 February 2013.  ^ Aḵẖtar, Jāvīd; Kabir, Nasreen Munni (2002). Talking Films: Conversations on Hindi
Hindi
Cinema with Javed Akhtar. Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780195664621. JA: I write dialogue in Urdu, but the action and descriptions are in English. Then an assistant transcribes the Urdu
Urdu
dialogue into Devnagari
Devnagari
because most people read Hindi. But I write in Urdu. Not only me, I think most of the writers working in this so-called Hindi cinema
Hindi cinema
write in Urdu: Gulzar, or Rajinder Singh Bedi
Rajinder Singh Bedi
or Inder Raj Anand or Rahi Masoom Raza or Vahajat Mirza, who wrote dialogue for films like Mughal-e-Azam
Mughal-e-Azam
and Gunga Jumna
Gunga Jumna
and Mother India. So most dialogue-writers and most song-writers are from the Urdu
Urdu
discipline, even today.  ^ " Film
Film
World". Film
Film
World. T.M. Ramachandran. 10: 65. 1974. I feel that the Government should eradicate the age-old evil of certifying Urdu
Urdu
films as Hindi
Hindi
ones. It is a known fact that Urdu
Urdu
has been willingly accepted and used by the film industry. Two eminent Urdu writers Krishan Chander and Ismat Chughtai
Ismat Chughtai
have said that "more than seventy-five per cent of films are made in Urdu." It is a pity that although Urdu
Urdu
is freely used in films, the producers in general mention the language of the film as "Hindi" in the application forms supplied by the Censor Board. It is a gross misrepresentation and unjust to the people who love Urdu.  ^ Robertson, Patrick (1988). The Guinness Book of Movie Facts & Feats (1988 ed.). London: Guinness Publishing Limited. p. 8. ISBN 0-85112-899-8.  ^ a b Deka, Arnab Jan (27 October 1996). "Fathers of Indian Cinema Bhatawdekar and Torney". Dainik Asam (Assamese daily).  ^ Narwekar, Sanjit (January 1995). Marathi Cinema : In Retrospect (1995 ed.). Bombay, India: Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Film, Stage & Cultural Development Corporation Ltd. pp. 9–12.  ^ Rangoonwalla, Firoze (1979). A Pictorial History of Indian Cinema (1979 ed.). London, New York, Sydney, Toronto: The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. p. 12. ISBN 0-600-34909-8.  ^ a b Gulzar; Nihalani, Govind; Chatterji, Saibal (2003). Encyclopaedia of Hindi
Hindi
Cinema. Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Pvt Ltd. pp. 136–137. ISBN 81-7991-066-0.  ^ Talking Images, 75 Years of Cinema ^ K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 17. ISBN 1-85856-329-1.  ^ Sharpe, Jenny (2005). "Gender, Nation, and Globalization in Monsoon Wedding and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge". Meridians: feminism, race, transnationalism. 6 (1): 58–81 [60 & 75]. doi:10.1353/mer.2005.0032.  ^ Gooptu, Sharmistha (July 2002). "Reviewed work(s): The Cinemas of India
India
(1896–2000) by Yves Thoraval". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (29): 3023–4.  ^ K. Moti Gokulsing, K. Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 18. ISBN 1-85856-329-1.  ^ Sridharan, Tarini (25 November 2012). "Mother India, not Woman India". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2012.  ^ Bollywood
Bollywood
Blockbusters: Mother India
India
(Part 1) (Documentary). CNN-IBN. 2009. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015.  ^ Kehr, Dave (23 August 2002). "Mother India
India
(1957). Film
Film
in review; 'Mother India'". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2012.  ^ Before Brando, There Was Dilip Kumar, The Quint, December 11, 2015 ^ "Unmatched innings". The Hindu. 24 January 2012. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2015. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Anand (7 March 2004). "On the Bollywood
Bollywood
beat". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 31 May 2009.  ^ Subhash K Jha (8 April 2005). "Amit Khanna: The Man who saw 'Bollywood'". Sify. Archived from the original on 9 April 2005. Retrieved 31 May 2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015-10-01). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi
Hindi
Cinema’s Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin UK. p. 58. ISBN 9789352140084.  ^ "How film-maker Nasir Husain started the trend for Bollywood
Bollywood
masala films". Hindustan Times. 30 March 2017.  ^ Feature films - Total number of national feature films produced, UNESCO Institute for Statistics ^ a b c "Statistics Of Film
Film
Industry In Japan". Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan, Inc. Retrieved 12 September 2016.  ^ "Percentage of GBO of all films feature exhibited that are national". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 1 November 2013.  ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (31 December 2017). "Worldwide Box Office Hits Record $39.92 Billion In 2017: ComScore". Deadline.  ^ a b c d e f "Leading film markets worldwide by gross box office revenue 2016". Statista. Retrieved 2 December 2017.  ^ a b "Chinese mainland box office sees great gains in 2017, paving way for more foreign films from outside Hollywood". Global Times. 1 January 2018.  ^ " Hollywood
Hollywood
Film
Film
Revenue in India
India
Rises 10 Percent, Boosted by Dubbed Versions". The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter. March 21, 2017.  ^ "U.K. Box Office: 2017 Was Highest Year on Record". The Hollywood Reporter. 5 January 2018.  ^ " Canada
Canada
Box Office: Revenue Rises to $699M in 2015". The Hollywood Reporter. 8 January 2016.  ^ a b c d Theatrical Market Statistics 2016 (MPAA) ^ a b c d e f g h i "Leading film markets worldwide by number of tickets sold 2016". Statista. Retrieved 13 December 2017.  ^ Schilling, Mark (January 25, 2018). " Japan
Japan
Box Office Slides in 2017, as Hollywood
Hollywood
Gains". Variety. 

Bibliography[edit]

Allen J. Scott (2005) On Hollywood: The Place The Industry, Princeton University Press Robertson, Patrick (1988) The Guinness Book of Movie Facts & Feats. London: Guinness Publishing Limited Arnab Jan Deka (27 Oct 1996) Fathers of Indian Cinema Bhatawdekar and Torney, Dainik Asam Sanjit Narwekar (1995) Marathi Cinema : In Retrospect, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Film, Stage & Cultural Development Corporation Ltd Firoze Rangoonwalla (1979) A Pictorial History of Indian Cinema, The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited

External links[edit]

Movie Making Manual wikibook Online Movies, Taiwanese Law, and the American Film
Film
Industry at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 12 March 2005) - 4 February 2002 MP3 Newswire article on the potential impact of Net distribution on the film industry Box Office Cinefile Review Doctor Strange Movie (2016) Information

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