Filipinos (Filipino: Mga Filipino) are the people who are native to,
or identified with the country of the Philippines.
Filipinos come from
various ethnolinguistic groups. Currently, there are more than 175
ethnolinguistic groups, each with its own language, identity, culture
and history. The modern Filipino identity, with its Austronesian
roots, was developed in conjunction with Spanish, Chinese and American
Philippines was a Spanish colony for 333 years, setting a
foundation for contemporary Filipino culture. Under Spanish rule, most
of the Filipino populace embraced Roman Catholicism, yet revolted many
times against its hierarchy.
2.2 Archaic epoch (to 1565)
2.2.1 Historic caste systems
Hispanic settlement and rule (1521–1898)
2.4 Late modern
2.5 Hispanized caste system
3 Origins and genetic studies
7 See also
10 External links
See also: Name of the Philippines
The name Filipino was derived from the term "las Islas Filipinas"
("the Philippine Islands"), the name given to the archipelago in
1543 by the Spanish explorer and Dominican priest Ruy López de
Villalobos, in honour of Philip II of
Spain (Spanish: Felipe II). The
lack of the letter "F" in the pre-1987 Philippine alphabet, Abakada,
had caused the letter "F" to be substituted with "P". Upon official
adoption of the modern, 28-letter Filipino alphabet in 1987, the term
Filipino was preferred over Pilipino. However the ABAKADA is only the
alphabet of the Tagalogs as other ethnic nations also have their own
alphabets and/or writing scripts and these other ethnic nations did
have the letter "F" in their alphabets.
Use of the term "Filipino" in the
Philippines started during the
Spanish colonial period. The original meaning was "a person of Spanish
descent born in the Philippines" (a person of
and not of Spanish descent was called an "Indio"). This original
usage is now archaic and obsolete. Historian
Ambeth Ocampo has
suggested that the first documented use of the word to refer to Indios
Spanish language poem A la juventud filipina, published in
1879 by José Rizal.
A number of
Filipinos refer to themselves colloquially as "Pinoy"
(feminine: "Pinay"), which is a slang word formed by taking the last
four letters of "Filipino" and adding the diminutive suffix "-y". The
term, although in popular usage, is still considered by some Filipinos
as a racial slur and derogatory.
Other collective endonyms for the Filipino people include: "Patria
Adorada" (Spanish for "Beloved Fatherland") as popularized by Jose
Rizal through his poem "Mi último adiós", "Bayang Pilipino"
(Tagalog: "Filipino nation") or the more poetic "Sambayanáng
Pilipino" (a formal term in Tagalog meaning "one/entire Filipino
Main article: History of the Philippines
In 2010, a metatarsal from "Callao Man", discovered in 2007, was dated
through uranium-series dating as being 67,000 years old.
Prior to that, the earliest human remains found in the Philippines
were thought to be the fossilized fragments of a skull and jawbone,
discovered in the 1960s by Dr. Robert B. Fox, an anthropologist from
the National Museum. Anthropologists who examined these remains
agreed that they belonged to modern human beings. These include the
Homo sapiens, as distinguished from the mid-Pleistocene Homo erectus
The "Tabon Man" fossils are considered to have come from a third group
of inhabitants, who worked the cave between 22,000 and 20,000 BCE. An
earlier cave level lies so far below the level containing cooking fire
assemblages that it must represent
Upper Pleistocene dates like 45 or
50 thousand years ago. Researchers say this indicates that the
human remains were pre-Mongoloid, from about 40,000 years ago.
Mongoloid is the term which anthropologists applied to the ethnic
group which migrated to Southeast Asia during the
Holocene period and
evolved into the
Austronesian people (associated with the Haplogroup
O1 (Y-DNA) genetic marker), a group of Malayo-Polynesian-speaking
people including those from Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia,
Malagasy, the non-Chinese
Fluctuations in ancient shorelines between 150,000 BC and 17,000 BC
Malay Archipelago region with Maritime Southeast Asia
and the Philippines. This may have enabled ancient migrations into the
Maritime Southeast Asia
Maritime Southeast Asia approximately 50,000 BC to
A January 2009 study of language phylogenies by R. D. Gray at the
University of California, Los Angeles
University of California, Los Angeles published in the journal
Science, suggests that the population expansion of Austronesian
peoples was triggered by rising sea levels of the
Sunda shelf at the
end of the last ice age. This was a two-pronged expansion, which moved
north through the
Philippines and into Taiwan, while a second
expansion prong spread east along the
New Guinea coast and into
Oceania and Polynesia.
The Negritos are likely descendants of the indigenous populations of
the Sunda landmass and New Guinea, pre-dating the
who later entered Southeast Asia. Multiple studies also show that
Negritos from Southeast Asia to
New Guinea share a closer cranial
affinity with Australo-Melanesians. They were the ancestors of
such tribes of the
Philippines as the Aeta, Agta, Ayta, Ati, Dumagat
and other similar groups. Today they comprise just 0.03% of the total
The majority of present-day
Filipinos are a product of the long
process of evolution and movement of people. After the mass
migrations through land bridges, migrations continued by boat during
the maritime era of South East Asia. The ancient races became
homogenized into the Malayo-Polynesians which colonized the majority
of the Philippine, Malaysian and Indonesian archipelagos.
Archaic epoch (to 1565)
A painting of a young mother and her child which belong in Maharlika
caste and their abode which is the torogan in the background
A Tagalog couple belong in the
Maharlika caste described in the Boxer
Since at least the 3rd century, various ethnic groups established
several communities. These were formed by the assimilation of various
native Philippine kingdoms.
South Asian and
East Asian people
together with the people of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay
Peninsula, traded with
Filipinos and introduced
Hinduism and Buddhism
to the native tribes of the Philippines. Most of these people stayed
Philippines where they were slowly absorbed into local
Many of the barangay (tribal municipalities) were, to a varying
extent, under the de jure jurisprudence of one of several neighboring
empires, among them the Malay Srivijaya, Javanese Majapahit, Brunei,
Malacca, Indian Chola,
Champa and Khmer empires, although de facto had
established their own independent system of rule. Trading links with
Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Cambodia, Malay Peninsula, Indochina, China,
India and Arabia. A thalassocracy had thus emerged based on
Even scattered barangays, through the development of inter-island and
international trade, became more culturally homogeneous by the 4th
Buddhist culture and religion flourished among the
noblemen in this era.
In the period between the 7th to the beginning of the 15th centuries,
numerous prosperous centers of trade had emerged, including the
Namayan which flourished alongside
Cebu, Iloilo, Butuan, the Kingdom of
Sanfotsi situated in
Pangasinan, the Kingdom of
Luzon now known as
specialized in trade with most of what is now known as Southeast Asia,
and with China,
Japan and the
Kingdom of Ryukyu
Kingdom of Ryukyu in Okinawa.
From the 9th century onwards, a large number of
Arab traders from the
Middle East settled in the
Malay Archipelago and intermarried with the
local Malay, Bruneian, Malaysian, Indonesian, and
Luzon and Visayas
In the years leading up to 1000 AD, there were already several
maritime societies existing in the islands but there was no unifying
political state encompassing the entire Philippine archipelago.
Instead, the region was dotted by numerous semi-autonomous barangays
(settlements ranging is size from villages to city-states) under the
sovereignty of competing thalassocracies ruled by datus, rajahs or
sultans or by upland agricultural societies ruled by "petty
plutocrats". States such as the Wangdoms of
Ma-i and Pangasinan,
Kingdom of Maynila, Namayan, the Kingdom of Tondo, the Kedatuan of
Madja-as, the Rajahnates of
Cebu and the sultanates of
Maguindanao, Lanao and Sulu existed alongside the highland societies
Ifugao and Mangyan. Some of these regions were
part of the Malayan empires of Srivijaya,
Historic caste systems
Maginoo – The Tagalog maginoo, the Kapampangan ginu, and the Visayan
tumao were the nobility social class among various cultures of the
pre-colonial Philippines. Among the Visayans, the tumao were further
distinguished from the immediate royal families, the kadatuan or a
Maharlika – Members of the Tagalog warrior class known as maharlika
had the same rights and responsibilities as the timawa, but in times
of war they were bound to serve their datu in battle. They had to arm
themselves at their own expense, but they did get to keep the loot
they won – or stole, depending on which side of the transaction you
want to look at. Although they were partly related to the nobility,
the maharlikas were technically less free than the timawas because
they could not leave a datu’s service without first hosting a large
public feast and paying the datu between 6 and 18 pesos in gold – a
large sum in those days.
Timawa – The timawa class were free commoners of
Luzon and the
Visayas who could own their own land and who did not have to pay a
regular tribute to a maginoo, though they would, from time to time, be
obliged to work on a datu’s land and help in community projects and
events. They were free to change their allegiance to another datu if
they married into another community or if they decided to move.
Alipin – Today, the word alipin (or oripun in the Visayas) means
slave and that’s how the Spaniards translated it, too, but the
alipins were not really slaves in the Western sense of the word. They
were not bought and sold in markets with chains around their necks. A
better description would be to call them debtors. They could be born
alipins, inheriting their parents' debt, and their obligations could
be transferred from one master to another. However, it was also
possible for them to buy their own freedom. A person in extreme
poverty might even want to become an alipin voluntarily – preferably
to relatives who saw this as a form of assistance rather than
By the 15th century,
Arab and Indian missionaries and traders from
Islam to the Philippines, where it both
replaced and was practiced together with indigenous religions. Before
that, indigenous tribes of the
Philippines practiced a mixture of
Hinduism and Buddhism. Native villages, called barangays were
populated by locals called
Timawa (Middle Class/ freemen) and Alipin
(servants & slaves). They were ruled by Rajahs, Datus and Sultans,
a class called
Maginoo (royals) and defended by the
nobles, royal warriors and aristocrats). These Royals and Nobles
are descended from native
Filipinos with varying degrees of Indo-Aryan
and Dravidian, which is evident in today's DNA analysis among South
East Asian Royals. This tradition continued among the Spanish and
Portuguese traders who also intermarried with the local
Hispanic settlement and rule (1521–1898)
Leaders of the reform movement in Spain: left to right: José Rizal,
Marcelo H. del Pilar, and
Mariano Ponce (c. 1890)
Philippines were settled by the Spanish,
Filipinos are Asians and
Hispanic (hispanic in a cultural term not racial, because spaniards
and portuguese, hispanics or iberians, are white western europeans).
The arrival of Portuguese explorer
Ferdinand Magellan (Portuguese:
Fernão de Magalhães) in 1521 began a period of European
colonization. During the period of Spanish colonialism the Philippines
was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, which was governed and
controlled from Mexico City. Early Spanish settlers were mostly
explorers, soldiers, government officials and religious missionaries
Spain and Mexico. Most Spaniards who settled were of
Andalusian ancestry but there were also Catalan, Moorish and Basque
Peninsulares (governors born in Spain), mostly of
Castilian ancestry, settled in the islands to govern their territory.
Most settlers married the daughters of rajahs, datus and sultans to
reinforce the colonization of the islands. The Ginoo and Maharlika
castes (royals and nobles) in the
Philippines prior to the arrival of
the Spanish formed the privileged
Principalía (nobility) during the
Spanish period. In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of Japanese
traders also migrated to the
Philippines and assimilated into the
As a part of the Seven Years' War, British forces occupied Manila
between 1762 and 1764. However, the only part of the
the British held was the Spanish colonial capital of
Manila and the
principal naval port of Cavite, both of which are located on Manila
Bay. The war was ended by the Treaty of Paris (1763). At the end of
the war the treaty signatories were not aware that
Manila had been
taken by the British and was being administered as a British colony.
Consequently, no specific provision was made for the Philippines.
Instead they fell under the general provision that all other lands not
otherwise provided for be returned to the Spanish Empire. Many
Sepoy troops and their British captains mutinied and were left
Manila and some parts of the
Ilocos and Cagayan. The ones in Manila
Cainta, Rizal and the ones in the north settled in Isabela.
Most were assimilated into the local population.
The arrival of the Spaniards to the
Philippines attracted new waves of
immigrants from China, and maritime trade flourished during the
Spanish period. The Spanish recruited thousands of Chinese migrant
workers called sangleys to build the colonial infrastructure in the
islands. Many Chinese immigrants converted to Christianity,
intermarried with the locals, and adopted Hispanized names and customs
and became assimilated, although the children of unions between
Filipinos and Chinese that became assimilated continued to be
designated in official records as mestizos de sangley. The Chinese
mestizos were largely confined to the Binondo area until the 19th
century. However, they eventually spread all over the islands, and
became traders, landowners, and moneylenders.
Typical costume of a
Principalía family of the late 19th century.
Exhibit in the Villa Escudero Museum, San Pablo, Laguna, Philippines.
A total of 110 Manila-Acapulco galleons set sail between 1565 and
1815, during the
Philippines trade with Mexico. Until 1593, three or
more ships would set sail annually from each port bringing with them
the riches of the archipelago to Spain. European criollos, mestizos
and Portuguese, French and Mexican descent from the Americas, mostly
Latin America came in contact with the Filipinos. Japanese,
Indian and Cambodian Christians who fled from religious persecutions
and killing fields also settled in the
Philippines during the 17th
until the 19th centuries.
With the inauguration of the
Suez Canal in 1867,
Spain opened the
Philippines for international trade. European investors such as
British, Dutch, German, Portuguese, Russian, Italian and French were
among those who settled in the islands as business increased. More
Spaniards arrived during the next century. Many of these European
migrants intermarried with local mestizos and assimilated with the
After the defeat of
Spain during the
Spanish–American War in 1898,
Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence on 12 June
Wesley Merritt became the first American governor of the
Philippines. On 10 December 1898, the Treaty of Paris formally ended
the war, with
Spain ceding the
Philippines and other colonies to the
United States in exchange for $20 million. After the
Philippine–American War, the
United States civil governance was
established in 1901, with
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft as the first American
Governor-General. A number of Americans settled in the islands and
thousands of interracial marriages between Americans and Filipinos
have taken place since then. Due to the strategic location of the
Philippines, as many as 21 bases and 100,000 military personnel were
stationed there since the
United States first colonized the islands in
1898. These bases were decommissioned in 1992 after the end of the
Cold War, but left behind thousands of
Amerasian children. The
country gained independence from the
United States in 1946. The Pearl
S. Buck International Foundation estimates there are 52,000 Amerasians
scattered throughout the Philippines. In addition, numerous Filipino
men enlisted in the US Navy and made careers in it, often settling
with their families in the United States. Some of their second or
third generation-families returned to the country.
Following its independence, the
Philippines has seen both small and
large-scale immigration into the country, mostly involving American,
European, Chinese and Japanese peoples. After World War II, South
Asians continued to migrate into the islands, most of which
assimilated and avoided the local social stigma instilled by the early
Spaniards against them by keeping a low profile and/or by trying to
pass as Spanish mestizos. This was also true for the
Arab and Chinese
immigrants, many of whom are also post WWII arrivals. More recent
migrations into the country by Koreans, Persians, Brazilians, and
other Southeast Asians have contributed to the enrichment of the
country's ethnic landscape, language and culture. Centuries of
migration, diaspora, assimilation, and cultural diversity made most
Filipinos accepting of interracial marriage and multiculturalism.
Philippine nationality law
Philippine nationality law is currently based upon the principle of
jus sanguinis and, therefore, descent from a parent who is a citizen
of the Republic of the
Philippines is the primary method of acquiring
national citizenship. Birth in the
Philippines to foreign parents does
not in itself confer Philippine citizenship, although RA9139, the
Administrative Naturalization Law of 2000, does provide a path for
administrative naturalization of certain aliens born in the
Filipinos of mixed ethnic origins are still referred to
today as mestizos. However, in common parlance, mestizos are only used
to refer to
Filipinos mixed with Spanish or any other European
Filipinos mixed with any other foreign ethnicities are named
depending on the non-Filipino part.
Hispanized caste system
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The history of racial mixture in the
Philippines occurred on a smaller
scale than other Spanish territories in the
Latin America during the
Spanish colonial period from the 16th to the 19th century. A caste
system, like that used in the
Americas (Spanish America), existed in
the Philippines, with some major differences. The indigenous peoples
Philippines were referred to as Indios and Negritos.[citation
indigenous person of pure
indigenous person of pure
indigenous person of
Islam in faith living in the Archipelago of the
person of pure Chinese ancestry
Mestizo de Sangley/Chino
person of mixed Chinese and
Mestizo de Español
person of mixed Spanish and
person of mixed Spanish,
Austronesian and Chinese ancestry
person of pure Spanish descent born in the Philippines
person of Criollo (either pure Spanish blood, or mostly),
Native American, 3/4 Spanish) or
Mestizo (1/2 Spanish, 1/2 Native
American) descent born in Spanish America ("from the Americas")
person of pure Spanish descent born in
Spain ("from the Iberian
Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero, the only Spanish prime minister of
People classified as 'blancos' (whites) were the insulares or
"Filipinos" (a person born in the
Philippines of pure Spanish
descent), peninsulares (a person born in
Spain of pure Spanish
descent), Español mestizos (a person born in the
Philippines of mixed
Austronesian and Spanish ancestry), and tornatrás (a person born in
Philippines of mixed Austronesian, Chinese and Spanish ancestry).
Manila was racially segregated, with blancos living in the walled city
of Intramuros, un-Christianized sangleys in Parían, Christianized
sangleys and mestizos de sangley in Binondo, and the rest of the 7,000
islands for the indios, with the exception of
Cebu and several other
Spanish posts. Only mestizos de sangley were allowed to enter
Intramuros to work for whites (including mestizos de español) as
servants and various occupations needed for the colony. Indio were
native Austronesians, but as a legal classification, Indio were those
who embraced Roman Catholicism and
Austronesians who lived in
proximity to the Spanish colonies.
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon was the Philippine President during the Commonwealth
People who lived outside Manila,
Cebu and the major Spanish posts were
classified as such: 'Naturales' were Catholic
Austronesians of the
lowland and coastal towns. The un-Catholic Negritos and Austronesians
who lived in the towns were classified as 'salvajes' (savages) or
'infieles' (the unfaithful). 'Remontados' (Spanish for 'situated in
the mountains') and 'tulisanes' (bandits) were indigenous
Austronesians and Negritos who refused to live in towns and took to
the hills, all of whom were considered to live outside the social
order as Catholicism was a driving force in Spanish colonials everyday
life, as well as determining social class in the colony. People of
pure Spanish descent living in the
Philippines who were born in
Spanish America were classified as 'americanos'. Mestizos and
africanos born in Spanish America living in the
Philippines kept their
legal classification as such, and usually came as indentured servants
to the 'americanos'. The Philippine-born children of 'americanos' were
classified as 'Ins'. The Philippine-born children of mestizos and
Africanos from Spanish America were classified based on patrilineal
A mestiza de sangley woman in a photograph by Francisco Van Camp, c.
The term negrito was coined by the Spaniards based on their
appearance. The word 'negrito' would be misinterpreted and used by
future European scholars as an ethnoracial term in and of itself. Both
Christianized negritos who lived in the colony and un-Christianized
negritos who lived in tribes outside the colony were classified as
'negritos'. Christianized negritos who lived in
Manila were not
allowed to enter
Intramuros and lived in areas designated for indios.
A person of mixed
Austronesian ancestry were classified
based on patrilineal descent; the father's ancestry determined a
child's legal classification. If the father was 'negrito' and the
mother was 'India' (Austronesian), the child was classified as
'negrito'. If the father was 'indio' and the mother was 'negrita', the
child was classified as 'indio'. Persons of
Negrito descent were
viewed as being outside the social order as they usually lived in
tribes outside the colony and resisted conversion to Christianity.
This legal system of racial classification based on patrilineal
descent had no parallel anywhere in the Spanish-ruled colonies in the
Americas. In general, a son born of a sangley male and an indio or
mestizo de sangley female was classified as mestizo de sangley; all
subsequent male descendants were mestizos de sangley regardless of
whether they married an
India or a mestiza de sangley. A daughter born
in such a manner, however, acquired the legal classification of her
husband, i.e., she became an
India if she married an indio but
remained a mestiza de sangley if she married a mestizo de sangley or a
sangley. In this way, a chino mestizo male descendant of a paternal
sangley ancestor never lost his legal status as a mestizo de sangley
no matter how little percentage of Chinese blood he had in his veins
or how many generations had passed since his first Chinese ancestor;
he was thus a mestizo de sangley in perpetuity.
However, a 'mestiza de sangley' who married a blanco ('Filipino',
'mestizo de español', 'peninsular', or 'americano') kept her status
as 'mestiza de sangley'. But her children were classified as
tornatrás. An 'India' who married a blanco also kept her status as
India, but her children were classified as mestizo de español.
A mestiza de español who married another blanco would keep her status
as mestiza, But her status will never change from mestiza de español
if she married a mestizo de español, Filipino, or peninsular.
On the contrast, a mestizo (de sangley or español) man's status
stayed the same regardless of whom he married. If a mestizo (de
sangley or español) married a filipina (woman of pure Spanish
descent), she would lose her status as a 'filipina' and would acquire
the legal status of her husband and become a mestiza de español or
sangley. If a 'filipina' married an 'indio', her legal status would
change to 'India', despite being of pure Spanish descent.
The social stratification system based on class that continues to this
day in the
Philippines has its beginnings in the Spanish colonial area
with this caste system.
The Spanish colonizers reserved the term Filipino to refer to
Spaniards born in the Philippines. The use of the term was later
extended to include Spanish and Chinese mestizos, or those born of
mixed Chinese-indio or Spanish-indio descent. Late in the 19th
Jose Rizal popularized the use of the term Filipino to refer
to all those born in the Philippines, including the Indios. When
ordered to sign the notification of his death sentence, which
described him as a Chinese mestizo, Rizal refused. He went to his
death saying that he was indio puro.
The Spanish caste system based on race was abolished after the
Philippines' independence from
Spain in 1898, and the word 'Filipino'
expanded to include the entire population of the Philippines
regardless of racial ancestry.[clarification needed]
Origins and genetic studies
Migration of the
Austronesian peoples and their languages based on
See also: Models of migration to the Philippines, Demographics of the
Philippines, and Ethnic groups in the Philippines
The majority of
Filipinos are Austronesians, a linguistic and genetic
group that includes other ethnicities from maritime Southeast Asia,
Madagascar, and the Pacific islands. The current predominant
Austronesian expansion holds that
Austronesians settled the
Philippine islands through successive southward and eastward seaborne
migrations from the
Austronesian populations of Taiwan.
Other hypotheses have also been put forward based on linguistic,
archeological, and genetic studies. These include an origin from
China (linking them to the
Liangzhu culture and the
Tapengkeng culture, later displaced or assimilated by the expansion of
Sino-Tibetan peoples); an in situ origin from the Sundaland
continental shelf prior to the sea level rise at the end of the last
glacial period (c. 10,000 BC); or a combination of the two
Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network hypothesis)
which advocates cultural diffusion rather than a series of linear
The most frequently occurring Y-DNA haplogroups among modern Filipinos
are haplogroup O1a-M119, which has been found with maximal frequency
among the indigenous peoples of Nias, the Mentawai Islands, and
Taiwan, and Haplogroup O2-M122, which is found with high frequency in
many populations of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Polynesia. In
particular, the type of O2-M122 that is found frequently in Filipinos,
O-P164(xM134), is also found frequently in other Austronesian
populations. Haplogroup O1a-M119 is also commonly found among
Filipinos and is shared with other Austronesian-speaking populations,
especially those in Taiwan, western Indonesia, and Madagascar.
After the 16th century, the colonial period saw the influx of genetic
influence from other populations. This is evidenced by the presence of
Haplogroup R1b which is present among the population of the
Main articles: Languages of the
Philippines and Philippine languages
The indigenous, native
Philippine languages spoken around the country
that have the largest number of speakers in a particular region with
Tagalog being the largest. Note that on regions marked with black
diamonds, the language with the most number of speakers denotes a
minority of the population.
Universidad de Sta. Isabel, founded in 1867 through the royal order of
Queen Isabella II of Spain
Austronesian languages have been spoken in the
thousands of years. According to a 2014 study by Mark Donohue of the
Australian National University and Tim Denham of Monash University,
there is no linguistic evidence for an orderly north-to-south
dispersal of the
Austronesian languages from
Taiwan through the
Philippines and into Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). Many adopted
Sanskrit were incorporated during the strong wave of Indian
(Hindu-Buddhist) cultural influence starting from the 5th century BC,
in common with its Southeast Asian neighbours. Starting in the second
half of the 16th century, Spanish was the official language of the
country for the more than three centuries that the islands were
Mexico City on behalf of the Spanish Empire. In the
19th and early 20th centuries, Spanish was the preferred language
Ilustrados and educated
Filipinos in general. Significant
agreements exist, however, on the extent Spanish use beyond that. It
has been argued that the
Philippines were less hispanized than
Canaries and America, with Spanish only being adopted by the ruling
class involved in civil and judicial administration and culture.
Spanish was the language of only approximately ten percent of the
Philippine population when Spanish rule ended in 1898. As a lingua
franca or creole language of Filipinos, major languages of the country
like Chavacano, Cebuano, Tagalog, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Bicolano,
Hiligaynon, and Ilocano assimilated many different words and
expressions from Castilian Spanish.
Chavacano is the only Spanish-based creole language in Asia. Its
vocabulary is 90 percent Spanish, and the remaining 10 percent is a
mixture of predominantly Portuguese,
Nahuatl (Mexican Indian),
Hiligaynon, and some English.
Chavacano is considered by the Instituto
Cervantes to be a Spanish-based language.[not in citation given]
In sharp contrast, another view is that the ratio of the population
which spoke Spanish as their mother tongue in the last decade of
Spanish rule was 10% or 14%. An additional 60% is said to have
spoken Spanish as a second language until World War II, but this is
also disputed as to whether this percentage spoke "kitchen Spanish,"
which was used as marketplace lingua compared to those who were actual
fluent Spanish speakers.
In 1863 a Spanish decree introduced universal education, creating free
public schooling in Spanish, yet it was never implemented, even before
the advent of American annexation. It was also the language of the
Philippine Revolution, and the 1899
Malolos Constitution proclaimed it
as the "official language" of the First Philippine Republic, albeit a
temporary official language. Spanish continued to be the predominant
lingua franca used in the islands by the elite class before and during
the American colonial regime. Following the American occupation of the
Philippines and the imposition of English, the overall use of Spanish
declined gradually, especially after the 1940s.
According to Ethnologue, there are about 180 languages spoken in the
Philippines. The 1987 Constitution of the
Filipino as the national language and designates, along with
English, as one of the official languages. Regional languages are
designated as auxiliary official languages. The constitution also
provides that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and
Philippine languages in the country with at least 1,000,000
native and indigenous speakers include Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon,
Waray, Central Bikol, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Chavacano
(Spanish-based creole), Albay Bikol, Maranao, Maguindanao, Kinaray-a,
Tausug, Surigaonon, Masbateño, Aklanon and Ibanag. The 28-letter
modern Filipino alphabet, adopted in 1987, is the official writing
system. Also, language of each ethnicity has also their own writing
scripts, which are no longer used and set of alphabets.
Main article: Religion in the Philippines
Devotees flock to the
Basilica Minore del Santo Niño
Basilica Minore del Santo Niño during the
Devotees inside the Bascilica del Santo Niño in
As of 2010[update], over 90% of the population were Christians, with
over 80% professing Roman Catholicism. The latter was introduced
by the Spanish beginning in 1565, and during their 300-year
colonization of the islands, they managed to convert a vast majority
of Filipinos, resulting in the
Philippines becoming the largest
Catholic country in Asia. There are also large groups of Protestant
denominations, which either grew or were founded following the
disestablishment of the
Catholic Church during the American Colonial
Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo is currently the single largest
indigenous church, followed by
United Church of Christ
United Church of Christ in the
Iglesia Filipina Independiente
Iglesia Filipina Independiente (also known as the
Aglipayan Church) was an earlier development, and is a national church
directly resulting from the 1898 Philippine Revolution. Other
Christian groups such as the Victory Church, Jesus Miracle
Crusade, Mormonism, Orthodoxy, and the
Jehovah's Witnesses have a
visible presence in the country. Other native inhabitants follow
Islam, forming a large minority.
Islam in the
Philippines is mostly
concentrated in southwestern
Mindanao and the
Sulu Archipelago which,
though part of the Philippines, are very close to the neighboring
Islamic countries of
Malaysia and Indonesia. The Muslims call
themselves Moros, a Spanish word that refers to the
Moors (albeit the
two groups have little cultural connection other than Islam).
Filipinos held animistic beliefs that were
Hinduism and Buddhism, which were brought by traders
from neighbouring Asian states. Indigenous groups like the
Lumad tribes still observe traditional
religious practises, often alongside
Christianity or Islam.
As of 2013[update], religious groups together constituting less than
five percent of the population included Sikhism, Hinduism, Buddhism,
Seventh-day Adventists, United Church of Christ, United Methodists,
the Episcopal Church in the Philippines, Assemblies of God, The Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), and Philippine
(Southern) Baptists; and the following domestically established
Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ), Philippine Independent
Church (Aglipayan), Members Church of God International, and The
Kingdom of Jesus Christ, the Name Above Every Name. In addition, there
are Lumad, who are indigenous peoples of various animistic and
Main article: Overseas Filipinos
Filipino migrant workers in Victoria Park in Hong Kong
There are currently more than 10 million
Filipinos who live overseas.
Filipinos form a minority ethnic group in the Americas, Europe,
Oceania, the Middle East, and other regions in the world.
There are an estimated 3.4 million Americans of Filipino ancestry in
the United States, and more than 300,000 American citizens in the
Philippines. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, immigrants from
Philippines made up the second largest group after Mexico that
sought family reunification.
Filipinos make up about half of the entire population of the Northern
Marianas Islands, an American territory in the North Pacific Ocean,
and a large proportion of the populations of Guam, Palau, the British
Indian Ocean Territory, and Sabah.
Demographics of the Philippines
Ethnic groups in the Philippines
Philippine nationality law
List of rulers of the Philippines
List of Filipino athletes
List of Filipino actors
List of Filipino actresses
List of Filipino writers
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Turkey quake - DFA". GMA News. 3 August
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Sex; 2010" (PDF). 2015 Philippine Statistical Yearbook. East Avenue,
Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority:
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Pinoy and Flip are Racial Slurs", Published
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67000-year-old human bone in Philippines". The Daily Telegraph.
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Filipino Nation". Wilhelm G. Solheim II Foundation for Philippine
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Archaeology. Taylor & Francis. 38 (1): 109–132.
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Estadistico, Historico-Religioso de la Santa y Apostolica Provincia de
San Gregorio Magno. Binondo: Imprenta de M. Sanchez y Compañia.
^ Remains of ancient barangays in many parts of
Iloilo testify to the
antiquity and richness of these pre-colonial settlements. Pre-Hispanic
burial grounds are found in many towns of Iloilo. These burial grounds
contained antique porcelain burial jars and coffins made of hard wood,
where the dead were put to rest with abundance of gold, crystal beads,
Chinese potteries, and golden masks. These Philippine national
treasures are sheltered in Museo de
Iloilo and in the collections of
many Ilongo old families. Early Spanish colonizers took note of the
ancient civilizations in
Iloilo and their organized social structure
ruled by nobilities. In the late 16th century, Fray Gaspar de San
Agustin in his chronicles about the ancient settlements in Panay says:
"También fundó convento el Padre Fray Martin de Rada en Araut- que
ahora se llama el convento de Dumangas- con la advocación de nuestro
Padre San Agustín ... Está fundado este pueblo casi a los fines
del río de Halaur, que naciendo en unos altos montes en el centro de
esta isla (Panay) ... Es el pueblo muy hermoso, ameno y muy lleno
de palmares de cocos. Antiguamente era el emporio y corte de la más
lucida nobleza de toda aquella isla." Gaspar de San Agustin, O.S.A.,
Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565–1615), Manuel Merino,
O.S.A., ed., Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas: Madrid
1975, pp. 374–375.
Arab and native intermarriage in
Austronesian Asia". ColorQ World.
Retrieved 24 December 2008.
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Precolonial Philippines" (Published by Rex Bookstore; Manila, Sampaloc
St. Year 2004)
^ The Kingdom of
Namayan and Maytime Fiesta in Sta. Ana of new Manila,
Traveler On Foot self-published l journal.
^ Volume 5 of A study of the Eastern and Western Oceans (Japanese:
東西洋考) mentions that
Luzon first sent tribute to Yongle Emperor
^ "Akeanon Online – Aton Guid Ra! – Aklan History Part 3 –
Confederation of Madyaas". Akeanon.com. 2008-03-27. Retrieved 2
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Mangyan Heritage Center (archived from the original on 2008-02-13)
^ Tarling, Nicholas (1999). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 149.
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International Publishing Group. pp. 52–3.
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Manila Ransomed: The British Assault on
Manila in the Seven Years War. University of Exeter Press.
p. 109. ISBN 978-0-85989-426-5.
ISBN 0-85989-426-6, ISBN 978-0-85989-426-5.
^ Article 3 of the treaty specifically associated the $20 million
payment with the transfer of the Philippines.
^ "American Conquest of the
Philippines – War and Consequences:
Benevolent Assimilation and the 1899 PhilAm War". oovrag.com.
Retrieved 3 February 2014.
Philippines – A History of Resistance and Assimilation".
voices.cla.umn.edu. Archived from the original on 2006-02-08.
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History. Routledge. p. 275. ISBN 978-1-135-01878-8.
^ Delmendo, Sharon (2005). The Star-entangled Banner: One Hundred
Years of America in the Philippines. UP Press. p. 28.
^ Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza; Alberto Piazza; Paolo Menozzi; Joanna
Mountain (1988). "Reconstruction of human evolution: Bringing together
genetic, archaeological, and linguistic data" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad.
Sci. U.S.A. 85 (16): 6002–6006. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.16.6002.
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^ Stephen J. Marshall, Adele L. H. Whyte, J. Frances Hamilton, and
Geoffrey K. Chambers1 (2005). "
Austronesian prehistory and Polynesian
genetics: A molecular view of human migration across the Pacific"
New Zealand Science Review.
New Zealand Association of
Scientists. 62 (3): 75–80. ISSN 0028-8667. Archived from the
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^ Albert Min-Shan Ko; Chung-Yu Chen; Qiaomei Fu; Frederick Delfin;
Mingkun Li; Hung-Lin Chiu; Mark Stoneking; Ying-Chin Ko (2014). "Early
Austronesians: Into and Out Of Taiwan". American Journal of Human
Genetics. 94 (3): 426–436. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.02.003.
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^ Chuan-Kun Ho (2002). "Rethinking the Origins of Taiwan
Austronesians" (PDF). Proceedings of the International Symposium of
Anthropological Studies at Fudan University: 17–19. Archived from
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Southeast Asia". Chicago Journals. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
^ "New DNA evidence overturns population migration theory in Island
Southeast Asia". Phys.org. 23 May 2008. Retrieved 3 February
^ Wilhelm G. Solheim II (2002). "The Pre-Sa Huynh-Kalanay Pottery of
Taiwan and Southeast Asia". Hukay. 13: 39–66.
^ Jean A Trejaut, Estella S Poloni, Ju-Chen Yen, Ying-Hui Lai, Jun-Hun
Loo, Chien-Liang Lee, Chun-Lin He, and Marie Lin, "Taiwan
Y-chromosomal DNA variation and its relationship with Island Southeast
Asia." BMC Genetics (2014) 15:77.
^ Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hallmark, Brian; Cox, Murray P.; et al. (2010).
"Major East–West Division Underlies Y Chromosome Stratification
across Indonesia". Mol. Biol. Evol. 27 (8): 1833–1844.
doi:10.1093/molbev/msq063. PMID 20207712.
^ Capelli, Cristian; James F. Wilson, Martin Richards, Michael P. H.
Stumpf, Fiona Gratrix, Stephen Oppenheimer, Peter Underhill, Vincenzo
L. Pascali, Tsang-Ming Ko, David B. Goldstein1 (2001). "A
Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the
Austronesian-speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania"
(PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (2): 432–443.
doi:10.1086/318205. PMC 1235276 . PMID 11170891. Archived
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2007. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ Chang JG, Ko YC, Lee JC, Chang SJ, Liu TC, Shih MC, Peng CT (2002).
"Molecular analysis of mutations and polymorphisms of the Lewis
secretor type alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene reveals that
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^ Penny & Penny 2002, pp. 29–30
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español en Filipinas". Retrieved 2 May 2010. "Los censos
norteamericanos de 1903 y 1905, dicen de soslayo que los
Hispano-hablantes de este archipiélago nunca han rebasado, en su
número, a más del diez por ciento (10%) de la población durante la
última década de los mil ochocientos (1800s). Esto quiere decir que
900,000 Filipinos, el diez porciento de los dados nueve millones
citados por el Fray Manuel Arellano Remondo, tenían al idioma
español como su primera y única lengua." (Emphasis added.) The same
author writes: "Por otro lado, unos recientes estudios por el Dr.
Rafael Rodríguez Ponga señalan, sin embargo, que los
habla española, al liquidarse la presencia peninsular en este
archipiélago, llegaban al catorce (14%) por ciento de la población
de la década 1891–1900. Es decir, el 14% de una población de nueve
millones (9,000,000), que serían un millón (1,260,000) y dos cientos
sesenta mil de
Filipinos que eran primordialmente de habla hispana.
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del uso oficial del idioma español en Filipinas. Retrieved 8 July
Philippines - EDUCATION".
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communities: intersections and divergences. Temple University Press.
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Sex; 2010" (PDF). 2015 Philippine Statistical Yearbook. East Avenue,
Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority:
1–30. October 2015. ISSN 0118-1564. Retrieved 15 August
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East Asian and Pacific
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