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Field marshal
Field marshal
(or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the highest rank in an army, and when it is, few (if any) persons are appointed to it. It is considered as a five-star rank (OF-10) in modern-day armed forces in many countries. Promotion to the rank of field marshal in many countries historically required extraordinary military achievement by a general (a wartime victory). However, the rank has also been used as a divisional command rank and also as a brigade command rank. Examples of the different uses of the rank include Austria-Hungary, Prussia
Prussia
and Germany
Germany
for an extraordinary achievement; Spain and Mexico
Mexico
for a divisional command (Spanish: mariscal de campo); and France, Portugal
Portugal
and Brazil
Brazil
for a brigade command (French: maréchal de camp, Portuguese: marechal de campo). The origin of the term dates to the early Middle Ages, originally meaning the keeper of the king's horses (from Old German
Old German
Marh-scalc = "horse-servant"), from the time of the early Frankish kings. The exact wording of the titles used by field marshals varies: examples include "marshal" and "field marshal general". The air force equivalent in Commonwealth and many Middle Eastern air forces is marshal of the air force (not to be confused with air marshal). Navies, which usually do not use the nomenclature employed by armies or air forces, use titles such as "fleet admiral," "grand admiral" or "admiral of the fleet" for the equivalent rank. The traditional attribute distinguishing a field marshal is a baton. The baton nowadays is purely ornamental, and as such may be richly decorated. That said, it is not necessary for the insignia to be a baton (Such is the case in Russia post-1991 and the former Soviet Union, which use a jewelled star referred to as a Marshal's Star).

Contents

1 Regional examples

1.1 Afghanistan 1.2 Australia 1.3 Brazil 1.4 China 1.5 Egypt 1.6 Finland 1.7 France 1.8 Germany 1.9 Greece 1.10 India 1.11 Libya 1.12 Pakistan 1.13 Philippines 1.14 Portugal 1.15 Serbia 1.16 Sri Lanka 1.17 Thailand 1.18 Turkey 1.19 Uganda 1.20 United Kingdom 1.21 United States

2 Other nations 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References

Regional examples[edit] Afghanistan[edit]

Afghan National Army (ANA) insignia

Field Marshal
Marshal
Mohammad Qasim Fahim was a politician in Afghanistan who served as Vice President from June 2002 until December 2004 and from November 2009 until his death. Between September 2001 and December 2004, he also served as Defense Minister under the Afghan Transitional Administration. Australia[edit] Main article: Field marshal
Field marshal
(Australia) The first appointment to the rank was Sir William Birdwood, who received the honour in March 1925. Sir Thomas Blamey
Thomas Blamey
was the second appointment to the rank, and was the first and so far only Australian-born field marshal. He was promoted to the rank on the insistence of the Australian prime minister, Sir Robert Menzies, in June 1950. His field marshal's baton is on display in the Second World War galleries at the Australian War Memorial
Australian War Memorial
in Canberra. The third appointment, and the only living Australian field marshal, is HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who was promoted to the rank on 1 April 1954. Brazil[edit] Main article: Marshal
Marshal
(Brazil) When Brazil
Brazil
became independent from Portugal
Portugal
in 1822, the Portuguese system of ranks was maintained by the Brazilian Army, including the rank of marechal de campo. In the second half of the 19th century, the rank of marechal de campo was replaced, both in Portugal
Portugal
and Brazil, by the rank of general de brigada (brigade general). This last rank still exists today in the Brazilian Army, but corresponds to the present rank of major-general (major-general) in the Portuguese Army. Today, the Rank of Marechal is the maximum rank available but only awarded during wartime. The Brazilian Air Force
Brazilian Air Force
has the similar rank of Air Marshal. China[edit] During Imperial rule in China, different dynasties gave different titles to generals. A very similar title is "司馬" (sima) in the Eastern Han dynasty, which literally means "master of horse", and later became a two-character surname too. "司馬" is one of the Three Excellencies in Eastern Han, who is in charge of the country's military affairs. Later, a more common title for a field marshal or a commandant was (元帥 Yuan Shuai) or grand field marshal (大元帥 da yuan shuai). One of the most famous of these generals was Yue Fei from the Song Dynasty. Since the People's Republic of China was established in 1949, it has promoted 10 military commanders to the rank of marshal, all in 1955 and abolished in 1965. Since then, the rank has remained defunct. Egypt[edit] Main article: Mushir (Egypt) The Republic of Egypt has had 8 field marshals. Currently there are two living field marshals; ex military chief Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. Previous field marshals are Abdel Hakim Amer, Mohamed Abdel Ghani el-Gamasy, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Ahmed Badawi, Mohammed Aly Fahmy and Abd al-Halim Abu Ghazala. Finland[edit] Main article: Field marshal
Field marshal
(Finland) Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
was promoted to Field Marshal
Marshal
in 1933. In 1942 he was promoted to Marshal
Marshal
of Finland, which really is not a distinctive military rank but an honour. France[edit] Main article: Maréchal de camp In the French army of the Ancien Régime, the normal brigade command rank was field marshal (maréchal de camp). In 1793, during the French Revolution, the rank of field marshal was replaced by the rank of brigade general. The rank insignia of field marshal was two stars (one-star being used for a senior colonel rank). The French field marshal rank was below lieutenant-general, which in 1793 became divisional-general. In the title maréchal de camp and the English "field marshal", there is an etymological confusion in the French camp between the English words "camp" and "field". The French rank of field marshal should not be confused with the rank of Marshal
Marshal
of France, which has been the highest rank of the French Army
French Army
since the higher dignity of Marshal
Marshal
General of France was abolished in 1848 (although in theory it is not an actual rank but a "state dignity"). Germany[edit]

Generalfeldmarschall

Main article: Generalfeldmarschall Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
(general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal /  listen (help·info), abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was the most senior general officer rank in the armies of several German states. In the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used. Greece[edit] Stratarches (Greek: στρατάρχης, pl. στρατάρχαι (archaic) or στρατάρχες (modern)), means ruler of the army in Greek, and is a title associated with successful generals. In modern Greek usage, it corresponds to the rank of Field Marshal. India[edit]

Indian insignia

Main article: Field marshal
Field marshal
(India) Field marshal
Field marshal
is the highest attainable rank in the Indian Army. It is a ceremonial / war time rank. There have been two Indian field marshals to date: Sam Manekshaw, the 8th chief of staff of the Indian Army in 1969, and Kodandera Madappa Cariappa in 1986. [1] Libya[edit] Khalifa Haftar
Khalifa Haftar
was the first to receive this rank in Libya
Libya
from the House of Representatives (Libya)
House of Representatives (Libya)
in 2016 after the liberation of oil ports in the Operation Swift Lightning.[2] Pakistan[edit]

Pakistani insignia

Muhammad Ayub Khan
Muhammad Ayub Khan
is the only field marshal in the history of Pakistan. He appointed himself when he was the second president of Pakistan and commander in chief of the army. Philippines[edit] Main article: Field marshal
Field marshal
(Philippines) US Army General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
was the first and only field marshal in the history of the Philippine Army, a position he held while also acting as the Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines with a rank of major general. President Quezon conferred the rank of field marshal on 24 August 1936 and MacArthur's duty included the supervision of the creation of the Philippines nation-state. Portugal[edit] Main article: List of Marshals of Portugal In the Portuguese Army, the rank of marechal de campo was created in 1762, as the most junior general officer rank. Hierarchically, it was between the rank of tenente-general (lieutenant-general) and the rank of brigadeiro (brigadier), this last one not being considered a general rank, but a kind of senior colonel. In Portugal, the ranks of marechal-general (marshal-general) and marechal do Exército (marechal of the Army) or simply marechal also existed. Distinctively from the rank of marechal de campo, the ranks of marechal-general and marechal were the highest in the Portuguese Army, usually being reserved for the commanders-in-chief of the Army. Latter, the rank of marechal-general became reserved for the Monarch, as a mere honorary dignity. Serbia[edit]

Serbian voivode

Main articles: Field marshal (Serbia and Yugoslavia)
Field marshal (Serbia and Yugoslavia)
and Voivode In Serbian, field marshal can be translated as vojvoda (Serbian: Бојни Војвода). It was the highest rank in the army of the Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
and Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
until the Second World War. It was created with the passing of the law on the Organization of the Army of the Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
in 1901. The law was passed on the suggestion of Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel
Colonel
(later Divisional General) Miloš Vasić who was minister of defense at the time. The rank was awarded only during the war for particular military contributions of top generals. In the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
and World War I this title was used to designate the highest military rank in the Serbian Army (above general – the equalent of field marshal in other armies). The first vojvoda was promoted by a great military decree of the Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
on 20 October 1912. Only four people ever officially held that military rank: Radomir Putnik
Radomir Putnik
(attained the rank in 1912), Stepa Stepanović (1914), Živojin Mišić (1914) and Petar Bojović
Petar Bojović
(1918). The Montenegrin General Janko Vukotić
Janko Vukotić
(1915) and the French General Louis Franchet d'Espérey (1921) held the rank as an honorary title. During the World War I for a time, general Petar Bojović
Petar Bojović
held the position of Chief of Staff of the Supreme Command (the highest military position in the Serbian Army) and was a superior to two army commanders who were field marshals ( Stepa Stepanović
Stepa Stepanović
and Živojin Mišić). Before this rank was introduced, the highest rank in the Kingdom of Serbia was army general. After Second World War, the newly formed Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
stopped using the royal ranking system, so this rank ceased to exist. Sri Lanka[edit]

Sri Lankan ෆීල්ඩ් මාර්ෂල්

Main article: Field marshal
Field marshal
(Sri Lanka) Field Marshal
Marshal
is the highest rank in the Sri Lanka Army. It is a ceremonial rank. Sarath Fonseka
Sarath Fonseka
is the first and, to date, only Sri Lankan officer to hold the rank. He was promoted to the position on 22 March 2015.[3] Thailand[edit]

Thai Chom Phon
Chom Phon
(จอมพล)

Main articles: Field marshal (Thailand)
Field marshal (Thailand)
and Chom Phon In the Royal Thai Army
Royal Thai Army
the rank of Chom Phon
Chom Phon
(Thai: จอมพล, จอมพลทหารบก) was created in 1888, together with all other military ranks along western lines, by King Chulalongkorn. Until the first appointment in 1910, the rank was reserved solely for the reigning monarch. Currently the rank is in abeyance. Turkey[edit] Main article: Mareşal (Turkey) In the Turkish Armed Forces, the corresponding rank is mareşal. Its origins can be traced to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and to the military of Persia, where it was called "مشير" (müşir)[4] and bestowed upon senior commanders upon order of the ruling sultan. The rank of mareşal can only be bestowed by the National Assembly, and only given to a general who leads an army, navy or air force successfully in three battles or at various front lines at the same time, gaining a victory over the enemy. Only two persons have been bestowed the rank: Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey, and his Chief of Staff Fevzi Çakmak, both for their successes in the Turkish War of Independence. Uganda[edit] Main article: Field marshal
Field marshal
(Uganda) Field Marshal
Marshal
Idi Amin Dada
Idi Amin Dada
was the military dictator and third president of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. Amin joined the British colonial regiment, the King's African Rifles in 1946, serving in Somalia and Kenya. Eventually, Amin held the rank of major general in the post-colonial Ugandan Army and became its commander before seizing power in the military coup of January 1971, deposing Milton Obote. He later promoted himself to field marshal while he was the head of state. United Kingdom[edit]

United Kingdom insignia

Main article: Field marshal
Field marshal
(United Kingdom) Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, held the rank of a field marshal, or equivalent rank, in eight armies. Nine of his field marshal batons are on display in Apsley House
Apsley House
(see Batons of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington). United States[edit] The United States has never used the rank of field marshal; however, General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
was field marshal of the Philippine Army from 24 August 1936, until 31 December 1937. On 14 December 1944, Congress created the rank of "general of the army", a five-star rank equivalent to that of field marshal in other countries. Two days later, George Marshall
George Marshall
was promoted to this rank, becoming the first five-star general in American history. A Washington columnist suggested (with tongue in cheek) that Marshall disliked the plan because five stars was the rank of field marshal and the Chief of Staff could then be addressed as " Marshal
Marshal
Marshall."[5] Other nations[edit]

Replica of the marshal's baton of Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
von Richthofen

Feldmarschall (Austro-Hungarian monarchy) Stožerni general
Stožerni general
(Croatia) Marshal
Marshal
of Italy Rav- Aluf (Israel) Wonsu
Wonsu
(DPRK, ROK) Fil Marsyal (Malaysia) Field marshal
Field marshal
(New Zealand) Marshal
Marshal
of Peru Marshal
Marshal
of Poland Mareşal (Romania) General field marshal (Imperial Russia) Marshal
Marshal
of the Russian Federation Marshal
Marshal
of the Soviet Union Fältmarskalk (Sweden) Chom phon
Chom phon
(Thailand)

See also[edit]

Admiralissimo Generalissimo Grand marshal List of field marshals List of German field marshals General of the Army Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy General of the Air Force

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Field marshals.

^ "Did You Know That Only 3 People Have Been Given The Highest Ranks In The Indian Armed Forces?".  ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-27492354 ^ http://www.news.lk/news/sri-lanka/item/6744-sarath-fonseka-promoted-sri-lanka-s-first-ever-field-marshal ^ "Great Turkish Dictionary". Turkish Language Association. Retrieved 1 August 2009. [permanent dead link] ^ "Eisenhower Memorial Commission – The Story Behind Ike's Fifth Star". Eisenhowermemorial.org. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 

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Star officer grades

General officer Flag officer Air officer

By star ranks

Six-star rank
Six-star rank
(proposed) Five-star rank Four-star rank Three-star rank Two-star rank One-star rank

By titles

Generalissimo Generalissimus of the Soviet Union Supreme Allied Commander Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy General of the Armies Generalfeldmarschall Field marshal Mareşal Marshal
Marshal
of the air force Marshal
Marshal
of the Russian Federation Marshal
Marshal
of the Soviet Union Mushir Caudillo Magister militum Spahbed Ispahsalar Beylerbey Constable of France Grand Domestic Dux bellorum Grand marshal Hetman Jenderal besar Reichsmarschall Sardar Serasker Strategos autokrator First marshal of the empire Dai-gensui Taewonsu Voivoda Wonsu Yuan Shuai Da yuan shuai Mar

.