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Ulmus minor
Ulmus minor
Mill., the field elm, is by far the most polymorphic of the European species, although its taxonomy remains a matter of contention. Its natural range is predominantly south European, extending to Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and Iran; its northern outposts are the Baltic islands of Öland
Öland
and Gotland,[1] although it may have been introduced here by man. The tree's typical habitat is low-lying forest along the main rivers, growing in association with oak and ash, where it tolerates summer floods as well as droughts.[2] Current treatment of the species owes much to Richens,[3] who noted (1983) that several varieties of field elm are distinguishable on the European mainland. Of these, he listed the small-leaved U. minor of France and Spain; the narrow-leaved U. minor of northern and central Italy; the densely hairy leaved U. minor of southern Italy
Italy
and Greece; the U. minor with small-toothed leaves from the Balkans; the U. minor with large-toothed leaves from the Danube region; and the small-leaved U. minor from southern Russia and Ukraine.[4] As for British varieties, "the continental populations most closely related [to eastern English Field Elm] are in central Europe", while south-western forms were introduced from France.[5] He concluded, however, that owing to incomplete field-research at the time of writing, it was "not possible to present an overall breakdown of the European Field Elm into regional varieties".[6] Richens sank a number of British elms, notably English elm, as either subspecies or varieties of U. minor in 1968. However, Melville,[7] writing ten years later, identified five distinct species (including U. glabra
U. glabra
in the count), several varieties and numerous complex hybrids. In 1992 Armstrong[8] identified no fewer than forty British species and microspecies. Clive Stace (1997) wrote of the British elms "The two-species (glabra and minor) concept of Richens is not sufficiently discriminating to be of taxonomic value". Nevertheless, it is Richens’ classification which has been the most commonly adopted in recent years, although it is not used in Flora Europaea [14].[9] In 2009 Dr Max Coleman of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh
Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh
wrote: "The advent of DNA fingerprinting has shed considerable light on the question. A number of studies have now shown that the distinctive forms Melville elevated to species and Richens lumped together as field elm are single clones, all genetically identical, which have been propagated by vegetative means such as cuttings or root suckers. This means that enigmatic British elms such as Plot elm and English elm have been shown to be single clones of field elm. Although Richens did not have the evidence to prove it, he was correct in recognising a series of clones and grouping them together as a variable species."[10] It is hoped that analysis of molecular markers will ultimately eliminate the taxonomic confusion.

Contents

1 Description 2 Pests and diseases 3 Cultivation 4 Notable trees 5 Subspecies, varieties, and former species sunk as U. minor

5.1 England 5.2 Eurasia

6 Cultivars 7 Hybrids 8 Hybrid cultivars 9 In art 10 Accessions

10.1 North America 10.2 Europe 10.3 Australasia

11 Nurseries

11.1 North America 11.2 Europe

12 References 13 External links

Description[edit] The tree typically grows to < 30 m (98 ft) and bears a rounded crown.[11] The bark of the trunk is rough, furrowed lightly in older trees to form a block pattern. Young branchlets occasionally have corky wings. The shoots are slender compared with those of wych elm. The leaves are smaller than those of the other European species, hence the specific epithet minor, however they can vary greatly according to the maturity of the tree. Leaves on juvenile growth (suckers, seedlings etc.) are coarse and pubescent, whereas those on mature growth are generally smooth, though remaining highly variable in form; there are generally fewer than 12 pairs of side veins. A common characteristic is the presence of minute black glands along the leaf veins, detectable with the aid of a magnifying glass.[2] The samarae are typically ovate and notched, the notch extending to the central seed. The species readily produces suckers from roots and stumps, even after devastation by Dutch elm disease; consequently genetic resources are not considered endangered [15].

U. minor flower

U. minor samarae - MHNT

U. minor seedlings

U. minor foliage

Leaf and 1 Euro coin

Root-suckers spreading around a field elm

Bark of Stapleford elm, UK

Bark of U. minor, Bulgaria

Bark of Mepal elm, UK

Pests and diseases[edit] The species has a hugely variable reaction to Dutch elm disease, including all the fashionable pre-20th century plantsman's clones (see Subspecies and varieties). However, field elm is genetically highly variable; Italian specimens when inoculated with the pathogen displayed between 15 and 100% dieback and between 70 and 100% wilting, whereas with trees tested in Spain, the variability ranged from 5 to 100% dieback, and 20 to 95% wilting.[12] In 2013 researchers at the Universidad Politėcnica de Madrid
Universidad Politėcnica de Madrid
announced the discovery and cloning of trees in Spain with levels of resistance greater than 'Sapporo Autumn Gold'[13] (see Cultivation). Tolerance of elm yellows (phloem necrosis) is generally good, U. minor exhibiting symptoms such as the 'witch's broom' only sporadically throughout Italy, including Sicily
Sicily
and Sardinia, however the disease was often locally common within the species in France, including Paris.[14] Cultivation[edit] U. minor in general and a number of clones in particular (see 'Cultivars' below) were once commonly cultivated across Europe in town and country, but owing to its susceptibility to Dutch elm disease, U. minor is now uncommon in cultivation. However, in an ongoing project that began in the 1990s, several thousand surviving field elms have been tested for innate resistance by national research institutes in the EU, with a view to returning field elm to cultivation.[15] Results from Spain (2013), for example, confirm that a very small number of surviving field elms (about 0.5% of those tested) appear to have comparatively high levels of tolerance of the disease, and it is hoped that a controlled crossing of the best of these will produce resistant Ulmus minor
Ulmus minor
hybrids for cultivation.[16] In the UK, despite its late leaf-flush in the north and its suckering habits, continental U. minor was occasionally planted as an ornamental urban tree. Augustine Henry
Augustine Henry
wrote in 1913 that the U. minor planted in parks in Scotland were of French origin.[17] More recently U. minor seed was imported to the UK from Italy.[18] There are mature survivors in Edinburgh that are not the common U. minor cultivars (2015).[19] U. minor has been introduced to the southern hemisphere, notably Australasia and Argentina.[20] Notable trees[edit] U. minor can live to a great age. An ancient field elm stood until recently in the village square of Metaxades, Thrace, Greece. Having abandoned their original village in 1286 after cholera outbreaks, the villagers re-founded it in the hills where a young elm was growing beside a spring. An elm (reputedly the original) and the fountain were the focal-point of the village until the late 20th century.[21] The tallest recorded field elms in Greece were two specimens planted in 1650 beside the newly built church of the Archangels Michael and Gabriel, in Omali Voiou (Oμαλή Bοΐου) near Siatista, which, despite being open-grown trees, attained a height of 40 metres by the mid-20th century.[22] The immemorial elm opposite the village square of Aidona in Thessaly, Greece[23][24] which has been "listed" as a national "Monument of Nature",[25] lost its crown in a recent storm (2009) and has now been pollarded; it is regenerating vigorously. A rare example of a centuries-old field elm that retains its heartwood and crown is the 360-year-old specimen in the village square of Strinylas, Corfu.[26][27][28] A tree said to be of similar age (200 cm d.b.h.) still stands (2013) in the city of Sliven, Bulgaria; other veterans are said to survive in the village of Samuilovo, 7 km from Sliven.[29][30][31] In France, a tree reputedly over 650 years old survived in the centre of Biscarrosse
Biscarrosse
south of Bordeaux
Bordeaux
until the summer of 2010, when it finally succumbed to Dutch elm disease.[32] Another veteran with a 6-metre girth survives at Bettange, France, close to the Belgian border, reputedly planted in 1593.[33] Other wrecks include 'l'ormeau de Sully' in Villesèquelande
Villesèquelande
near Carcassonne,[34] "a magnificent tree supported by three metal props", said to have been planted in the early 17th C by the Duc de Sully,[35] A smaller but possibly very old tree grows in the centre of the village perché Fox-Amphoux, in central Provence. A tree approximately 400 years old and 5.55 metres in girth grows in the town of Mergozzo
Mergozzo
in Piedmont, Italy. 'L'olmo di Mergozzo', like its French counterparts 'l'orme de Biscarosse' and 'l’orme de Bettange', is hollowed out by age, its life prolonged by lopping, while in Spain the elm in the Plaza del Olmo in Navajas, Valencia, is 6.3 metres in girth; planted in 1636 it features on the town crest.[36] In England, large specimens once identified as U. minor subsp. minor, the narrow- or smooth-leafed elm, were once commonplace in the eastern counties before the advent of DED. The largest recorded tree in the UK grew at Amwell, Herts., measuring 40 m in height and 228 cm d.b.h. in 1911.[37] Another famous specimen was the great elm that towered above its two siblings at the bottom of Long Melford
Long Melford
Green, Long Melford, Suffolk,[38] till the group succumbed to disease in 1978. The three "were survivors of a former clone of at least nine elms, one dating from 1757".[39] The Long Melford
Long Melford
elms were painted in 1940 by the watercolourist S. R. Badmin in his ' Long Melford
Long Melford
Green on a Frosty Morning', now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.[40] The largest known surviving trees in England are at East Coker, Somerset (30 m high, 95 cm d.b.h.), Termitts Farm near Hatfield Peverel, Essex
Essex
(25 m high, 145 d.b.h.), and Melchbourne, Bedfordshire, (147 cm d.b.h.).[41]

U. minor, East Coker, UK. 2008

U. minor, Biscarrosse, France, died 2010

U. minor at Fox Amphoux, France, 2017

U. minor, Villeseque-lande, France, planted 17th century.

Old U. minor, Sliven, Bulgaria

U. minor, Our Lady of Castro, Oschiri, Sardinia, Italy

U. minor, Our Lady of Castro, Oschiri, Sardinia, Italy

U. minor, Riverside Park, Yass, New South Wales

Subspecies, varieties, and former species sunk as U. minor[edit] England[edit] The name Ulmus minor subsp. minor
Ulmus minor subsp. minor
was used by R. H. Richens[42] for field elm that was not English elm, Cornish elm, Plot elm or Guernsey elm. Many publications, however, continue to use plain Ulmus minor
Ulmus minor
for undifferentiated field elm; indeed Dr Max Coleman of Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh argued in his 2002 paper 'British Elms' that there was no clear distinction between species and subspecies.[43] Some authorities, among them Richens[44] and Coleman,[10] include English elm among varieties of field elm, Richens calling English elm
English elm
U. minor var. vulgaris. Richens sank as undifferentiated U. minor certain local English forms such as U. minor 'Goodyeri', U. minor 'Hunnybunii', U. minor 'Sowerbyi', and U. minor 'Coritana'. Eurasia[edit] Henry's Ulmus nitens var. italica, 'Mediterranean Elm' (1913), distinguished by its 14 to 18 pairs of leaf-veins,[45] was accepted, despite the wide source-area claimed for it ("Italy, Spain, Portugal and Algeria"), as U. carpinifolia var. italica Henry, by Krüssman (1984), who included a photograph of a specimen in Gisselfeld
Gisselfeld
Park, Denmark.[46] Bean (1988), however, considered it "a variety of rather dubious standing",[47] and it was ignored by Richens (1983). U. canescens Melville and U. boissieri Grudz. were both sunk as U. minor by Richens.[3] The former is found throughout the eastern Mediterranean, including Israel, and is distinguished by its leaves, densely downy on the underside when mature.[48] [16] The latter is a little-known tree found in the Zagros forests of western Iran. Green and Richens also sank U. minor var. suberosa (Moench) Rehder - the so-called 'Cork-barked elm', korkulme (Germany) or wiąz korkowa (Poland), as a genetically random, maritime or juvenile form of U. minor, insufficiently differentiated to merit varietal status, its name a relic of taxonomic conservatism.[49][50] Cultivars[edit] Numerous cultivars have been raised in Europe since the 18th century, although many are now probably either extinct owing to the ravages of Dutch elm disease, or survive unrecognized in sucker form:

Ademuz Albo-Dentata Amplifolia Argenteo-Variegata Atinia Variegata Atinia Biltii Boissieri Christine Buisman Concavaefolia Coritana Cretensis Cucullata Cucullata Variegata Dehesa de Amaniel Dehesa de la Villa Dicksonii Dijkwel Erecta Folia Alba-Punctata Glandulosa Goodyeri Hoersholmiensis Holmstruph Hunnybunii Laciniata Lanuginosa Majadahonda Microphylla Pendula Microphylla Purpurea Microphylla Rubra Monumentalis Pendula Picturata Plotii Propendens Punctata Purpurascens Purpurea Retiro Reverti Rugosa Rueppellii Sarniensis Schuurhoek Silvery Gem Sowerbyi Stricta Suberosa Umbraculifera Gracilis Umbraculifera Viminalis Viminalis Aurea Viminalis Betulaefolia Viminalis Gracilis Viminalis Incisa Viminalis Marginata Viminalis Pendula Viminalis Pulverulenta Viminalis Stricta Virgata Webbiana

Hybrids[edit] The tree's natural range generously overlaps that of wych elm Ulmus glabra to the north, and readily hybridizes with it to produce the so-called 'Dutch elm' Ulmus × hollandica. In Spain and Italy
Italy
Ulmus minor
Ulmus minor
has naturally hybridized with Siberian elm U. pumila, which was introduced in the 16th century and which has spread widely since then, contributing to conservation concerns for the former species.[51] The resulting hybrid has not yet been given a formal botanical name, though there are cultivated forms such as 'Recerta' and 'Fiorente' (see Hybrid cultivars).

Ulmus × hollandica U. minor × U. pumila

Hybrid cultivars[edit] U. minor hybridises naturally with U. glabra, producing elms of the Ulmus × hollandica
Ulmus × hollandica
group, from which there have arisen a number of cultivars:

Alba Angustifolia Balder Bea Schwarz Belgica Blandford Canadian Giant Cicestria Cinerea Commelin Dampieri Dauvessei Daveyi Dumont Elegantissima Eleganto-Variegata Etrusca Fastigiata Fjerrestad Folia Rhomboidea Freja Fulva Gaujardii Groeneveld Haarlemensis Hillieri Klemmer Loke Macrophylla Aurea Major Microphylla Modiolina Muscaviensis Odin Pioneer Pitteurs Serpentina Smithii Superba Tricolor Tyr Vegeta Viminalis Viscosa Wentworthii Pendula Wredei Ypreau

The tree has featured strongly in artificial hybridization experiments in Europe and to a lesser extent in the United States. Most of the European research was based at Wageningen
Wageningen
in the Netherlands
Netherlands
until 1992, whence a number of hybrid cultivars have been commercially released since 1960. The earlier trees were raised in response to the initial Dutch elm disease
Dutch elm disease
pandemic that afflicted Europe after the First World War, and were to prove vulnerable to the much more virulent strain of the disease that arrived in the late 1960s. However, further research eventually produced several trees highly resistant to disease which were released after 1989.[52]

Arno, Clusius, Columella, Commelin, Den Haag, Fiorente, Frontier, Fuente Umbria, Groeneveld, Homestead, Lobel, Nanguen = Lutèce, Pioneer, Plantyn, Plinio, Recerta, San Zanobi, Toledo, Urban, Wanoux = Vada

In art[edit] The elms by Willy Lott's Cottage
Willy Lott's Cottage
and Flatford Mill, Suffolk, in Constable's paintings and drawings were, according to Richens, "smooth-leaved elm" (U. minor),[53] though the hedgerow elms in his Dedham Vale
Dedham Vale
and East Bergholt
East Bergholt
landscape-paintings and drawings were otherwise "most probably East Anglian hybrid elms ... such as still grow in the same hedges".[54]

Field elm beside Willy Lott's Cottage
Willy Lott's Cottage
in Constable's The Hay Wain (1821)

The same, in Constable's Flatford Lock, Christchurch Mansion, Ipswich

Accessions[edit] North America[edit]

U S National Arboretum [17][permanent dead link], Washington, D.C., United States. Acc. nos. 12852, 64382.

Europe[edit]

Arboretum de La Petite Loiterie [18], Monthodon, France. No details available Cambridge Botanic Garden
Cambridge Botanic Garden
[19], University of Cambridge, UK. No accession details available. Dubrava Arboretum, Lithuania. No details available. Linnaean Gardens of Uppsala, Finland. Acc. no. 1930-1013. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK. Acc. nos. 19699368, 16899359, 19699365.[55] Sir Harold Hillier Gardens, UK. Acc. no. 2001-0188, 3 specimens collected in Iran, 2000. Strona Arboretum, University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

Australasia[edit]

Eastwoodhill Arboretum
Eastwoodhill Arboretum
[20], Gisborne, New Zealand. 2 trees, details not known.

Nurseries[edit] North America[edit] None known Europe[edit]

Eggleston
Eggleston
Hall Gardens [21], Eggleston, Barnard Castle, County Durham, UK Firecrest Tree & Shrub Nursery [22], Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK Lorenz von Ehren [23], Hamburg, Germany Trees & Hedges [24], Heathfield, East Sussex, UK UmbraFlor [25], Spello, Italy

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Field elm.

References[edit]

^ Ulmus minor
Ulmus minor
in Gotland, Sweden: ulmen-handbuch.de/handbuch/ulmus ^ a b Heybroek, H. M., Goudzwaard, L, Kaljee, H. (2009). Iep of olm, karakterboom van de Lage Landen (:Elm, a tree with character of the Low Countries). KNNV, Uitgeverij. ISBN 9789050112819 ^ a b Richens, R. H. (1968). "The correct designation of the European field elms". Feddes Repertorium. 79: 1–2.  ^ Richens, R. H., Elm
Elm
(Cambridge 1983), p.18 ^ Richens, R. H., Elm
Elm
(Cambridge 1983), p.21 ^ Richens, R. H., Elm
Elm
(Cambridge 1983), p.88 ^ Melville, R (1978). "On the discrimination of species in hybrid swarms with special reference to Ulmus and the nomenclature of U. minor (Mill.) and U. carpinifolia (Gled.)". Taxon. 27: 345–351.  ^ Armstrong, J. V.; Sell, P. D. (1996). "A revision of the British elms (Ulmus L., Ulmaceae): the historical background". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 120: 39–50. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1996.tb00478.x. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ Stace, C. A. (1997). New Flora of the British Isles. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press. ^ a b Max Coleman, ed.: Wych Elm
Elm
(Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh publication, 2009; ISBN 978-1-906129-21-7); p. 22 ^ Photographs of Ulmus minor
Ulmus minor
in France (L’orme de Martailly-lès-Brancion), krapooarboricole.wordpress.com [1] ; in Portugal, 1.bp.blogspot.com [2]. ^ Solla, A., Bohnens, J., Collin, E., Diamandis, S., Franke, A., Gil, L., Burón, M., Santini, A., Mittempergher, L., Pinon, J., Vanden Broeck, A. (2005). Screening European elms for resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Forest Science, 51(2) 2005 134-141. ^ Martín, JA; Solla, A; Venturas, M; Collada, C; Domínguez, J; Miranda, E; Fuentes, P; Burón, M; Iglesias, S; Gil, L (2015-04-01). "Seven Ulmus minor
Ulmus minor
clones tolerant to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi registered as forest reproductive material in Spain". iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry. Italian Society of Sivilculture and Forest Ecology (SISEF). 8 (2): 172–180. doi:10.3832/ifor1224-008. ISSN 1971-7458.  ^ Mittempergher, L. (2000). Elm
Elm
Yellows in Europe. in Dunn, C.P., (ed.): The Elms, Breeding, Conservation, & Disease Management. 104-105. Boston: Kluwer Academuic Publishing. ^ Screening European Elms for resistance to 'Ophiostoma novo-ulmi' (Forest Science 2005) [3] ^ ‘Spanish Clones’ (Oct. 2013) resistantelms.co.uk ^ Elwes & Henry's Trees of Great Britain & Ireland [4] published in 1913, Elwes, H. J. & Henry, A. (1913). The Trees of Great Britain & Ireland. Vol. VII.  p.1897–8. Private publication, Edinburgh ^ E. E. Kemp (Curator, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh
1950-71) in After the Elm, eds. Clouston & Stansfield, (London, 1979) ^ Boswall Rd [two]; corner of Abbey Mount and Regent Rd; News Steps; Carlton Terrace Brae; Links Place; Seafield Place. Verified by samarae, leaves, suckering habit, form, and late leaf-flush; trees all on Streetview. ^ Hiersch, H., Hensen, I., Zalapa, J. Guries, R. & Brunet, J. (2013). Is hybridization a necessary condition for the evolution of invasiveness in non-native Siberian elm? Abstracts. Third International Elm
Elm
Conference 2013. The elm after 100 years of Dutch elm disease. Florence,  p.45. ^ Η ιστορία των Μεταξάδων ^ The elms of Omali Voiou: «Oι εκκλησίες της Oμαλής Bοΐου» [:The Churches of Omali Voiou], photograph 7 (p.25): www.scribd.com [5] ^ Summer photograph of the centuries-old Aidona elm: sites.google.com ^ Winter photograph of Aidona elm: nikos-manitarielassonas, photograph 3 ^ Διατηρητέα Μνημεία της Φύσεως αριθ.36 (:Listed Monuments of Nature, No. 36): users.otenet.gr/~theonik/peribal/esthitik.htm ^ The elm in Strinylas, Corfu: greeka.com ^ The elm in Strinylas, Corfu: greeka.com/ionian/corfu/corfu-villages/strinilas-corfu.htm; manfred-peters.de/Titel_Korfu_Tip_Nord.htm ^ The elm in Strinylas, Corfu: static.panoramio.com ^ European Tree of the Year 2013, facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=655819444441287&set=a.366730233350211.84042.112234408799796&type=1&relevant_count=1&ref=nf ^ Sliven
Sliven
Elm
Elm
in autumn (photo: Rositsa Mitkova), panoramio.com ^ 'The Sliven
Sliven
elm-tree runs for European Tree of the Year', bnr.bg ^ krapooarboricole.wordpress.com, [6] [7] [8] ^ arbresvenerables.free.fr "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-02. Retrieved 2015-02-05. , krapooarboricole.wordpress.com [9] ^ L'Ormeau de Sully, Villesèquelande, panoramio.com ^ sullystrees.weebly.com/list-of-trees-by-french-departements.html ^ www.navajas.es - bottom of page ^ Elwes, H. J. & Henry, A. (1913). The Trees of Great Britain & Ireland. Vol. VII. 1848–1929. Republished 2004 Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9781108069380 ^ Photograph of the great elms on Long Melford
Long Melford
Green (Francis Frith Collection, images.francisfrith.com) [10] ^ Photograph, plate XXI(h), in Oliver Rackham, A History of the Countryside (London, 1986),  p.236. ^ S. R. Badmin's ' Long Melford
Long Melford
Green on a Frosty Morning', Victoria and Albert Museum [11] ^ Tree Register Of the British Isles (TROBI) ^ Richens, R. H., Elm
Elm
(Cambridge 1983),  p.280 ^ Coleman, M (2002). "British elms". British Wildlife. 13 (6): 390–395.  ^ Richens, R. H., Elm
Elm
(Cambridge, 1983) ^ Elwes & Henry's Trees of Great Britain & Ireland [12] published in 1913, Elwes, H. J. & Henry, A. (1913). The Trees of Great Britain & Ireland. Vol. VII.  p.1892–3. Private publication, Edinburgh ^ Krüssman, Gerd, Manual of Cultivated Broad-Leaved Trees & Shrubs (1984 vol. 3), pl.144 ^ Bean, W. J., Trees and shrubs hardy in Great Britain (1988) beanstreesandshrubs.org ^ Melville, R. (1957). Ulmus canescens: an eastern Mediterranean elm. Kew Bulletin: 499–502, 1957 ^ Green, Peter Shaw (1964). "Registration of cultivar names in Ulmus". Arnoldia. Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University. 24 (6–8): 41–80. Retrieved 16 February 2017.  ^ Richens, R. H., Elm
Elm
(Cambridge 1983), p.83, p. 278 ^ Miguel (2000). "Identification of native and hybrid elms in Spain using isozyme gene markers". Heredity. 85 (2): 157–166. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2540.2000.00740.x.  ^ Heybroek, H.M. (1993). "The Dutch Elm
Elm
Breeding Program". In Sticklen, Mariam B.; Sherald, James L. Dutch Elm
Elm
Disease Research. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag. pp. 16–25. ISBN 978-1-4615-6874-2. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ Richens, R. H., Elm
Elm
(Cambridge 1983), p.173; p.293, note 26 ^ Richens, R. H., Elm
Elm
(Cambridge 1983), p.166, 179 ^ Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. (2017). List of Living Accessions: Ulmus [13]

External links[edit]

Ulmus minor
Ulmus minor
distribution map: linnaeus.nrm.se [26] Ulmus minor
Ulmus minor
- information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN) "Herbarium specimen - L.4222648". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center.  Labelled Ulmus carpinifolia Gled., Pont du Gard, France

v t e

Elm
Elm
species, varieties, hybrids, hybrid cultivars and species cultivars

Species, varieties and subspecies

U. alata (Winged elm) U. americana (American elm) U. americana var. floridana (Florida elm) U. bergmanniana (Bergmann's elm) U. bergmanniana var. bergmanniana U. bergmanniana var. lasiophylla U. castaneifolia (Chestnut-leafed or multinerved elm) U. changii (Hangzhou elm) U. changii var. changii U. changii var. kunmingensis (Kunming elm) U. chenmoui (Chenmou or Langya Mountain elm) U. chumlia U. crassifolia (Cedar or Texas cedar elm) U. davidiana (David or Father David elm) U. davidiana var. davidiana U. davidiana var. japonica (Japanese elm) U. elongata (Long raceme elm) U. gaussenii (Anhui or hairy elm) U. glabra
U. glabra
(Wych or scots elm) U. glaucescens (Gansu elm) U. glaucescens var. glaucescens U. glaucescens var. lasiocarpa (hairy-fruited glaucescent elm) U. harbinensis (Harbin elm) U. ismaelis U. laciniata (Manchurian cut-leaf or lobed elm) U. laciniata var. nikkoensis (Nikko elm) U. laevis (European white elm) U. laevis var. celtidea U. laevis var. parvifolia U. laevis var. simplicidens U. lamellosa (Hebei elm) U. lanceifolia (Vietnam elm) U. macrocarpa (Large-fruited elm) U. macrocarpa var. glabra U. macrocarpa var. macrocarpa U. mexicana (Mexican elm) U. microcarpa (Tibetan elm) U. minor (Field elm) U. minor subsp. minor U. minor var. italica U. parvifolia (Chinese or lacebark elm) U. parvifolia var. coreana (Korean elm) U. prunifolia (Cherry-leafed elm) U. pseudopropinqua (Harbin spring elm) U. pumila (Siberian elm) U. rubra (Slippery elm) U. serotina (September elm) U. szechuanica (Szechuan (Sichuan) or red-fruited elm) U. thomasii (Rock or cork elm) U. uyematsui (Alishan elm) U. villosa (Cherry-bark or marn elm) U. wallichiana (Himalayan or kashmir elm) U. wallichiana subsp. wallichiana U. wallichiana subsp. xanthoderma U. wallichiana var. tomentosa

Disputed species and varieties

U. canescens (Grey, grey-leafed or hoary elm) U. elliptica

Hybrids

U. davidiana var. japonica × U. minor U. × arbuscula U. × arkansana U. × brandisiana U. × diversifolia U. × hollandica (Dutch elm) U. × hollandica var. insularum U. × intermedia U. × mesocarpa

Species cultivars

American elm

American Liberty Ascendens Augustine Aurea Beaverlodge Beebe's Weeping Brandon Burgoyne JFS Prince II = Colonial Spirit College Columnaris Creole Queen Deadfree Delaware Exhibition Fiorei Flick's Spreader Folia Aurea Variegata Hines Incisa Independence Iowa State Jackson Jefferson Kimley Klehmii L'Assomption Lake City Lewis & Clark Littleford Maine Markham Miller Park Minneapolis Park Moline Morden New Harmony Nigricans Patmore Pendula Penn Treaty Princeton Pyramidata Queen City Sheyenne Skinner Upright St. Croix Star Valley Forge Variegata Vase Washington

Cedar elm

Brazos Rim

Chinese elm

A-1 A. Ross Central Park = Central Park Splendor Blizzard BSNUPF = Everclear Burgundy Burnley Select Catlin Chessins Churchyard Cork Bark D.B.Cole Drake Dynasty Ed Wood Elsmo Emer I = Athena Emer II = Allee Emerald Prairie Frosty Garden City Clone Geisha Glory Golden Rey Hallelujah Harzam = Harrison™ Hokkaido Jade Empress King's Choice Littleleaf Lois Hole Matthew Milliken Nire-keyaki Ohio Orange Ribbon Pathfinder Pendens Prairie Shade Prince Richard Red Fall Sabamiki Sagei Seiju Select 380 Sempervirens Small Frye State Fair Stone's Dwarf Taiwan The Thinker Todd True Green UPMTF = Bosque Ware's Yarralumla Yatsubusa Zettler = Heritage Ulmus parvifolia
Ulmus parvifolia
f. lanceolata

European white elm

Aureovariegata Colorans Helena Ornata Pendula Punctata Urticifolia

Field elm

Ademuz Albo-Dentata Amplifolia Argenteo-Variegata Atinia Variegata Atinia Biltii Boissieri Christine Buisman Concavaefolia Coritana Cretensis Cucullata Cucullata Variegata Dehesa de Amaniel Dehesa de la Villa Dicksonii Dijkwel Erecta Folia Alba-Punctata Glandulosa Goodyeri Hoersholmiensis Holmstruph Hunnybunii Laciniata Lanuginosa Majadahonda Microphylla Pendula Microphylla Purpurea Microphylla Rubra Monumentalis Pendula Picturata Plotii Propendens Punctata Purpurascens Purpurea Retiro Reverti Rugosa Rueppellii Sarniensis Schuurhoek Silvery Gem Sowerbyi Stricta Suberosa Umbraculifera Gracilis Umbraculifera Viminalis Viminalis Aurea Viminalis Betulaefolia Viminalis Gracilis Viminalis Incisa Viminalis Marginata Viminalis Pendula Viminalis Pulverulenta Viminalis Stricta Virgata Webbiana

Japanese elm

Discovery Freedom Jacan JFS-Bieberich = Emerald Sunshine Mitsui Centennial Prospector Reperta Reseda Thomson Validation

Siberian elm

Ansaloni Aurea Aurescens Chinkota Dropmore Dwarf Weeper Green King Hansen Harbin Manchu Mauro Mr. Buzz Park Royal Pendula Pinnato-ramosa Poort Bulten Puszta Pyramidalis Fiorei Variegata Zhonghua Jinye

Winged elm

Lace Parasol

Wych elm

Albo-Variegata Australis Camperdownii Cebennensis Concavaefolia Cornuta Corylifolia Purpurea Corylifolia Dovaei Escaillard Fastigiata Macrophylla Fastigiata Stricta Fastigiata Variegata Firma Flava Gigantea Gittisham Grandidentata Holgeri Horizontalis Insularis Latifolia Latifolia Aurea Latifolia Aureo-Variegata Latifolia Nigricans Luteo Variegata Lutescens Macrophylla Maculata Minor Nana Nigra Nitida Oblongata Pendula Macrophylla Pendula Variegata Pyrenaica Ramulosa Rugosa Spectabilis Superba Tomentosa

Hybrid cultivars

Androssowii Amsterdam Arno Cathedral Clusius Columella Den Haag Dodoens Fiorente Frontier Fuente Umbria Homestead Karagatch Lobel Morfeo Morton Glossy = Triumph Morton Plainsman = Vanguard Morton Red Tip = Danada Charm Morton Stalwart = Commendation Morton = Accolade Nanguen = Lutece New Horizon Patriot Plantyn Plinio Rageth Rebella Rebona Recerta Regal Repura Revera San Zanobi Sapporo Autumn Gold Sapporo Gold 2 Stavast Toledo Urban Wanoux = Vada

Dutch elm

Alba Angustifolia Balder Bea Schwarz Belgica Blandford Canadian Giant Cicestria Cinerea Commelin Dampieri Dauvessei Daveyi Dumont Elegantissima Eleganto-Variegata Etrusca Fastigiata Fjerrestad Folia Rhomboidea Freja Fulva Gaujardii Groeneveld Haarlemensis Hillieri Klemmer Loke Macrophylla Aurea Major Microphylla Modiolina Muscaviensis Odin Pioneer Pitteurs Serpentina Smithii Superba Tricolor Tyr Vegeta Viminalis Viscosa Wentworthii Pendula Wredei Ypreau

U. × intermedia

Coolshade Fremont Improved Coolshade Lincoln Rosehill Willis

Unconfirmed derivation cultivars

aff. Plotii Acutifolia Alata Alksuth Argenteo-Marginata Aspera Atropurpurea Australis Berardii Betulaefolia Nigrescens Crispa Crispa Aurea Crispa Pendula Densa Exoniensis Fastigiata Glabra Folia Aurea Folia Rubra Folia Variegata Pendula Gallica Glabra Globosa Hamburg Hertfordensis Angustifolia Hertfordensis Latifolia Jalaica Jacqueline Hillier Kansas Hybrid Klemmer Blanc Koopmannii Lombartsii Louis van Houtte Marmorata Monstrosa Myrtifolia Myrtifolia Purpurea Nemoralis Nigrescens Planeroides Planifolia Purpurea Pyramidalis Bertini Pyramidalis Rotundifolia Rubra Rufa Scampstoniensis Sericea Tiliaefolia Tortuosa Turkestanica Variegata Nova Virens

Fossil elms

U. okanaganensis

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q147487 APDB: 154214 BioLib: 3520 EPPO: ULMMI GBIF: 5361865 GRIN: 101699 iNaturalist: 79461 IPNI: 856890-1 ITIS: 19054 IUCN: 19218731 NCBI: 262084 PalDat: Ulmus_minor Plant
Plant
List: kew-2448634 Tropicos: 33300070

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