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Ficus
Ficus
religiosa or sacred fig is a species of fig native to the Indian subcontinent,[2] and Indochina.[3] It belongs to the Moraceae, the fig or mulberry family. It is also known as the bodhi tree,[4] pippala tree, peepul tree,[2] peepal tree or ashwattha tree (in India
India
and Nepal).[5]

Contents

1 Description 2 In religion

2.1 Buddhism 2.2 Hinduism

3 Vernacular names 4 Cultivation 5 Uses 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Description[edit] Ficus
Ficus
religiosa is a large dry season-deciduous or semi-evergreen tree up to 30 metres (98 ft) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 3 metres (9.8 ft). The leaves are cordate in shape with a distinctive extended drip tip; they are 10–17 centimetres (3.9–6.7 in) long and 8–12 centimetres (3.1–4.7 in) broad, with a 6–10 centimetres (2.4–3.9 in) petiole. The fruits are small figs 1–1.5 centimetres (0.39–0.59 in) in diameter, green ripening to purple. The leaves of this tree move continuously even when the air around is still and no perceptible wind is blowing. This phenomenon can be explained due to the long leaf stalk and the broad leaf structure. However, some religious minded people in Hindu/Buddhist religion attribute this movement of the leaves to the fact that "devas" or "gods" reside on these leaves and make it move continuously. Its leaves are also used for decoration or souvenirs after the leaf is totally dry. In religion[edit] The Ficus
Ficus
religiosa tree is considered sacred by the followers of Hinduism, Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism. In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna says, "I am the Peepal tree among the trees, Narada among the sages, Chitraaratha among the Gandharvas, And sage Kapila
Kapila
among the Siddhas."[6] Buddhism[edit] Main article: Bodhi
Bodhi
tree

The Bodhi Tree
Bodhi Tree
at the Mahabodhi Temple. Propagated from the Sri Maha Bodhi, which in turn is propagated from the original Bodhi Tree
Bodhi Tree
at this location.

Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
attained enlightenment (bodhi) while meditating underneath a Ficus
Ficus
religiosa. The site is in present-day Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
in Bihar, India. The original tree was destroyed, and has been replaced several times. A branch of the original tree was rooted in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in 288 BCE and is known as Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi; it is the oldest flowering plant (angiosperm) in the world.[7] In Theravada Buddhist
Theravada Buddhist
Southeast Asia, the tree's massive trunk is often the site of Buddhist or animist shrines. Not all Ficus
Ficus
religiosa can be called a Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree. A Bodhi Tree
Bodhi Tree
must be able to trace its parent to another Bodhi Tree
Bodhi Tree
and the line goes on until the first Bodhi Tree
Bodhi Tree
under which Gautama
Gautama
is said to have gained enlightenment.[8] Hinduism[edit]

Typical example of aerial roots

Ficus
Ficus
religiosa (Peepal tree) grow on a bare wall.

Sadhus ( Hindu
Hindu
ascetics) still meditate beneath sacred fig trees, and Hindus do pradakshina (circumambulation, or meditative pacing) around the sacred fig tree as a mark of worship. Usually seven pradakshinas are done around the tree in the morning time chanting "vriksha rajaya namah", meaning "salutation to the king of trees." It claimed that the 27 stars (constellations) constituting 12 houses (rasis) and 9 planets are specifically represented precisely by 27 trees—one for each star. The Bodhi Tree
Bodhi Tree
is said to represent Pushya (Western star name γ, δ and θ Cancri in the Cancer constellation).

Plaksa is a possible Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term for Ficus
Ficus
religiosa. However, according to Macdonell and Keith (1912), it denotes the wavy-leaved fig tree ( Ficus
Ficus
infectoria) instead. In Hindu
Hindu
texts, the Plaksa tree is associated with the source of the Sarasvati River. The Skanda Purana states that the Sarasvati originates from the water pot of Brahma
Brahma
flows from Plaksa on the Himalayas. According to Vamana Purana 32.1-4, the Sarasvati was rising from the Plaksa tree (Pipal tree).[9] Plaksa Pra-sravana denotes the place where the Sarasvati appears.[10] In the Rigveda Sutras, Plaksa Pra-sravana refers to the source of the Sarasvati.[11] Vernacular names[edit]

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Example of fruits

Typical shape of the leaf of the Ficus
Ficus
religiosa

The Ficus
Ficus
religiosa tree is known by a wide range of vernacular names, including:

in Austroasiatic languages:

Vietnamese — bồ-đề Khmer — ដើមពោធិ៍ (dam po)

in Dravidian languages:

Kannada — araLi mara ಅರಳಿ ಮರ Malayalam — അരയാല് arayaal Tamil — அரசு, அரச மரம் arasa maram (Literally "king" or "king's tree"; arasu or arasan is Tamil for "king") Telugu — రావి చెట్టు raavi chettu

in Indic languages:

Bengali language — অশ্বথ, i.e. ashwath, পিপুল, i.e. pipul Bhojpuri — pippar Gujarati — પિપળો (pipdo) Hindi
Hindi
- Peepal - पीपल Konkani — pimpalla rook/jhadd Mahal — އަޝްވަތި ގަސް (aśvati gas) Maithili (मैथिली) — पीपर (peepar) Marathi — पिंपळ pimpaL (where L is as in for example Nagold) Nepali (नेपाली) — पीपल (peepal or pipal) Odia — ଅଶ୍ୱତ୍ଥ (ashwatth) Pali — assattha; rukkha Punjabi — Pippal - ਪਿੱਪਲ/ پپل Sanskrit — अश्वत्थः aśvatthaḥ vṛksha, pippala vṛksha (vṛksha means "tree") Sinhala — ඇසතු esathu Urdu — peepal پیپل

in Japonic languages:

Japanese — 印度菩提樹 (Indo bodaiju)

in Koreanic languages:

Korean —보리수 (bolisu); 菩提樹

in Italic languages:

Cuban Spanish
Cuban Spanish
- alamo

in Malayo-Polynesian languages:

Tagalog - ballete

in Sino-Tibetan languages:

Burmese — ဗောဓိညောင်ပင် ( Bodhi
Bodhi
nyaung pin), ဗောဓိပင် ( Bodhi
Bodhi
pin) Chinese — 菩提樹 (pútíshù, bodhi tree)

in Tai–Kadai languages

Thai — โพธิ์ (pho)

Cultivation[edit] Ficus
Ficus
religiosa is grown by specialty tree plant nurseries for use as an ornamental tree, in gardens and parks in tropical and subtropical climates. Peepal trees are native to India
India
and thrive in hot, humid weather. They prefer full sunlight and can grow in most soil types, though loam is the best. When planting, use soil with a pH of 7 or below. While it is possible for the plant to grow indoors in a pot, it grows best outside. Young peepal needs proper nourishment. It requires full sunlight and proper watering. Uses[edit] Ficus
Ficus
religiosa is used in traditional medicine for about 50 types of disorders including asthma, diabetes, diarrhea, epilepsy, gastric problems, inflammatory disorders, infectious and sexual disorders.[12][13] See also[edit]

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Shitala Devi Sri Maha Bodhi

Notes[edit]

^ The Plant
Plant
List, Ficus
Ficus
religiosa L. ^ a b  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Peepul". Encyclopædia Britannica. 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 45.  ^ " Ficus
Ficus
religiosa". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 29 January 2017.  ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1971, p. 1014 ^ " Ficus
Ficus
religiosa — Peepal". Flowers of India. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved November 3, 2011.  ^ "The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Chapter 10 - The Yoga
Yoga
of Manifestation". santosha.com.  ^ "Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research, OLDLIST". Retrieved July 3, 2011.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bo-Tree". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 305.  ^ D.S. Chauhan in Radhakrishna, B.P. and Merh, S.S. (editors): Vedic Sarasvati, 1999, p. 35–44 ^ Pancavimsa Brahmana, Jaiminiya Upanisad Brahmana, Katyayana Srauta Sutra, Latyayana Srauta; Macdonell and Keith 1912 ^ Asvalayana Srauta Sutra, Sankhayana Srauta Sutra; Macdonell and Keith 1912, II:55 ^ Singh D, Singh B, Goel RK "Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ficus
Ficus
religiosa: a review." J Ethnopharmacol. February 3, 2011. ^ Damanpreet Singh; Bikram Singh; Rajesh Kumar Goela (April 12, 2011). "Journal of Ethnopharmacology : Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ficus
Ficus
religiosa: A review". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. ScienceDirect. 134 (3): 565–583. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.046. PMID 21296646. 

References[edit]

Keith and Macdonell. 1912. Vedic Index of Names and Subjects. Plaksa description

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Ficus
Ficus
religiosa (category)

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Ficus
Ficus
religiosa

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bo-Tree.

Entry on Bodhi Tree
Bodhi Tree
in the Buddhist Dictionary of Pali
Pali
Proper Names  "Peepul". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.  The Bodhi tree
Bodhi tree
revealed by old picture

v t e

Worship in Hinduism

Main topics

Aarti Bhajan Darśana Deities Festivals Homa (Yajna) Kirtan Mantra Murti Tilaka Utsava Vrata Yatra

Rituals

Puja

Abhisheka Bhog Naivedhya Panchamakara Panchamrita Parikrama Pranāma Prasad Pushpanjali

Homa

Yajna Agnicayana Agnihotra Agnikaryam Aupasana Dhuni Kaamya karma Pravargya Purushamedha Putrakameshti Viraja Homa

Other

Achamana Archana Ashirvad Ashvamedha Darśana Karmkand Kumbhabhishekham Nitya karma Ngejot Panchayatana puja Prana pratishta Sandhyavandanam Shuddhi Shrauta Upakarma

Prayer Meditation

Ajapa japa Bhajan Brahmamuhurtha Jagran Jai Sri Ram Japa Kirtan Om Sandhyavandanam Shaktipat Stotra Third eye Yoga

Mantras

Om Hare Krishna Om Namah Shivaya Gayatri Mantra

Objects

Puja thali Altar Banalinga Banana leaf Biruda Coconut Dhunachi Dhuni Dhupa Diya Cāmara Garland Ghanta Joss stick Kalasha Kamandalu Khirapat Kindi Paduka Palki Panchamrita Pandal Pinda Prayer beads Rangoli Shankha Tilaka Upanayana Uthsavar Yagnopaveetham

Materials

Agarwood Alta Camphor Charu Ghee Incense Kumkuma Marigold Milk Panchagavya Rudraksha Sandalwood Sindoor Soma Tulsi Turmeric Vibhuti

Instruments

Dholak Harmonium Karatalas Khol Manjira Mridangam Tabla

Iconography

Lingam Murti Om Pindi Shaligram Swastika Yoni more...

Places

Ashram Dwajasthambam Ghat Kalyani Matha Temple Pilgrimage sites

Roles

Guru Pandit Pujari Rishi Sadhu Sannyasa Swami Yogi more...

Sacred animals

Nāga Nag Panchami Nagaradhane

Sacred plants

Trees

Akshayavat Ashoka Banyan Kadamba Kalpavriksha Parijaat Peepal Sacred groves

Fruits and other plants

Bael Kusha grass Lotus Tulsi (Tulasi chaura Tulsi
Tulsi
Vivah)

See also

Firewalking Sanskara Temple dance

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q3071706 EoL: 491539 EPPO: FIURE FNA: 200006369 FoC: 200006369 GBIF: 5361935 GRIN: 16962 iNaturalist: 127514 IPNI: 853563-1 ITIS: 506545 NCBI: 66387 Plant
Plant
List: kew-2812027 PLANTS: FIRE3

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