FIBROBACTERES is a small bacterial phylum which includes many of the
major rumen bacteria, allowing for the degradation of plant-based
cellulose in ruminant animals. Members of this phylum were categorized
in other phyla. The genus
Fibrobacter (the only genus of
Fibrobacteres) was removed from the genus
Bacteroides in 1988.
* 1 Phylogeny and Comparative Genomic Studies
* 2 Taxonomy
* 3 Distribution
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 External links
PHYLOGENY AND COMPARATIVE GENOMIC STUDIES
Although Fibrobacteres, which consists of a single genus Fibrobacter
containing two species, is currently recognized as a distinct phylum,
phylogenetic studies based RpoC and Gyrase B protein sequences,
Fibrobacter succinogenes is closely related to the
species from the phyla
Bacteroidetes and Chlorobi. The species from
these three phyla also branch in the same position based upon
conserved signature indels in a number of important proteins. Lastly
and most importantly, comparative genomic studies have identified two
conserved signature indels (a 5-7 amino acid insert in the RpoC
protein and a 13-16 amino acid insertion in serine
hydroxymethyltransferase ) and one signature protein (PG00081) that
are uniquely shared by all of the species from these three phyla. All
of these results provide compelling evidence that the species from
these three phyla shared a common ancestor exclusive of all other
bacteria and it has been proposed that they should all recognized as
part of a single “FCB”superphylum.
The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic
names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN), National Center for
Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the 16S rRNA-based LTP release
123 by \'The All-Species Living Tree\' Project .
* Class "CHITINISPIRILLIA " ♠ Sorokin et al. 2016
* Order "CHITINISPIRILLALES " Sorokin et al. 2016
* Family "CHITINISPIRILLACEAE " ♠ Sorokin et al. 2016
* Genus "Chitinispirillum " ♠ Sorokin et al. 2016
* Species "Chitinispirillum alkaliphilum " ♠ Sorokin et al. 2016
* Class CHITINIVIBRIONIA Sorokin et al. 2014
* Order CHITINIVIBRIONALES Sorokin et al. 2014
* Family CHITINIVIBRIONACEAE Sorokin et al. 2014
* Genus Chitinivibrio Sorokin et al. 2014
* Species Chitinivibrio alkaliphilus Sorokin et al. 2014
* Class FIBROBACTERIA Spain et al. 2012
* Order "CANDIDATUS FIBROMONADALES " ♠ Abdul Rahman et al. 2016
* Family "CANDIDATUS FIBROMONADACEAE " ♠ Abdul Rahman et al. 2016
* Genus "Candidatus Fibromonas " ♠ Abdul Rahman et al. 2016
* Species "Candidatus Fibromonas termitidis " ♠ Abdul Rahman et
* Order FIBROBACTERALES Spain et al. 2012
* Family FIBROBACTERACEAE Spain et al. 2012
Fibrobacter Montgomery et al. 1988
* Species F. intestinalis Montgomery et al. 1988
* Species F. succinogenes (Hungate 1950) Montgomery et al. 1988
* Subspecies F. s. elongatus Montgomery et al. 1988
* Subspecies F. s. succinogenes (Hungate 1950) Montgomery et al.
Fibrobacteres and some of its phylogenetic neighbours
Notes: ♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology
Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names
with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN)
Fibrobacteres is considered to be closely related to the
CFB . The only genus in this phylum is
Fibrobacter that contains
strains from the guts of many mammals including cattle and pigs. The
two described species in this genus namely,
Fibrobacter intestinalis are important members of fibrolytic
communities in mammalian guts and have received a lot of attention in
recent decades due to the long-standing interest microbes capable of
degrading plant fiber.
Molecular evidence based on the amplification of 16rRNA genes from
various environments suggest that the phylum is much more widespread
than previously thought. Most of the clones from mammalian
environments group along with the known isolates in what has been
Fibrobacteres subphylum 1. Members of
2 however, have so far been found only in the gut of termites. and
in some litter-feeding cockroaches. The predominance of Fibrobacteres
subphylum 2 in cellulolytic fibre-associated bacterial communities in
hindguts of wood-feeding
Nasutitermes corniger suggests that they play
an important role in the breakdown of plant material in higher
* Candidate phylum TG3
List of bacterial orders
* ^ Montgomery L, Flesher B, Stahl D (1988). "Transfer of
Bacteroides succinogenes (Hungate) to
Fibrobacter gen. nov. as
Fibrobacter succinogenes comb. nov. and description of Fibrobacter
intestinalis sp. nov". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38 (4): 430–435. doi
* ^ A B Gupta, R. S. (2004). "The phylogeny and signature sequences
characteristics of Fibrobacteres, Chlorobi, and Bacteroidetes".
Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 30: 123–140. doi
:10.1080/10408410490435133 . PMID 15239383 .
* ^ Griffiths, E; Gupta, RS (2001). "The use of signature sequences
in different proteins to determine the relative branching order of
bacterial divisions: evidence that
Fibrobacter diverged at a similar
time to Chlamydia and the Cytophaga- Flavobacterium-Bacteroides
division". Microbiology. 147: 2611–22. doi
:10.1099/00221287-147-9-2611 . PMID 11535801 .
* ^ A B C Gupta, R. S.; Lorenzini, E. (2007). "Phylogeny and
molecular signatures (conserved proteins and indels) that are specific
Bacteroidetes and Chlorobi species" . BMC Evolutionary
Biology. 7: 71. doi :10.1186/1471-2148-7-71 . PMC 1887533 . PMID
* ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Fibrobacteres". List of Prokaryotic names with
Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2016-06-05.
* ^ Sayers; et al. "Fibrobacteres". National Center for
Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved
* ^ \'The All-Species Living Tree\' Project ."16S rRNA-based LTP
release 123 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA
Database . Retrieved 2016-06-05.
* ^ Qi, M. and Nelson, K.E. and Daugherty, S.C. and Nelson, W.C.
and Hance, I.R. and Morrison, M. and Forsberg, C.W. (2005). "Novel
molecular features of the fibrolytic intestinal bacterium Fibrobacter
intestinalis not shared with
Fibrobacter succinogenes as determined by
suppressive subtractive hybridization" . Journal of Bacteriology. 187
(11): 3739–3751. doi :10.1128/jb.187.11.3739-3751.2005 . PMC 1112041
. PMID 15901698 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link )
* ^ McDonald, JE; Lockhart, RJ; Cox, MJ; Allison, HE; McCarthy, AJ
(2008). "Detection of novel
Fibrobacter populations in landfill sites
and determination of their relative abundance via quantitative PCR".
Environmental Microbiology. Wiley Online Library. 10 (5): 1310–1319.
doi :10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01544.x . PMID 18266756 .
* ^ A B C Hongoh, Y. and Deevong, P. and Hattori, S. and Inoue, T.
and Noda, S. and Noparatnaraporn, N. and Kudo, T. and Ohkuma, M.
(2006). "Phylogenetic diversity, localization, and cell morphologies
of members of the candidate phylum TG3 and a subphylum in the phylum
Fibrobacteres, recently discovered bacterial groups dominant in
termite guts" . Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Am Soc
Microbiol. 72 (10): 6780–6788. doi :10.1128/aem.00891-06 . PMC
1610327 . PMID 17021231 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link )
* ^ Mikaelyan, A.; Dietrich, C.; Köhler, T.; Poulsen, M.;
Sillam-Dussès, D.; Brune, A. (2015). "Diet is the primary determinant
of bacterial community structure in the guts of higher termites".
Molecular Ecology. 24 (20): 5824–5895. doi :10.1111/mec.13376 . PMID
* ^ Mikaelyan, A.; Köhler, T.; Lampert, N.; Rohland, J.; Boga, H.;
Meuser, K.; Brune, A. (2015). "Classifying the bacterial gut
microbiota of termites and cockroaches: A curated phylogenetic
reference database (DictDb)". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 38:
472–482. doi :10.1016/j.syapm.2015.07.004 .
* ^ Mikaelyan, A.; Strassert, J.; Tokuda, G.; Brune, A. (2014).
"The fibre-associated cellulolytic bacterial community in the hindgut
of wood-feeding higher termites (Nasutitermes spp.)". Environmental
Microbiology. 16 (9): 2711–2722. doi :10.1111/1462-2920.12425 .
* Holt JG (editor) (1994). Bergey's Manual of Determinative
Bacteriology (9th ed.). Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-00603-7 . CS1
maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* List of Prokaryotic Names