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Fibrobacteres
Fibrobacteres
is a small bacterial phylum which includes many of the major rumen bacteria, allowing for the degradation of plant-based cellulose in ruminant animals. Members of this phylum were categorized in other phyla. The genus Fibrobacter
Fibrobacter
(the only genus of Fibrobacteres) was removed from the genus Bacteroides
Bacteroides
in 1988.[1]

Contents

1 Phylogeny and Comparative Genomic Studies 2 Taxonomy 3 Distribution 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Phylogeny and Comparative Genomic Studies[edit] Although Fibrobacteres, which consists of a single genus Fibrobacter containing two species, is currently recognized as a distinct phylum, phylogenetic studies based RpoC and Gyrase B protein sequences, indicate that Fibrobacter
Fibrobacter
succinogenes is closely related to the species from the phyla Bacteroidetes
Bacteroidetes
and Chlorobi.[2] The species from these three phyla also branch in the same position based upon conserved signature indels in a number of important proteins.[3] Lastly and most importantly, comparative genomic studies have identified two conserved signature indels (a 5-7 amino acid insert in the RpoC protein and a 13-16 amino acid insertion in serine hydroxymethyltransferase) and one signature protein (PG00081) that are uniquely shared by all of the species from these three phyla.[4] All of these results provide compelling evidence that the species from these three phyla shared a common ancestor exclusive of all other bacteria and it has been proposed that they should all recognized as part of a single “FCB”superphylum.[2][4] Taxonomy[edit] The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN),[5] National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[6] and the 16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 by 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project.[7]

Class "Chitinispirillia" ♠ Sorokin et al. 2016

Order "Chitinispirillales" Sorokin et al. 2016

Family "Chitinispirillaceae" ♠ Sorokin et al. 2016

Genus "Chitinispirillum" ♠ Sorokin et al. 2016

Species " Chitinispirillum alkaliphilum" ♠ Sorokin et al. 2016

Class Chitinivibrionia Sorokin et al. 2014

Order Chitinivibrionales Sorokin et al. 2014

Family Chitinivibrionaceae Sorokin et al. 2014

Genus Chitinivibrio Sorokin et al. 2014

Species Chitinivibrio alkaliphilus Sorokin et al. 2014

Class Fibrobacteria Spain et al. 2012

Order "Candidatus Fibromonadales" ♠ Abdul Rahman et al. 2016

Family "Candidatus Fibromonadaceae" ♠ Abdul Rahman et al. 2016

Genus "Candidatus Fibromonas" ♠ Abdul Rahman et al. 2016

Species "Candidatus Fibromonas termitidis" ♠ Abdul Rahman et al. 2016

Order Fibrobacterales Spain et al. 2012

Family Fibrobacteraceae Spain et al. 2012

Genus Fibrobacter
Fibrobacter
Montgomery et al. 1988

Species F. intestinalis Montgomery et al. 1988 Species F. succinogenes (Hungate 1950) Montgomery et al. 1988

Subspecies F. s. elongatus Montgomery et al. 1988 Subspecies F. s. succinogenes (Hungate 1950) Montgomery et al. 1988

phylum Fibrobacteres
Fibrobacteres
and some of its phylogenetic neighbours

Notes: ♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN) Distribution[edit] The phylum Fibrobacteres
Fibrobacteres
is considered to be closely related to the CFB [Cytophaga-Flavibacterium-Bacteroides].[4] The only genus in this phylum is Fibrobacter
Fibrobacter
that contains strains from the guts of many mammals including cattle and pigs.[8] The two described species in this genus namely, Fibrobacter
Fibrobacter
succinogenes and Fibrobacter intestinalis are important members of fibrolytic communities in mammalian guts and have received a lot of attention in recent decades due to the long-standing interest microbes capable of degrading plant fiber. Molecular evidence based on the amplification of 16rRNA genes from various environments suggest that the phylum is much more widespread than previously thought.[9][10] Most of the clones from mammalian environments group along with the known isolates in what has been called Fibrobacteres
Fibrobacteres
subphylum 1.[10] Members of Fibrobacteres subphylum 2 however, have so far been found only in the gut of termites.[10][11] and in some litter-feeding cockroaches.[12] The predominance of Fibrobacteres
Fibrobacteres
subphylum 2 in cellulolytic fibre-associated bacterial communities in hindguts of wood-feeding Nasutitermes corniger
Nasutitermes corniger
suggests that they play an important role in the breakdown of plant material in higher termites.[13] See also[edit]

Fibrobacter
Fibrobacter
succinogenes Candidate phylum TG3 List of bacterial orders

References[edit]

^ Montgomery L, Flesher B, Stahl D (1988). "Transfer of Bacteroides succinogenes (Hungate) to Fibrobacter
Fibrobacter
gen. nov. as Fibrobacter succinogenes comb. nov. and description of Fibrobacter
Fibrobacter
intestinalis sp. nov". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38 (4): 430–435. doi:10.1099/00207713-38-4-430.  ^ a b Gupta, R. S. (2004). "The phylogeny and signature sequences characteristics of Fibrobacteres, Chlorobi, and Bacteroidetes". Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 30: 123–140. doi:10.1080/10408410490435133. PMID 15239383.  ^ Griffiths, E; Gupta, RS (2001). "The use of signature sequences in different proteins to determine the relative branching order of bacterial divisions: evidence that Fibrobacter
Fibrobacter
diverged at a similar time to Chlamydia and the Cytophaga- Flavobacterium-Bacteroides division". Microbiology. 147: 2611–22. doi:10.1099/00221287-147-9-2611. PMID 11535801.  ^ a b c Gupta, R. S.; Lorenzini, E. (2007). "Phylogeny and molecular signatures (conserved proteins and indels) that are specific for the Bacteroidetes
Bacteroidetes
and Chlorobi species". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 71. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-71. PMC 1887533 . PMID 17488508.  ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Fibrobacteres". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2016-06-05.  ^ Sayers; et al. "Fibrobacteres". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2016-06-05.  ^ 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2016-06-05.  ^ Qi, M. and Nelson, K.E. and Daugherty, S.C. and Nelson, W.C. and Hance, I.R. and Morrison, M. and Forsberg, C.W. (2005). "Novel molecular features of the fibrolytic intestinal bacterium Fibrobacter intestinalis not shared with Fibrobacter
Fibrobacter
succinogenes as determined by suppressive subtractive hybridization". Journal of Bacteriology. 187 (11): 3739–3751. doi:10.1128/jb.187.11.3739-3751.2005. PMC 1112041 . PMID 15901698. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ McDonald, JE; Lockhart, RJ; Cox, MJ; Allison, HE; McCarthy, AJ (2008). "Detection of novel Fibrobacter
Fibrobacter
populations in landfill sites and determination of their relative abundance via quantitative PCR". Environmental Microbiology. Wiley Online Library. 10 (5): 1310–1319. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01544.x. PMID 18266756.  ^ a b c Hongoh, Y. and Deevong, P. and Hattori, S. and Inoue, T. and Noda, S. and Noparatnaraporn, N. and Kudo, T. and Ohkuma, M. (2006). "Phylogenetic diversity, localization, and cell morphologies of members of the candidate phylum TG3 and a subphylum in the phylum Fibrobacteres, recently discovered bacterial groups dominant in termite guts". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Am Soc Microbiol. 72 (10): 6780–6788. doi:10.1128/aem.00891-06. PMC 1610327 . PMID 17021231. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Mikaelyan, A.; Dietrich, C.; Köhler, T.; Poulsen, M.; Sillam-Dussès, D.; Brune, A. (2015). "Diet is the primary determinant of bacterial community structure in the guts of higher termites". Molecular Ecology. 24 (20): 5824–5895. doi:10.1111/mec.13376. PMID 26348261.  ^ Mikaelyan, A.; Köhler, T.; Lampert, N.; Rohland, J.; Boga, H.; Meuser, K.; Brune, A. (2015). "Classifying the bacterial gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches: A curated phylogenetic reference database (DictDb)". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 38: 472–482. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2015.07.004.  ^ Mikaelyan, A.; Strassert, J.; Tokuda, G.; Brune, A. (2014). "The fibre-associated cellulolytic bacterial community in the hindgut of wood-feeding higher termites (Nasutitermes spp.)". Environmental Microbiology. 16 (9): 2711–2722. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.12425. 

Holt JG (editor) (1994). Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (9th ed.). Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-00603-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

External links[edit]

List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature - Genus Fibrobacter Systema Naturae 2000 Classification: Phylum Fibrobacteres

v t e

Prokaryotes: Bacteria
Bacteria
classification (phyla and orders)

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

G-/ OM

Terra-/ Glidobacteria (BV1)

Eobacteria

Deinococcus–Thermus

Deinococcales Thermales

Chloroflexi

Anaerolineales Caldilineales Chloroflexales Herpetosiphonales Dehalococcoidales Ktedonobacterales Thermogemmatisporales Thermomicrobiales Sphaerobacterales

other glidobacteria

Thermodesulfobacteria thermophiles

Aquificae Thermotogae

Cyanobacteria

Proteobacteria (BV2)

Alpha

Caulobacterales Kiloniellales Kordiimonadales Magnetococcales Parvularculales Rhizobiales Rhodobacterales Rhodospirillales Rickettsiales Sneathiellales Sphingomonadales

Beta

Burkholderiales Hydrogenophilales Methylophilales Neisseriales Nitrosomonadales Procabacteriales Rhodocyclales

Gamma

Acidithiobacillales Aeromonadales Alteromonadales Cardiobacteriales Chromatiales Enterobacteriales Legionellales Methylococcales Oceanospirillales Orbales Pasteurellales Pseudomonadales Salinisphaerales Thiotrichales Vibrionales Xanthomonadales

Delta

Bdellovibrionales Desulfarculales Desulfobacterales Desulfovibrionales Desulfurellales Desulfuromonadales Myxococcales Syntrophobacterales Syntrophorhabdales

Epsilon

Campylobacterales Nautiliales

Zeta

Mariprofundales

BV4

Spirochaetes

Spirochaetes

Sphingobacteria (FCB group)

Fibrobacteres Chlorobi

Chlorobiales Ignavibacteriales

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroidales Cytophagales Flavobacteriales Sphingobacteriales

Planctobacteria/ (PVC group)

Chlamydiae Lentisphaerae

Lentisphaerales Oligosphaerales Victivallales

Planctomycetes

Phycisphaerales Planctomycetales

Verrucomicrobia

Puniceicoccales Opitutales Chthoniobacterales Verrucomicrobiales

"Poribacteria"

Other GN

Acidobacteria

Acidobacteriales Acanthopleuribacterales Holophagales Solibacterales

Armatimonadetes

Armatimonadales Chthonomonadales Fimbriimonadales

Caldiserica Chrysiogenetes Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Synergistetes

G+/ no OM

Firmicutes (BV3)

Bacilli

Bacillales Lactobacillales

Clostridia

Clostridiales Halanaerobiales Thermoanaerobacteriales Natranaerobiales

Erysipelotrichia

Erysipelotrichiales

Thermolithobacteria

Thermolithobacterales

Tenericutes/ Mollicutes

Mycoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales Haloplasmatales

Negativicutes

Selenomonadales

Actinobacteria (BV5)

Actinobacteria

Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales

Acidimicrobiia

Acidimicrobiales

Coriobacteriidae

Coriobacteriales

Nitriliruptoria

Euzebyales Nitriliruptorales

Rubrobacteria

Gaiellales Rubrobacterales Thermoleophilales Solirubrobacterales

Incertae sedis

†Archaeosphaeroides †Eobacterium †Leptotrichites

Source: Bergey's Manual (2001–2012). Alternative views: Wikispecies.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1200941 EoL: 7788 iNaturalist: 151852 ITIS:

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