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Na Fianna
Fianna
Éireann (The Fianna
Fianna
of Ireland), known as the Fianna, is an Irish nationalist
Irish nationalist
youth organisation founded by Bulmer Hobson
Bulmer Hobson
and Constance Markievicz
Constance Markievicz
in 1909. Fianna
Fianna
members were involved in the setting up of the armed nationalist body the Irish Volunteers, and had their own circle of the Irish Republican Brotherhood
Irish Republican Brotherhood
(IRB). They took part in the 1914 Howth gun-running and (as Volunteer members) in the 1916 Easter Rising. They were active in the War of Independence and took the anti-Treaty side in the Civil War. The Fianna
Fianna
were declared an illegal organisation by the government of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
in 1931. This was reversed when Fianna
Fianna
Fáil came to power in 1932, but re-introduced in 1938. During the splits in the Republican movement of the later part of the 20th century, the Fianna and Cumann na mBan
Cumann na mBan
supported Provisional Sinn Féin
Provisional Sinn Féin
in 1969 and Republican Sinn Féin
Republican Sinn Féin
in 1986. The Fianna
Fianna
is a Proscribed Organisation in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
under the Terrorism Act 2000.[1]

Contents

1 Origins 2 Early years 3 Irish Volunteers

3.1 1914 gun running 3.2 Easter Rising
Easter Rising
(1916)

4 Post 1916 reorganisation

4.1 Army Agreement

5 War of Independence 6 Civil War 7 1925 Ard Fheis 8 Fianna
Fianna
proscribed 9 Fianna
Fianna
organisation after 1950

9.1 Uniform changes ca. 1958 9.2 Jubilee Camp 1959 9.3 Junior members 9.4 New Fianna
Fianna
handbook 9.5 Arrest of Fianna
Fianna
officers 9.6 Activities 9.7 After 1969

10 Leaders 11 See also 12 References

12.1 Bibliography

13 External links

Origins[edit] An earlier "Fianna" was organised "to serve as a Junior Hurling League to promote the study of the Irish Language" on 26 June 1902 at the Catholic Boys’ Hall, Falls Road, in West Belfast, the brainchild of Bulmer Hobson.[2][3] Hobson, a Quaker
Quaker
influenced by suffragism and nationalism, joined the Irish Republican Brotherhood
Irish Republican Brotherhood
in 1904 and was an early member of Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
during its monarchist-nationalist period, alongside Arthur Griffith
Arthur Griffith
and Constance Markievicz.[4] Hobson later relocated to Dublin and the Fianna
Fianna
organisation collapsed in Belfast. Markievicz, inspired by the rapid growth of Baden-Powell's Boy Scouts,[5] formed sometime before July 1909 the Red Branch Knights, a Dublin branch of Irish National Boy Scouts.[6] After discussions involving Hobson, Markievicz, suffragist and labour activist Helena Molony and Seán McGarry, the Irish National Boy Scouts changed their name to Na Fianna
Fianna
Éireann at a meeting in 34 Lower Camden Street, Dublin, on 16 August 1909 (the building today marked with a commemorative plaque), at which Hobson was elected as president (thus ensuring a strong IRB influence), Markievicz as vice-president and Pádraig Ó Riain as secretary.[7] Seán Heuston
Seán Heuston
was the leader of the Fianna
Fianna
on Dublin's north side, while Cornelius "Con" Colbert was the leader on the south side. Early years[edit]

Fianna
Fianna
Scouts engaged in field medical training, c.1914

As with all Scouting
Scouting
organisations, an instructional handbook was a necessity. The job of producing this Fianna
Fianna
handbook fell to Pádraig Ó Riain. With articles from Patrick Pearse
Patrick Pearse
and Roger Casement, and advertisements from suppliers of uniforms and equipment, the first Fianna
Fianna
handbook appeared in 1913. It came at a time when the Irish Volunteers was being established and the book was widely used by this group also.[citation needed] Countess Markievicz bought a large rambling house at Ranelagh, Surrey House. It became the unofficial headquarters of the Fianna
Fianna
for some time. The older boys would gather and train here, and a mini firing range was set up in the basement. The boys also had a radio set in operation and this led to a raid from the DMP. A proper HQ was later set up in D'Olier Street.[citation needed] Members who reached seventeen years of age were recruited into the Irish Republican Brotherhood
Irish Republican Brotherhood
(IRB), and in 1912 Hobson started an IRB circle within the Fianna, named the John Mitchel Literary and Debating Society, whose members included Colbert, Ó Riain, Heuston, Garry Holohan, Desmond Ryan, Liam Mellows
Liam Mellows
and Barney Mellows.[8] Irish Volunteers[edit]

Fianna
Fianna
memorial at St. Stephen's Green Park, Dublin, Ireland.

The Fianna
Fianna
played an active part during the 1913 Dublin Lock-out. A Fianna, Patsy O'Connor, died after being struck on the head by a Dublin Metropolitan Police baton while giving first aid to an injured man.[2] As the Fianna
Fianna
had been organised four years earlier than the Irish Volunteers, and as many of its members were now young adults, fully trained in many aspects of military discipline, many young members transferred over to the Volunteers in November 1913. The original committee which set up the new volunteer movement had three Fianna members on it.[3] Con Colbert, Michael Lonergan, Éamon Martin and Padraig Ó'Riain were prominent in training Irish Volunteers. Seamus Pounch was instrumental in the training of the newly formed Cumann na mBan women's organisation in 1914.[citation needed] 1914 gun running[edit]

Fianna
Fianna
Éireann Council, 1915. Front row (left to right) Patrick Holohan, Michael Lonergan and Con Colbert. Back row (left to right) Garry Holohan and Padraig Ryan.

The Fianna
Fianna
played a part in gun-running in Kilcoole
Kilcoole
and Howth, under Hobson's direction.[9] Fianna
Fianna
members brought their treck-cart to Howth Pier to meet the Asgard. The treck-cart was full of home-made batons, and these were distributed to the Volunteers on the pier.[10] The cart was then used to carry the surplus rifles back to the city. At Clontarf, the DMP and British military were awaiting the return of the volunteers and a confrontation ensued.[10] Fianna
Fianna
officers made a decision and detoured with their gun-laden cart up the Howth Road, arriving eventually at Kilmore Road, Artane, where the arms were stored for future recovery. Hobson reluctantly allowed John Redmond
John Redmond
to gain influence over the Volunteers, leading to a split at the outbreak of World War I. This and his subsequent opposition to the Easter Rising
Easter Rising
(he was kept under armed guard that Easter Monday by Seán MacDermott
Seán MacDermott
until the rising was well underway) led to Hobson's being sidelined by the republican movement and removed from any leadership role for the rest of his life.[citation needed] Easter Rising
Easter Rising
(1916)[edit]

Fian Seán Healy, the youngest casualty in the Easter Rising
Easter Rising
on the Republican side at 15 years old

The Fianna
Fianna
was represented at all the garrisons that were involved in the fighting of the 1916 Easter Rising. Even though they were then more heavily involved with the Irish Volunteers, Seán Heuston
Seán Heuston
and Con Colbert were still regarded as Fianna
Fianna
members. Heuston was given the task of commanding the Mendicity Institution, while Colbert was under the command of Éamonn Ceannt
Éamonn Ceannt
at Watkins Brewery. Heuston and Colbert both were executed for their part in the Rising. In Galway, Liam Mellows was in command of activities, but escaped capture and got safely to the United States. (Mellows later returned to Ireland and was executed during the Irish Civil War.) Markievicz and Molony both actively fought as members of the Irish Citizen Army (the Irish Volunteers
Irish Volunteers
was an exclusively male force); Markievicz, operating under Michael Mallin
Michael Mallin
at the College of Surgeons, was sentenced to death but eventually reprieved due to her gender. After the provisional government abandoned the GPO, and set up HQ at Moore Street, James Connolly
James Connolly
gave command of the GPO to Seán McLoughlin, a Fianna
Fianna
officer. His orders were to oversee the safe retreat of the rest of the occupants.[citation needed] Among the first shots fired during the Rising were by Fianna
Fianna
members who attacked and captured the Magazine Fort
Magazine Fort
in the Phoenix Park. A son of the Magazine Fort's commander was shot dead by an IRA volunteer, Garry Holohan, as he [the son] ran to raise the alarm at Islandbridge.[11][12][13] Several of the Fianna
Fianna
were killed during the Rising. Seán Healy was shot dead at Phibsboro
Phibsboro
while delivering despatches. Seán Howard and Seán Ryan died in similar fashion. Volunteers under the command of Fianna
Fianna
officer Paddy Holahan captured and burned down the Linenhall Barracks. Eamon Martin, a future Chief of Staff, was seriously wounded at the Broadstone Railway Station. At least fifteen Fianna
Fianna
officers from the Dublin Brigade were later interned at Frongoch, North Wales after the Rising was put down.[citation needed] Seán Heuston
Seán Heuston
and Con Colbert were executed for their role in the Rising. Post 1916 reorganisation[edit]

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The Fianna
Fianna
was first to re-organise after the Easter Rising
Easter Rising
of 1916. A provisional governing committee was set up in Dublin in May 1916, including Eamon Martin, Seamus Pounch, Theo Fitzgerald, Liam Staines, and Joe Reynolds. All had evaded the round-up after the Rising. This committee functioned until January 1917, when it handed over command to the newly released senior officers. In February 1917, a section of the Fianna
Fianna
marched in full uniform to mass at Blanchardstown, County Dublin for Michael Mallin, who had been executed following the Easter Rising. Garry Holohan reported that "As the police did not interfere, we got courage and got bolder and bolder. On one route march, the police at James Street stopped us and an Inspector of the DMP grabbed me. However, as the Fianna
Fianna
Scouts became so threatening, I was released." One year after the Rising, a large demonstration was held outside the burnt-out shell of Liberty Hall. A large contingent of Dublin Metropolitan Police (DMP), including an Inspector John Mills, arrived and the Riot Act was read to the crowd. The police waded into the crowd with batons to arrest those addressing the crowd, including Cathal Brugha
Cathal Brugha
and George Noble (Count) Plunkett. While escorting the prisoners, Inspector Mills was struck a mortal blow to the head with a hurling stick. Later Fianna
Fianna
witness statements indicated that the blow was struck by Eamon Murray, a young Fianna
Fianna
officer, who was O/C of a Sluagh (branch) on Parnell Square. He made off from the scene along Abbey Street, pursued by a DMP man. He was cornered at Marlborough Street, but he or another Fianna
Fianna
member drew a pistol and the policeman backed off.[14] The youth who struck the blow was secreted away to the United States, where he remained until the Truce of 1921, and later fought with the anti-Treaty IRA during the Civil War.[citation needed] An intensive recruiting campaign had been set in motion throughout the city and county after the earlier reorganisation of January 1917, and it proved to be a tremendous success. Recruits came in large numbers and new companies were formed. In June, the Dublin Battalion had become so large and unwieldy, that it was decided to set up a Brigade structure of two battalions. The county was simply split in two, with the Liffey as the divide. South of the Liffey became the 1st Battalion and north of the Liffey became the 2nd Battalion. The Dublin Brigade Staff in June 1917 comprised Garry Holohan (Commandant), P.J. Stephenson (Adjutant) and Joe Reynolds (QM).[citation needed] The Fianna
Fianna
continued to defy the British ban on marching and parading, and drilled openly with hurleys in open defiance. This inevitably led to clashes with the DMP and the RIC in outlying areas. The most notable clash occurred in July 1917, when the whole Dublin Battalion went on a route march through the South City and County. Efforts were made by the DMP to stop the march and break it up at Terenure and Rathmines DMP stations, but the paraders broke through the cordons at both points. The march continued to the GPO, where the parade was dismissed. Seán Saunders recalled being arrested at Milltown with Roddy Connolly (son of James Connolly), Hugo MacNeill, Theo Fitzgerald, Seán McLoughlin and Garry Holohan.[citation needed] Army Agreement[edit]

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It came to the attention of GHQ Staff c1918 that in many areas around the country the Fianna
Fianna
was being controlled by the local units of the Irish Volunteers. A meeting of Fianna
Fianna
GHQ representatives and Volunteer representatives was held in Dublin to discuss the problem. What emerged from this meeting was known as the Army Agreement. From that point on, the Volunteers would not seek to control Fianna
Fianna
in their areas. Those who reached the age of seventeen had transferred to the Volunteers ranks; this would now cease and any transfer would be voluntary. The volunteer O/C was to liaise with the Fianna
Fianna
O/C on all local matters, and due consideration was to be extended to Fianna. War of Independence[edit]

Fianna
Fianna
Scout Patrick Hanley, killed in action by the RIC in Cork, 27 Nov 1920

During the "Tan War", Fianna
Fianna
members featured prominently in every brigade area. Some lost their lives or were imprisoned. In the picture taken of the West Mayo Brigade Active Service Unit in 1921, ten of the thirty in the photograph had been members of the Westport Fianna Sluagh, as had Tom Derrig, who rose to the rank of Adjutant General during the Civil War.[15] During the Truce, the Fianna
Fianna
devoted a great amount of time to training. At least three full-time training camps were set up to train potential officers. Each prospective officer had to attend the camp for one weeks training. One of these camps was held at Kilmore Road, Artane and another at Kilmashogue Mountain. At the 1921 Ard Fheis held in Dublin some interesting figures were given about the strength of the organisation:- Munster had 84 Fianna
Fianna
sluaithe (branches), Ulster 20, Connaught 10 and Leinster 41. Kerry had 37 Sluaithe, Cork 24, and Dublin 16.[16] The Fianna
Fianna
held discussions all over the country where they debated the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. At an Ard Fheis, Fianna
Fianna
rejected the Treaty and called for all to still work for a Republic. In support of this, the Dublin Brigade's Fianna
Fianna
marched to The Smithfield where they were reviewed by senior Republican leaders.[17] Civil War[edit]

Brigadier Alf Colley, killed during Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War
at Whitehall, August 1922

Fianna
Fianna
Éireann played a major part in the civil war fighting, especially in Dublin. When the Four Courts Garrison was attacked in July 1922, a second front was created to relieve the Four Courts. The Dublin Brigade of the Fianna
Fianna
provided many leaders in this period. All along the eastern side of O'Connell Street buildings were taken over and barricaded. Parnell Square and Parnell Street were similarly barricaded. Fianna, under their new Brigadier, Seán Harling, took over 35 North Great Georges Street as a barracks. In August 1922 (the same month that saw the deaths of Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith), the Fianna
Fianna
sustained a heavy blow when two of their senior officers in Dublin, Seán Cole and Alf Colley, were shot dead by Free State Army Intelligence members at The Thatch, Whitehall. 400 officers and boys of the Fianna
Fianna
had taken part in the Dublin fighting of 1922. By October of that year, the only active members were in an ASU of eight members led by Frank Sherwin.[citation needed] The bullet-riddled corpses of three teenaged Fianna
Fianna
Scouts, Edwin Hughes (17), Joseph Rogers (16) and Brendan Holohan (16), were found at The Quarries, Naas Road, Clondalkin, on 28 November 1922.[18] They were all from the Drumcondra area and had been putting up republican posters in the Clonliffe Road district. They were arrested by high-ranking Free State officer, Charlie Dalton (younger brother of Emmet Dalton). The Scouts were brought for interrogation to Wellington Barracks, where Free State Army Intelligence had their HQ. That was the last time that they were seen alive.[18] When the Free State started to execute Republican prisoners, the first to be shot were four young men who had left the Fianna
Fianna
to join the Irish Republican Army. The executions of Rory O'Connor, Joe McKelvey, Liam Mellows
Liam Mellows
and Dick Barrett became a symbol for the Fianna. They became known as "The Four Martyrs". A prominent ex- Fianna
Fianna
officer, Aodh MacNeill (son of Eoin MacNeill), officiated at the executions. Eamon Martin related that he was a cellmate of Mellows in Mountjoy Prison. Until 1964, an annual concert was held by the Fianna
Fianna
to commemorate their executions. They were followed by another group of three, who had similarly graduated from the ranks of the Dublin Brigade of the Fianna.[19] The Fianna
Fianna
ceased to function as an open organisation by Christmas. All senior Fianna
Fianna
members were being rounded up by the Free State military and CID, and at the internment camp, Tintown 3, at the Curragh there was one hut dedicated to Fianna
Fianna
members, some as young as fourteen years.[16] 1925 Ard Fheis[edit]

Fianna
Fianna
Chief: Countess Markievicz Adjutant General: Barney Mellows A/Adjutant General: Alfie White Director of Organisation: Liam Langley A/Director of Organisation: Frank Sherwin QMG: Joe Reynolds A/QMG: Sean Harling

Sean Harling had been an outstanding Fianna
Fianna
officer for years. After internment he got married and eventually fell on hard times. In his own words, he was compromised by the Free State Special
Special
Branch and agreed to become an agent for them within the republican movement. He was eventually exposed by the Fianna
Fianna
Intelligence Officer, Frank Sherwin in 1926. Two former Fianna
Fianna
members made an attempt on his life in 1928, but Harling escaped and actually shot dead one of his attackers, Tim Coghlan of Inchicore. Harling was secreted out of the country by the Special
Special
Branch and ended up in the US until his return in 1933 to Ireland.[20] Fianna
Fianna
proscribed[edit]

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Fianna
Fianna
Éireann survived the Civil war period intact, they had sided with the Republic. The organisation was decimated then, and further disintegration occurred in 1926 when Fianna
Fianna
Fáil was founded. Markievicz was a founder member of that party but she died in 1927. In 1930 Fianna
Fianna
got the use of the Hardwicke Hall in Dublin as a headquarters as George Plunkett was nominated by the IRA as Chief Scout. This was a nominal position and the organisation was run by the HQ staff. At this time, Fianna
Fianna
expanded in proportion to the rest of the Republican Movement. In 1933 Frank Ryan became Adjutant General for a period of eight months. The 1934 HQ report said that there were 104 sluaithe in operation. 800 paraded under the Fianna
Fianna
flag at Bodenstown
Bodenstown
that year, and Diarmuid MacGiolla Phadraig became Adjutant General. The Free State government brought in new legislation in 1931 to counter the popularity of resurgent republicanism. Now the Fianna, the IRA and Cumann na mBan
Cumann na mBan
were all classified as illegal organisations. Many arrests followed and these organisations had once again to go underground for a period. However, when the Fianna
Fianna
Fáil government was elected to power in March 1932, this legislation was revoked and the prisoners were freed and many young republicans switched allegiance from the republican movement to Fianna
Fianna
Fáil. In 1934 the government set up a version of the Free State CID, when they enticed members of the Dublin Brigade IRA to join the Special
Special
Branch of the Garda Síochána. IRA volunteers were sworn in as Gardaí detective officers and were issued handguns, ammunition, badges and whistles. They were under the control of Ned Broy of the CID and became known as the "Broy Harriers". The term "Broy Harrier" was first used in the Seanad by Senator O'Rourke during the discussion on the Garda Síochána estimates on 13 August 1933.[21] The 1936 Fianna
Fianna
Convention reported that there were 18 sluaithe in the organisation. The IRA, Cumann na mBan
Cumann na mBan
and the Fianna
Fianna
were once again outlawed in June. In 1938 an advisory body of prominent republicans was set up to help re-organize a failing Fianna; included were George Plunkett, Brian O'Higgins, Mary MacSwiney
Mary MacSwiney
and Madge Daly. The following year, Joe Atkinson of Belfast
Belfast
was appointed as a national organiser and travelled about the country on a bicycle, contacting failed Fianna
Fianna
sluaithe and creating new ones. Later that year he was appointed Adjutant General and Liam Nolan of Kerry became National Organiser. George Plunkett resigned as Chief Scout for health reasons. In 1940, 150 Fianna
Fianna
marched in Dublin on the eve of the executions of two republicans responsible for a fatal bombing in Coventry, Barnes and McCormack in Britain. Fianna
Fianna
in Dublin were under the control of Jack Rowan, Kevin Hudson and Mattie O'Neill. Four sluaithe were reported active in Dublin and although the use of Hardwicke Hall was lost, newly released internees helped in the re-organization, including Wattie Bell, Noel and Des Goulding, Paddy Dillon and Mattie Carey. By 1943, owing to arrests, internment and emigration, Fianna
Fianna
in Dublin was reduced to one sluagh, run by Peadar Timmins. Dick Bell was released from internment in 1945 and led Fianna
Fianna
in Dublin, with Con Dillon as his adjutant and Mattie O'Neill as QM, they set up a Fianna GHQ. By 1947 Dublin had a new O/C, Des Carron, with Wattie Bell as his adjutant. The first Annual camp was held in 1947 and later that year Carron and Bell cycled to Munster, organising Fianna
Fianna
sluaithe at Clonmel and Tralee. The following year the first Ard Fheis since 1940 was held in Dublin. Dublin reported having but one sluagh, which met at 9 Parnell Square. Fianna
Fianna
organisation after 1950[edit]

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In 1951 the Ard Fheis in Dublin reported that 9 sluaithe were in existence. 500 Fianna
Fianna
were present at the Bodenstown
Bodenstown
commemoration and Dick Bell was re-elected as Chief Scout. He did not seek re-election at the 1952 Ard Fheis and Tomas MacCurtain was nominated as a nominal Chief Scout, succeeded by Ned Kelly of Long Lane, Dorset Street, Dublin in 1953.[16] Ned Kelly soon he gathered around him a cadre of young leaders and had four sluaithe running in the Dublin area. These were at North City, Drimnagh/Crumlin, Dundrum and Finglas. He had as his adjutant Brian McConnell from Swilly Road in Cabra. His QM was Annrai MacGloin, from Bohernabreena. When World War II broke out, the old IRA and old Fianna
Fianna
organisations marched as a body to Griffith Barracks
Griffith Barracks
in Dublin and they joined the Irish Army there as a separate battalion (the 26th Battalion). When on parade, this battalion was allowed to fly the Fianna
Fianna
and Óglaigh na h-Éireann flags. When the war was over these bodies stayed intact and had premises at Parnell Square. They marched in Bodenstown
Bodenstown
with Fianna Fáil and attended all the usual commemorations organised by the government. In 1953, the Old Fianna
Fianna
organisation issued an invitation to Ned Kelly (Chief Scout) to meet with them. The Old Fianna reportedly offered their Fianna
Fianna
flag to the then-current Fianna. However, when Kelly heard that the flag would be handed over in a military barracks in an official ceremony, that was unacceptable, and the parley proved fruitless. The old Fianna
Fianna
petered out in the late 1950s.[22] In 1954/55 a serious split occurred in the republican Movement. Activists, led by Joe Christle, became disenchanted with the leadership. They were looking for armed action in occupied Ireland, but were being restrained by the Army Council. This breakaway group aligned with Saor Uladh. They set up a youth group who also called themselves Fianna
Fianna
Éireann. They had a 'Chief Scout' named Gearoid O'Kelly, who previously had a Fianna
Fianna
sluagh in Newbridge, but was now living in Ballyboden. This 'Fianna' had one sluagh at Inchicore, with members mainly from the Drimnagh/Crumlin area. They were unrecognisable from members of the Fianna. One serious clash occurred between these groups later in 1959, over the illegal sale of the Easter Lily. Ned Kelly was dismissed from the republican movement in 1955 and replaced as Chief Scout by George Darle from Drumcondra. Darle was a nominee of the IRA and had some CBSI experience behind him and he brought some new blood into the organisation,[23] including Frank Lee and Terry Kiely. They set about reorganising the Fianna
Fianna
and soon new sluaithe were being formed in Navan, Dundalk, Drogheda and Sligo. A new modern uniform was also mooted at this time.[24] The Border Campaign by the IRA began in December 1956 and it led to the Fianna
Fianna
losing many of its members, especially in Dublin. In January 1957, 38 IRA recruits were surrounded in a house, used as a training camp, in Glencree, Co. Wicklow. At least 12 of these had been members of the Dublin Battalion of the Fianna. This was a great set-back at the time, and responsibility now fell on the younger members to carry on with the organising. Finglas, for instance, had lost its O/C, and its QM.[25] Uniform changes ca. 1958[edit]

Dick McKee
Dick McKee
commemoration, November 1958

The uniform in 1958 was basically the same as when Fianna
Fianna
was founded in 1909 and some members were advocating change. Scouts wore a green blouse with two rows of brass buttons, an orange neckerchief, slouch hat, blacks shorts and a white lanyard that was attached to his Scout whistle. Officers were still wearing riding breeches and a military type jacket, slouch hat and a Sam Brown belt. As slouch hats were hard to find, berets became the headdress for officers. Different type uniforms were mooted and an American Boy Scout pattern was decided on. Scouts would now wear a green shirt with two pockets and a military-style side hat. The uniforms eventually arrived and were first seen at the annual Dick McKee
Dick McKee
Commemoration in Finglas
Finglas
Village in November 1958.[26] Eventually, the side hats were replaced by a green beret, and the long trousers for officers were replaced by black shorts or breeches again. Frank Lee and Terry Kiely left the Fianna after a falling-out.[27] Jubilee Camp 1959[edit]

Fianna
Fianna
Officers, Bodenstown, 1959

A committee was sent up by GHQ in 1958 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Fianna's founding. Chief Scout Jimmy Cruise headed this body and it was decided to hold a camp in central Ireland for all Fianna
Fianna
sluaithe. Permission was given by the Patrician Brothers, Ballyfin, County Laois, to use their extensive grounds for this purpose in August 1959. These were years when money was scarce and travelling made difficult. Consequently, only about 100 Fianna
Fianna
members attended the camp. Each sluagh catered for itself and there were joint activities organised. The Special
Special
Branch of the Garda Síochána
Garda Síochána
was busy while the camp was in progress, visiting the homes of Fianna members, especially the young Scouts, telling the parents that the boys were on an IRA training camp. Quite a few members were lost this way. In 1959, Fianna
Fianna
was given the privilege of having its colour party lead the annual pilgrimage to the grave of Wolfe Tone
Wolfe Tone
at Bodenstown. A report to the Ard Fheis in 1963 showed that, as well as the sluaithe mentioned above, there were now new units in Roscrea, Nenagh, and Ballyfermot/Chapelizod. A new department had been set up which catered for friends of the Fianna
Fianna
who were either too old to join, or were not in a position to do so. This was known as the dept. of Associated Members. This new section was run by the Adjutant General.[28]

Fianna
Fianna
colour party, Bodenstown
Bodenstown
1959

Junior members[edit]

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Fianna
Fianna
had always catered for boys between the ages of eleven years and sixteen years. About 1959, a new idea was put in place to cater to younger boys. With the assistance of some Cumann na mBan
Cumann na mBan
members, boys as young as eight years were allowed into the ranks of the Fianna. They wore a plain green sweater and yellow neckerchief. This venture was a success and most sluaithe (branches) followed suit. New Fianna
Fianna
handbook[edit] A committee was set up circa 1963 to gather funds to produce a new Fianna
Fianna
handbook. All of the committee were members of the GHQ, and included Liam MacAnUltaigh, Deasún Ó Briain, Brian Mulvanney, Uinsionn O'Cathain and Tony Shannon. Funds and advertisers were procured and a new handbook appeared ca. 1965. This was the third edition of the handbook, the others having been printed in 1913 and 1924.[29] Arrest of Fianna
Fianna
officers[edit]

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Around November 1963 action was taken against Gearóid O'Kelly who was posing as "Chief Scout" of the Fianna. He was constantly seen about Dublin on weekends, collecting money in pubs for "Republican Prisoners Dependents". He was warned several times to desist, but continued to carry on. On a Saturday night in November 1963 he was stopped near his home at Ballyboden Road, Rathfarnham, by a party of armed men. They bundled him into a field and "tarred and feathered" him. The consequence of this action was that about eleven senior officers were arrested by the Special
Special
Branch the following Monday morning and brought to the Bridewell. After a few hours, O'Kelly was brought in to try to identify those who may have assaulted him. The officers were all brought into one room and O'Kelly viewed them through a glass panel from an adjoining room. No one was detained, and most had alibis, as they were at an Ard Coiste meeting at Gardiner Place at the time of the assault and had been seen entering and leaving the building by the Special
Special
Branch men who constantly watched that premises. O'Kelly had also fallen out with his 'Fianna' and two of his associates (Weldon and Phelan), spent six months in prison for assaulting him. He gave up his activities at this stage. Activities[edit]

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A Fianna
Fianna
Éireann/ Ógra Shinn Féin
Ógra Shinn Féin
colour party at Galbally, Tyrone 2009

The 1950s and 1960s were very active years for Fianna
Fianna
members. A Sluagh usually held one meeting per week, where all met on parade in full uniform. All the usual Scouting
Scouting
test work was undertaken, games played and instructions given regarding hikes or camps on the following weekend. Weather never held the Scouts back from the 'great outdoors', and Fianna
Fianna
members could be encountered in all weathers, especially in the Dublin/Wicklow mountains. This was a time when much military surplus clothing and camping equipment was coming on the market in the aftermath of the Korean War of 1951-52. One Sluagh, Finglas, had ex-British Army snow tents, suitable for camping out in all types of weather. Another favourite weekend pastime was 'shacking'. Throughout the mountains were numerous old deserted houses (shacks), and at weekends the Fianna
Fianna
would use them for shelter. One favourite one was called 'Thunders' in Glencree. Another was in the Glen of the Downs, near the village of Delgany, where there was a Fianna
Fianna
Sluagh. All-night hikes were a favourite with the officers. The last bus out of town to Rathfarnham, Enniskerry or Bohernabreena would be taken, and then the group would march all night across the hills, to where they would pick up the first bus back to the city again. Youth-hosteling was also undertaken, popular with the younger Scouts. Hostels such as Glencree, Baltyboys and Knockree were all within striking distance of the buses from Dublin. Many Dublin Sluagh organised Whit weekend camps and annual week long camps. During the early 1960s national camps were held at Castledermot (County Carlow) and another at Glencolumbkille (County Donegal).

A Fianna
Fianna
Éireann/ Ógra Shinn Féin
Ógra Shinn Féin
colour party in Belfast
Belfast
2010

Republican commemorations were constantly being held and the Fianna was obliged to turn out in full to them. And during this time high ranking Inchicore republican John McGrath brought in several new members to the Fianna. The annual Easter Commemoration was usually the first on the calendar. The parade would line up at St. Stephens Green and march all the way to Glasnevin Cemetery. On the same day, a parade was usually held in Blackrock or Deans Grange Cemetery as well. The Wolf Tone Commemoration was next in line, usually on the last Sunday in June. This was usually a great day out. Trains would come from Dublin, Cork and Kerry for the occasion, and buses from all parts of the country: it was a festive occasion. In November there was held the Manchester Martyrs
Manchester Martyrs
parade and concert, and in December the Fianna always hosted the Four Martyrs Concert in Dublin. In between all of these occasions, there were many times when the Fianna
Fianna
was invited to provide colour-parties and contingents in various parts of the country to commemorate fallen republican soldiers. Many republican demonstrations were held in these years to protest against internment and coercion. The Fianna
Fianna
always played its part on these occasions and was highly visible on the streets when needed. A major source of income always came from the sale of the Easter Lily at Eastertime. Many times the boxes and contents were confiscated by the Garda, as the Fianna
Fianna
never applied for permits.

A plaque in memory of Fian John Dempsey – the last member of the organisation to have been killed on active service

After 1969[edit]

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In common with the wider republican movement, the Fianna
Fianna
experienced a number of bitter splits after the outbreak of the Troubles. In 1969 two rival groups claimed the title of the Fianna
Fianna
Éireann; one composed of members under the control and influence of the Official movement who wanted to end the Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
abstentionist policy, and the other aligned to the re-organized Provisional Sinn Féin
Provisional Sinn Féin
and IRA movement who supported a continuation of the traditional policy. In 1986 there was a further split within (Provisional) Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
and the IRA due to the dropping of Sinn Féin's abstentionist policy. After this split the Fianna
Fianna
withdrew its support from the Provisional movement, citing republican principles. It now supports the Continuity IRA. Vice News
Vice News
reported that in early 2015 the group had about 30 members.[30] Leaders[edit]

Eamon Martin (ca. 1917–1922) Pádraig Ó Riain, July 1915 (Ó Riain fell out of favour after the Rising; Bureau of Military History Statement from Ó Riain's sister, ca. 1953) Constance Markievicz
Constance Markievicz
(ca. 1923) Liam Langley (Langlaoich) (ca. 1929) Frank Ryan (ca. 1932) George Plunkett (ca. 1933) Tomás Óg Mac Curtain, Cork. (c.1948–50) Dick Bell, Dublin. (ca. 1950-52) Ned Kelly, Dublin (1952–55) George Darle, Dublin (1955–57) Pat Madden, Cork (1958) Jimmy Cruise, Dublin (1958–60) Brian Murphy, Dublin (1960–62) Uinsionn Ó Cathain (1962–1964) Seán Ó Cionnaith
Seán Ó Cionnaith
(temporary Chief Scout in late 1964)[16] Liam Mac an Ultaigh (1965–19??) Donal Varian, Cork (?-?)

See also[edit]

Ógra Shinn Féin Urz Skaouted Bleimor Urdd Gobaith Cymru

References[edit]

^ Schedule 2, Terrorism Act 2000, Act No. 11 of 2000 ^ a b Connell, Joseph E. " Fianna
Fianna
na hÉireann/Na Fianna
Fianna
Éireann". History Ireland. Retrieved 15 January 2015.  ^ a b Witness Statement of Bulmer Hobson
Bulmer Hobson
to the Bureau of Military History, 1948 ^ Eichelberger, Shannon. "1905 - Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
is founded in Dublin". Halla Mór. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2015.  ^ Damian Lawlor, Does anyone remember Na Fianna
Fianna
Éireann? ^ Talk
Talk
History radio programme, Newstalk Radio, 18 August 2009 ^ Ó Shea, Donnchadh. "The foundation of Na Fianna
Fianna
Éireann". War of Independence. Retrieved 15 January 2015.  ^ Hay, Marnie (May 2008). "The foundation and development of Na Fianna Éireann, 1909-16" (PDF). Irish Historical Studies. 36 (141): 60. Retrieved 27 March 2016.  ^ "Today in Irish History – 26 July 1914: The Howth Gun Running". The Irish Story. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2015.  ^ a b "The extraordinary story of the Asgard and the Howth Gunrunning, 100 years on". RTÉ News. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2015.  ^ "How a 1916 Myth Lives On". RTÉ. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2015.  ^ "Children of the Revolution". History Ireland. Retrieved 6 December 2015.  ^ "George Alexander "Alec" Playfair". FindAGrave. Retrieved 6 December 2015.  ^ http://comeheretome.com/2014/01/09/the-killing-of-inspector-mills-in-june-1917/ ^ Westport Fianna
Fianna
Sluagh, Westport Historical Society Journal, 2007 publication. ^ a b c d John R. Watts, Na Fianna
Fianna
Éireann: A Case Study of a Political Youth Organisation, PhD thesis, University of Glasgow, 1981 ^ Poblacht na h-Éireann, 16 January 1922. ^ a b Kevin Myers, "Pity those poor children", Independent.ie, 29 January 2008; accessed 17 April 2012. ^ War News No. 37, 3 December 1922 ^ Report of Inquiry into the death of Tim Coghlan, 1928, at National Archives. ^ Report of Seanad debate, 14 August 1933. ^ Fianna
Fianna
Éireann notes, United Irishman, September 1953 ^ United Irishman, January 1955 ^ Fianna
Fianna
Éireann weekly notes in Dublin Evening Mail, August 1958. ^ Fianna
Fianna
Éireann notes, United Irishman, February 1957. ^ United Irishman, December 1958, p.3 ^ Fianna
Fianna
Éireann notes, United Irishman, March 1959. ^ Fianna
Fianna
newspaper, January 1964 ^ Fianna
Fianna
Handbook advertised for sale in United Irishman, January 1965. ^ "The Republic's Dissident Youth: Ireland's Young Warriors". VICE. 

Bibliography[edit]

Na Fianna
Fianna
Éireann, 1909-2009 Centenary Commemorative Booklet Damian Lawlor, Na Fianna
Fianna
Éireann and the Irish Revolution - 1909 to 1923 Marnie Hay, Bulmer Hobson
Bulmer Hobson
and the Nationalist Movement in Twentieth Century Ireland J. Anthony Gaughan, Scouting
Scouting
in Ireland Wolfe Tone
Wolfe Tone
Annual, 1962 by Briain O'hUiginn Fianna
Fianna
Éireann Handbooks, 1913, 1924, 1964

External links[edit]

Na Fianna
Fianna
Éireann

v t e

Irish Republican Army (1919–1922)

General

Genealogy Irish Volunteers Irish Citizen Army Easter Rising Sinn Féin Declaration of Independence Irish Republic Dáil Éireann ( First Dáil
First Dáil
& Second Dáil) Irish Bulletin Irish War of Independence Flying column Government of Ireland Act 1920 British Partition ( Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
& Southern Ireland) Anglo-Irish Treaty Irish Civil War Irish Free State

Organisation

Brigades of the Irish Republican Army Irish Republican Police The Squad

Actions

Soloheadbeg ambush Rescue at Knocklong Listowel mutiny Rineen ambush Tooreen ambush Battle of Ballinalee Dublin Bloody Sunday Kilmichael ambush Clonfin ambush Dromkeen ambush Upton train ambush Clonmult ambush Coolavokig ambush Sheemore ambush Clonbanin ambush Selton Hill ambush Burgery ambush Crossbarry ambush Headford ambush Scramoge ambush Kilmeena ambush Custom House burning Carrowkennedy ambush Coolacrease killings Belfast
Belfast
Bloody Sunday

Chiefs of Staff

Cathal Brugha
Cathal Brugha
(1917–19) Richard Mulcahy
Richard Mulcahy
(1919–22) Eoin O'Duffy
Eoin O'Duffy
(1922)

Personalities

Michael Collins JJ "Ginger" O'Connell Terence MacSwiney Emmet Dalton Dick McKee Paddy Daly Piaras Béaslaí Robert Erskine Childers Liam Mellows Joe McKelvey Frank Aiken Gearóid O'Sullivan Tom Maguire Seán Lemass Seán Mac Mahon Stephen Behan Andrew Cooney Seán Treacy Dan Breen Seán Hogan Séamus Robinson Tom Barry Seán Mac Eoin Charlie Hurley Seán O'Hegarty Seán Moylan Tom McEllistrim George Oliver Plunkett George Lennon Michael Kilroy Ernie O'Malley Frank Aiken Moss Twomey Tom Hales Sean Hales Peadar O'Donnell Liam Tobin Joseph McGrath Richard Barrett Louis Darcy

Associates

Irish Republican Brotherhood Cumann na mBan Fianna
Fianna
Éireann Clan na Gael Irish Self-Determination League National Association of Old IRA 1916–1921 Club

Derivatives

National Army Anti-Treaty Irish Republican Army

v t e

Irish Republican Army (1922–69)

General

Genealogy Irish Republican Army (1917–22) British Partition ( Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
& Southern Ireland) Anglo-Irish Treaty
Anglo-Irish Treaty
(in relation to the IRA) Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War
(Timeline & Executions) Munster Republic Comhairle na dTeachtaí Irish republican legitimism Abstentionism Collaboration with the Abwehr The Emergency Plan Kathleen Haughey arms crisis Officials-Provisionals split

Organisation

IRA Army Council IRA Northern Command

Attacks

Battle of Dublin Battle of Kilmallock Anti-Treaty Guerilla Campaign Christmas Raid Sabotage Campaign Northern Campaign Border Campaign

Chiefs of Staff

Liam Lynch (1922) Joe McKelvey (1922) Liam Lynch (1922–23) Frank Aiken
Frank Aiken
(1923–25) Andrew Cooney (1925–26) Moss Twomey (1926–36) Seán MacBride
Seán MacBride
(1936) Tom Barry (1936–37) Mick Fitzpatrick (1937-38) Seán Russell
Seán Russell
(1938-40) Stephen Hayes (1940–41) Pearse Kelly (1941) Seán Harrington (1941–42) Seán McCool (1942) Eoin McNamee (1942) Hugh McAteer (1942) Charlie Kerins (1942–44) Harry White (1944–45) Patrick Fleming (1945–47) Willie McGuinness (1947–48) Tony Magan (1948-57) Richard Burke (1957) Tony Magan (1957) Seán Cronin (1957–58) John Joe McGirl (1958) Ruairí Ó Brádaigh
Ruairí Ó Brádaigh
(1958-59) Seán Cronin (1959–60) Ruairí Ó Brádaigh
Ruairí Ó Brádaigh
(1960-62) Cathal Goulding (1962–69)

Personalities

Cathal Brugha Liam Mellows Robert Erskine Childers Michael Carolan Richard Barrett Hugh Corvin Ernie O'Malley Tom Maguire Paddy McLogan Seamus O'Donovan Frank Ryan Máirtín Ó Cadhain Brendan Behan Dominic Behan Tomás Ó Dubhghaill Seán South Fergal O'Hanlon Manus Canning Seán Mac Stíofáin Joe Cahill Joe McCann Liam Kelly Tom Hales Peadar O'Donnell Éamonn O'Doherty Billy McKee

Associates

Cumann na mBan Fianna
Fianna
Éireann Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
(1922–26 & 1938–69) Clan na Gael National Graves Association Comhairle na Poblachta (1929–31) Saor Éire (1931) Cumann Poblachta na hÉireann (1936–37) Córas na Poblachta Connolly Association (Communist Party of Great Britain) Wolfe Tone
Wolfe Tone
Societies Clann na hÉireann

Derivatives

Republican Congress Saor Uladh Provisional Irish Republican Army Official Irish Republican Army

v t e

Provisional Irish Republican Army

General

Anti-Treaty IRA Sinn Féin Republican News An Phoblacht The Green Book The Troubles
The Troubles
(Timeline) Haughey arms crisis Officials-Provisionals split Provisional IRA campaign Arms importation Disappeared Mountjoy Prison helicopter escape Blanket protest Dirty protest HM Prison Maze Anti H-Block 1981 Irish hunger strike Maze Prison escape Armalite and ballot box strategy Smithwick Tribunal Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
peace process North American arrests Barrack buster Good Friday Agreement

Organisation

IRA Army Council Internal Security Unit Active Service Unit (ASU) Provisional IRA Belfast
Belfast
Brigade Provisional IRA Derry Brigade Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade Provisional IRA East Tyrone Brigade Provisional IRA Balcombe Street Gang ASU

Attacks

Insurgency, 1969–1977

Battle of St Matthew's 1970 RUC booby-trap bombing Scottish soldiers' killings Balmoral showroom bombing Abercorn bombing Donegall St bombing Battle at Springmartin Bloody Friday Claudy bombing Coleraine bombings M62 coach bombing Guildford pub bombings Brook's Club bomb attack British Airways bombing attempt Birmingham pub bombings Bayardo Bar attack Caterham Arms pub bombing London Hilton bombing Green Park tube station bombing Scott's Oyster Bar bombing Walton's Restaurant bombing Drummuckavall ambush Balcombe Street siege Kingsmill massacre

Long War, 1977–1988

1978 Lisnamuck shoot-out Jonesboro Gazelle downing La Mon restaurant bombing 1978 Crossmaglen Ambush Warrenpoint ambush Dunmurry train explosion Lough Foyle attacks Chelsea Barracks bombing Hyde Park and Regent's Park bombings Harrods bombing Woolwich barracks Brighton hotel bombing Ballygawley land mine attack Newry mortar attack Ballygawley attack The Birches attack JHQ Rheindahlen bombing (Germany)

Peace Process, 1988–1998

Corporals killings Lisburn van bombing 1988 Netherlands Attacks Inglis Barracks Ballygawley bus bombing Jonesborough ambush Deal barracks bombing Derryard attack Derrygorry Gazelle downing RFA Fort Victoria bombing Proxy bombings Downing St mortar attack Mullacreevie ambush Glenanne barracks bombing Teebane bombing Cloghoge attack 1992 Manchester bombing South Armagh sniper campaign Warrington bomb attacks Cullaville occupation Bishopsgate bombing Battle of Newry Road Shankill Road bombing Crossmaglen Lynx downing Drumcree conflict Docklands bombing 1996 Manchester bombing Osnabrück mortar attack Thiepval barracks bombing Coalisland attack July 1997 riots

Chiefs of Staff

Seán Mac Stíofáin (1969–72) Joe Cahill (1972–73) Seamus Twomey (1973) Éamonn O'Doherty (1973–74) Seamus Twomey (1974–77) Gerry Adams
Gerry Adams
(1977–78) Martin McGuinness
Martin McGuinness
(1978–82) Ivor Bell (1982–83) Kevin McKenna (1983–97) Thomas "Slab" Murphy (1997–2005)

Personalities (Volunteers)

Billy McKee Gerry Kelly Dolours Price Marian Price Roy Walsh John Joe McGirl Ruairí Ó Brádaigh Dáithí Ó Conaill George Harrison Billy Reid Michael Gaughan Pat Doherty Hugh Doherty Séanna Breathnach Proinsias MacAirt John Kelly Rose Dugdale John Francis Green Peter Cleary Kevin Coen Frank Stagg Kieran Nugent Francis Hughes Brendan Hughes Tommy McKearney Raymond McCartney Gerry McGeough Gerard Casey Thomas McMahon Eamon Collins Gerard Tuite Patrick Magee Bobby Sands Raymond McCreesh Joe McDonnell Martin Hurson Kieran Doherty Thomas McElwee Michael McKevitt Alex Maskey Fra McCann Owen Carron Paul Butler Dessie Ellis Angelo Fusco Breandán Mac Cionnaith Rita O'Hare Martin Meehan Arthur Morgan Danny Morrison Antoine Mac Giolla Bhrighde Kieran Fleming William Fleming Bernard Fox Paddy Quinn Laurence McKeown Pat McGeown Matt Devlin Pat Sheehan Siobhán O'Hanlon Jackie McMullan Patrick Joseph Kelly Larry Marley Jim Lynagh Pádraig McKearney Brendan McFarlane Charles Breslin Sean O'Callaghan Séamus McElwaine Gabriel Cleary Daniel McCann Seán Savage Mairéad Farrell Martin McCaughey Dessie Grew Fergal Caraher Patricia Black Malachy Carey Martin McGartland Joseph MacManus Paul Magee Pearse Jordan Thomas Begley Martin Doherty Ed O'Brien Diarmuid O'Neill Carál Ní Chuilín Ian Milne Conor Murphy Martina Anderson Jennifer McCann Liam Campbell Colin Duffy

Espionage & Supergrasses

Denis Donaldson Freddie Scappaticci (allegedly "Stakeknife") Martin McGartland Raymond Gilmour Kevin Fulton Joseph Fenton Eamon Collins

Associates

Cumann na mBan Fianna
Fianna
Éireann South Armagh Republican Action Force Direct Action Against Drugs NORAID Provisional Clan na Gael Friends of Sinn Féin Cairde na hÉireann Troops Out Movement

Derivatives

Continuity Irish Republican Army Real Irish Republican Army

Prominent killings

Michael Willetts Jean McConville Columba McVeigh Billy Fox Martin McBirney Steven Tibble Ross McWhirter Sammy Smyth Christopher Ewart-Biggs Jeffery Stanford Agate Robert Nairac Richard Sykes Gerard Evans Lord Mountbatten Baroness Brabourne Norman Stronge James Stronge Robert Bradford Lenny Murphy Kenneth Salvesen Anthony Berry Maurice Gibson Robert Seymour Heidi Hazell Joseph Fenton Nick Spanos Stephen Melrose Ian Gow Donald Kaberry Thomas Oliver Sammy Ward Tim Parry Jonathan Ball Ray Smallwoods Joe Bratty Raymond Elder Martin Cahill Jerry McCabe Andrew Kearney Eamon Collins Matthew Burns Robert McCartney (allegedly) James Curran Joseph Rafferty (allegedly) Paul Quinn

v t e

Continuity IRA
Continuity IRA
and Republican Sinn Féin

General

The Troubles 1986 Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
Ardfheis Abstentionism Irish republican legitimatism Éire Nua Saoirse Irish Freedom Dissident republican Dissident Irish Republican campaign CIRA actions

Personalities

Ruairí Ó Brádaigh Dáithí Ó Conaill Éamonn O'Doherty Billy McKee Seán Ó Brádaigh George Harrison Dan Keating Joe Stynes Seán Cunningham Seán Keenan Des Dalton Josephine Hayden Martin Corey

Associates

Cumann na mBan Fianna
Fianna
Éireann Republican Clan na Gael National Irish Freedom Committee Cabhair National Comme

.