HOME
The Info List - Fes


--- Advertisement ---



Fez
Fez
(Arabic: فاس‎ Fas, Berber languages: ⴼⴰⵙ Fas, French: Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco
Morocco
and the capital of the Fès-Meknès
Fès-Meknès
administrative region. It is the second largest city of Morocco
Morocco
after Casablanca,[4] with a population of 1.1 million (2014). Located to the northeast of Atlas Mountains, Fez
Fez
is situated at the crossroad of the important cities of all regions; 206 km (128 mi) from Tangier
Tangier
to the northwest, 246 km (153 mi) from Casablanca, 169 km (105 mi) from Rabat
Rabat
to the west, and 387 km (240 mi) from Marrakesh
Marrakesh
to the southwest which leads to the Trans-Saharan trade
Trans-Saharan trade
route. It is surrounded by the high grounds, and the old city is penetrated by the River of Fez
Fez
flowing from the west to east. Fez
Fez
was founded under the Idrisid rule during the 8th-9th century. It consisted of two autonomous and competing settlements. The migration of 2000 Arab families in the early 9th century gave the nascent city its Arabic character. After the downfall of the Idrisid dynasty, several empires came and went until the 11th century when the Almoravid
Almoravid
Sultan
Sultan
Yusuf ibn Tashfin
Yusuf ibn Tashfin
united the two settlements and rebuilt the city, which became today's Fes el Bali
Fes el Bali
quarter. Under the Almoravid
Almoravid
rule, the city gained the reputation for the religious scholarship and the mercantile activity. Fez
Fez
was expanded during the Almohad
Almohad
rule and became the largest city in the world during 1170-1180 with the estimated population of 200,000. Fez
Fez
reached its zenith in the Marinid-era, regaining the status as the capital. Numerous madrasas, mosques, zawiyas and city gates were constructed which survived up until today. These buildings are considered the hallmarks of Moorish and Moroccan architectural styles. Marinid
Marinid
sultans also founded Fes Jdid
Fes Jdid
quarter, where newer palaces and gardens were established. During this time, the Jewish population of the city grew as well, with the Mellah
Mellah
(Jewish quarter) attracting the Jewish migrants from other North African regions. After the overthrow of the Marinid
Marinid
dynasty, the city largely declined and replaced by Marrakesh
Marrakesh
for political and cultural influence, but remained as the capital under the Wattasids and modern Morocco
Morocco
until 1912. Today, the city largely consists of two old medina quarters, Fes
Fes
el Bali and Fes
Fes
Jdid, and modern urban area of Ville Nouvelle constructed during the French colonial era. The medina of Fez
Fez
is listed as a World Heritage Site and is believed to be one of the world's largest urban pedestrian zones (car-free areas).[5] It has the University
University
of Al Quaraouiyine which was founded in 859 and the oldest continuously functioning university in the world. It also has Chouara Tannery
Chouara Tannery
from the 11th century, one of the oldest tanneries in the world. The city has been called the " Mecca
Mecca
of the West" and the " Athens
Athens
of Africa," a nickname it shares with Cyrene in Libya.[6]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Foundation and the Idrisids 2.2 Golden age and the Marinid
Marinid
period 2.3 Modern period

3 Climate 4 Subdivisions 5 Landmarks

5.1 Medina of Fez 5.2 Madrasas 5.3 Fortifications

5.3.1 City walls and gates 5.3.2 Forts and Kasbahs

5.4 Tanneries 5.5 Tombs and mausoleums 5.6 Places of worship 5.7 Residences

6 Education

6.1 Universities 6.2 Primary and secondary schools

7 Transport 8 Sport 9 International relations

9.1 Twin towns — sister cities 9.2 Partnerships

10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Footnotes 12.2 Citations

13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit] The Arabic word فأس Faʾs means pickaxe, which legends say Idris I of Morocco
Morocco
used when he created the lines of the city. One noticeable thing was that the pickaxe was made from silver and gold.[7] During the rule of the Idrisid dynasty, Fez
Fez
consisted of two cities: Fas Elbali, founded by Idris I,[8] and al-ʿĀliyá, founded by his son, Idris II. During Idrisid rule the capital city was known as al-ʿĀliyá, with the name Fas being reserved for the separate site on the other side of the river; no Idrisid coins have been found with the name Fez, only al-ʿĀliyá and al-ʿĀliyá Madinat Idris. It is not known whether the name al-ʿĀliyá ever referred to both urban areas. It wasn't until 1070 that the two agglomerations were united and the name Fas was used for the combined site.[9] History[edit] See also: Timeline of Fez Foundation and the Idrisids[edit] Further information: Fes
Fes
el Bali

VIew of the old medina, with the minaret of Zaouia Moulay Idriss II
Zaouia Moulay Idriss II
on the left, where it commemorates Idris II, the founder of Fez.

The city was founded on a bank of the Jawhar river by Idris I
Idris I
in 789, founder of the Idrisid dynasty. His son, Idris II (808),[10] built a settlement on the opposing river bank. These settlements would soon develop into two walled and largely autonomous sites, often in conflict with one another: Madinat Fas and Al-'Aliya. In 808 Al-'Aliya replaced Walili as the capital of the Idrisids. Arab emigration to Fez, including 800 Andalusi families of Berber descent[11] in 817–818 expelled after a rebellion against the Umayyads of Córdoba, Andalusia, and 2000 Arab families banned from Kairouan
Kairouan
(modern Tunisia) after another rebellion in 824, gave the city its Arabic character. The Andalusians settled in what is called the 'Old' Fez, while the Tunisians found their home in the 'New' Fez, also called al-'Aliya. These two waves of immigrants would subsequently give their name to the sites 'Adwat Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
and 'Adwat al-Qarawiyyin.[12] The majority of the population was of Arab descent, and the minority was of North-African Berber descent, with rural Berbers
Berbers
from the surrounding countryside settling there throughout this early period, mainly in Madinat Fas (the Andalusian quarter) and later in Fes
Fes
Jdid.[13] Upon the death of Idris II in 828, the dynasty’s territory was divided among his sons. The eldest, Muhammad, received Fez. The newly fragmented Idrisid power would never again be reunified. During Yahya ibn Muhammad's rule in Fez
Fez
the Kairouyine mosque, one of the oldest and largest in Africa, was built and its associated University
University
of Al Quaraouiyine was founded (859).[14] Comparatively little is known about Idrisid Fez, owing to the lack of comprehensive historical narratives and that little has survived of the architecture and infrastructure of early Fez
Fez
(Al-'Aliya). The sources that mention Idrisid Fez, describe a rather rural one, not having the cultural sophistication of the important cities of Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
and Ifriqiya. In the 10th century the city was contested by the Caliphate of Córdoba and the Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
of Tunisia, who ruled the city through a host of Zenata
Zenata
clients. The Fatimids took the city in 927 and expelled the Idrissids, after which their Miknasa were installed there. The Miknasa were driven out of Fez
Fez
in 980 by the Maghrawa, their fellow Zenata, allies of the Caliphate of Córdoba. It was in this period that the great Andalusian ruler Almanzor
Almanzor
commissioned the Maghrawa to rebuild and refurnish the Al- Kairouan
Kairouan
mosque, giving it much of its current appearance. According to the Rawd al-Qirtas and other Marinid
Marinid
era sources, the Maghrawi emir Dunas Al-Maghrawi filled up the open spaces between the two medinas and the banks of the river, dividing them with new constructions. Thus, the two cities grew into each other, being now only separated by their walls and the river. His sons fortified the city to a great extent. This could not keep the Almoravid
Almoravid
emir Ibn Tashfin from conquering it in 1070, after more than a decade of battling the Zenata
Zenata
warriors in the area and constant besieging of the city. In 1033, several thousand Jews were killed in the Fez
Fez
Massacre. Golden age and the Marinid
Marinid
period[edit] Madinat Fas and Al-'Aliya were united in 1070 by the Almoravid dynasty: The walls dividing them were destroyed, bridges connecting them were built, and connecting walls were constructed that unified the medinas. Under Almoravid
Almoravid
patronage the largest expansion and renovation of the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan
Kairouan
took place (1134-1143). Although the capital was moved to Marrakesh
Marrakesh
under the Almoravids, Fez acquired a reputation for Maliki
Maliki
legal scholarship and became an important centre of trade. Almoravid
Almoravid
impact on the city's structure was such that the second Almoravid
Almoravid
ruler, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, is often considered to be the second founder of Fez.[15] Like many Moroccan cities, Fez
Fez
was greatly enlarged during the Almohad Caliphate and saw its previously dominating rural aspect lessen. This was accomplished partly by the settling there of Andalusians and the further improvement of the infrastructure. At the start of the 13th century they broke down the Idrisid city walls and constructed new ones, which covered a much wider space. These Almohad
Almohad
walls exist to this day as the outline of Fes
Fes
el Bali. Under Almohad
Almohad
rule the city grew to become the largest in the world between 1170 and 1180, with an estimated 200.000 people living there.[16] In 1250 Fez
Fez
regained its capital status under the Marinid
Marinid
dynasty. In 1276 after a massacre by the population to kill all Jews that was stopped by intervention of the Emir,[17] they founded Fes
Fes
Jdid, which they made their administrative and military centre. Fez
Fez
reached its golden age in the Marinid
Marinid
period, which marked the beginning of its official, historical narrative.[18][19] It is from the Marinid
Marinid
period that Fez's reputation as an important intellectual centre largely dates.[20] They established the first madrasas in the city and country.[21][22] The principal monuments in the medina, the residences and public buildings, date from the Marinid
Marinid
period.[23] The madrasas are a hallmark of Marinid
Marinid
architecture, with its striking blending of Andalusian and Almohad
Almohad
traditions. Between 1271 and 1357 seven madrassas were built in Fez, the style of which has come to be typical of Fassi architecture.

Jews of Fez
Fez
in 1900s. Mellah
Mellah
was a traditional Jewish quarter of the city.

The Jewish quarter of Fez, the Mellah
Mellah
was built in 1438, near the royal residence in Fez
Fez
Jdid. The Mellah
Mellah
at first consisted of Jews from Fez
Fez
el Bali and soon saw the arrival of Berber Jews
Berber Jews
from the Atlas range and Jewish immigrants from al-Andalus. The Marinids spread the cult of Idris I
Idris I
and encouraged sharifism, financing sharifian families as a way to legitimize their (in essence secular) rule: From the 14th century onwards hundreds of families throughout Morocco claimed descent from Idris I, especially in Fez
Fez
and the Rif mountains. In this regard they can be seen as the enablers of the latter sharifian dynasties of Morocco. The 1465 Moroccan revolt in 1465 overthrew the last Maranid sultan. In 1474 the Marinids were replaced by their relatives of the Wattasid dynasty, who faithfully (but for a large part unsuccessfully) continued Marinid
Marinid
policies.[24] Modern period[edit] After the fall of the Marinids, the city remained the capital of Morocco
Morocco
under the Wattasids. However, in the 16th century, the Saadis, based in Marrakech, would attempt to overthrow the Wattasids. In the meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
came close to Fez
Fez
after the conquest of Oujda
Oujda
in the 16th century. In January 1549 the Saadi sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh took Fez
Fez
and ousted the last Wattasid sultan Ali Abu Hassun. They later retook the city in 1553 with Ottoman support. However, this reconquest was short-lived, and in 1554 the Wattasids were decisively defeated in the battle of Tadla by the Saadis. The Ottomans would try to invade Morocco
Morocco
after the assassination of Mohammed ash-Sheikh
Mohammed ash-Sheikh
in 1558, but were defeated by his son Abdallah al-Ghalib at the battle of Wadi al-Laban north of Fez. Hence, Morocco remained the only North-African state to deter and defeat the Ottomans.[25] After the death of Abdallah al-Ghalib
Abdallah al-Ghalib
a new power struggle would emerge, after Abd al-Malik would take Fez
Fez
with Ottoman support and oust his nephew Abu Abdullah. The latter would flee to Portugal
Portugal
where he asked king Sebastian of Portugal
Sebastian of Portugal
for help to regain his throne. This would lead to the Battle of Alcacer Quibir
Battle of Alcacer Quibir
where Abd al-Malik's army would defeat the invading Portuguese army with the support of his Ottoman allies, ensuring Moroccan independence. Abd al-Malik himself also died during the battle and would be succeeded by Ahmad al-Mansur. After the fall of the Saadi dynasty (1649), Fez
Fez
was a major trading post of the Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
of North Africa. Until the 19th century it was the only source of fezzes (also known as the tarboosh). Then manufacturing began in France
France
and Turkey
Turkey
as well. Originally, the dye for the hats came from a berry that was grown outside the city, known as the Turkish kızılcık or Greek akenia (Cornus mas). Fez
Fez
was also the end of a north-south gold trading route from Timbuktu. Fez
Fez
was a prime manufacturing location for embroidery and leather goods such as the Adarga. The city became independent in 1790, under the leadership of Yazid (1790–1792) and later of Abu´r-Rabi Sulayman. In 1795 control of the city returned to Morocco. Fez
Fez
took part in a rebellion in 1819-1821, led by Ibrahim ibn Yazid, as well as in the 1832 rebellion led by Muhammad ibn Tayyib.

The abdication of Abd al-Hafid, Sultan
Sultan
of Morocco
Morocco
in 1912

Following the implementation of the Treaty of Fez, the city was heavily damaged in the 1912 Fez
Fez
riots and belonged to French Morocco until 1956.[26] Fez
Fez
was the capital of Morocco
Morocco
until 1925. Rabat
Rabat
then remained the capital even after Morocco
Morocco
achieved independence in 1955. Despite its traditional character, there is a modern section: the Ville Nouvelle or "New City". Today it is a bustling commercial center. The popularity of the Fez
Fez
has increased since present ruler, King Mohammed VI of Morocco, married a woman from Fez, Salma Bennani. Place Lalla Yeddouna at the heart of the Medina is currently undergoing reconstruction and preservation measures following a design competition sponsored by the Millennium Challenge Corporation (Washington D.C.)[27] and the Government of the Morocco. The construction projects scheduled for completion in 2016 encompass historic preservation of particular buildings, construction of new buildings that fit into the existing urban fabric and regeneration of the riverfront. The intention is to not only preserve the quality and characteristics of the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, but to encourage the development of the area as a sustainable, mixed-use area for artisanal industries and local residents. Climate[edit] Located by the Atlas Mountains, Fez
Fez
has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
with a strong continental influence, shifting from relatively cool and wet in the winter to dry and hot days in the summer months between June and September. Rainfall can reach up to 800 mm (31 in) on good years. The winter highs typically reach around 15 °C (59 °F) in December–January. Frost is not uncommon during the winter period. The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in the city are 46.7 °C (116 °F) and −8.2 °C (17 °F), respectively.(see weather-table below). Fez's climate is strongly similar to that of Seville
Seville
and Córdoba, Andalusia, Spain. Snowfall on average occurs once every 3 to 5 years. Fez
Fez
recorded snowfall in three straight years in 2005, 2006 and 2007.[28][29][30][31]

Climate data for Fez

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 25.0 (77) 30.5 (86.9) 33.3 (91.9) 37.0 (98.6) 40.8 (105.4) 44.0 (111.2) 46.7 (116.1) 44.4 (111.9) 41.7 (107.1) 37.5 (99.5) 31.2 (88.2) 27.0 (80.6) 46.7 (116.1)

Average high °C (°F) 14.7 (58.5) 16.2 (61.2) 18.5 (65.3) 21.7 (71.1) 25.6 (78.1) 31.3 (88.3) 35.8 (96.4) 35.6 (96.1) 30.7 (87.3) 25.2 (77.4) 18.7 (65.7) 15.3 (59.5) 24.1 (75.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) 9.4 (48.9) 10.8 (51.4) 12.4 (54.3) 15.3 (59.5) 18.7 (65.7) 23.0 (73.4) 27.1 (80.8) 27.1 (80.8) 23.4 (74.1) 18.7 (65.7) 13.2 (55.8) 10.1 (50.2) 17.4 (63.3)

Average low °C (°F) 4.1 (39.4) 5.4 (41.7) 6.3 (43.3) 8.9 (48) 11.8 (53.2) 14.7 (58.5) 18.4 (65.1) 18.6 (65.5) 16.1 (61) 12.2 (54) 7.7 (45.9) 4.9 (40.8) 10.8 (51.4)

Record low °C (°F) −8.2 (17.2) −4.9 (23.2) −2.5 (27.5) −0.5 (31.1) 0.0 (32) 4.9 (40.8) 8.5 (47.3) 9.2 (48.6) 5.9 (42.6) 0.0 (32) −1.4 (29.5) −5.0 (23) −8.2 (17.2)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 84.6 (3.331) 81.1 (3.193) 71.3 (2.807) 46.0 (1.811) 24.1 (0.949) 6.4 (0.252) 1.2 (0.047) 1.9 (0.075) 17.7 (0.697) 41.5 (1.634) 90.5 (3.563) 82.2 (3.236) 548.5 (21.595)

Average rainy days 9 10 9 10 7 3 1 1 3 7 9 9 78

Average snowy days 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2

Mean daily sunshine hours 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 10 9 7 6 6 7.9

Percent possible sunshine 60 55 58 62 64 71 79 77 75 64 60 60 65.4

Source #1: Hong Kong Observatory[32]

Source #2: Meoweather.com,[31] Voodoo skies for extremes[30] Weather Atlas [33]

Climate data for Fez

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 12.0

Average Ultraviolet index 3 4 6 8 9 10 11 10 8 6 4 3 6.8

Source: Weather Atlas [33]

Subdivisions[edit] The prefecture is divided administratively into the following:[34]

Name Geographic code Type House­holds Population (2004) Foreign population Moroccan population Notes

Agdal 231.01.01. Arrondissement 32740 144064 747 143317

Mechouar Fes
Fes
Jdid 231.01.03. Municipality 6097 26078 83 25995

Saiss 231.01.05. Arrondissement 32990 156590 561 156029

Fes-Medina 231.01.07. Arrondissement 20088 91473 110 91363

Jnan El Ouard 231.01.09. Arrondissement 32618 174226 15 174211

El Mariniyine 231.01.11. Arrondissement 37958 163291 40 163251

Oulad Tayeb 231.81.01. Rural commune 3233 19144 3 19141 5056 residents live in the center, called Ouled Tayeb; 14088 residents live in rural areas.

Ain Bida 231.81.03. Rural commune 1146 6854 0 6854

Sidi Harazem 231.81.05. Rural commune 982 5133 0 5133 3317 residents live in the center, called Skhinate; 1816 residents live in rural areas.

Landmarks[edit] Medina of Fez[edit]

The interior of Zaouia
Zaouia
Moulay Idriss II, where commemorates Idris II, the founder of Fez.

The historic city of Fez
Fez
consists of Fes
Fes
el-Bali, the original city founded by the Idrisid dynasty
Idrisid dynasty
on both shores of the Oued Fes
Fes
(River of Fez) in the late 8th and early 9th centuries, and the smaller Fez el-Jdid, founded on higher ground to the west in the 13th century. It is distinct from Fez's now much larger Ville Nouvelle (new city) originally founded by the French. Fes
Fes
el-Bali is the site of the famous Qarawiyyin University
University
and the Mausoleum of Moulay Idris II, the most important religious and cultural sites, while Fez
Fez
el-Jdid is the site of the enormous Royal Palace, still used by the King of Morocco today. These two historic cities are linked together and are usually referred to together as the medina of Fez, though this term is sometimes applied more restrictively to Fes
Fes
el-Bali only.[a] Fez
Fez
is becoming an increasingly popular tourist destination and many non-Moroccans are now restoring traditional houses (riads and dars) as second homes in the medina. Fez
Fez
is also considered the cultural and spiritual capital of Morocco.[35] In 1981, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) proclaimed Medina of Fez
Fez
a World Cultural Heritage site, as "[they] include a considerable number of religious, civil and military monuments that brought about a multi-cultural society. This architecture is characterised by construction techniques and decoration developed over a period of more than ten centuries, and where local knowledge and skills are interwoven with diverse outside inspiration (Andalousian, Oriental and African). The Medina of Fez
Fez
is considered as one of the most extensive and best conserved historic towns of the Arab-Muslim world."[36] Madrasas[edit]

The interior view of Al-Attarine Madrasa
Madrasa
built by the Marinid
Marinid
sultan Abu al-Hassan in 1323-1325.

The city has traditionally retained the influential position as a religious capital in the region, exemplified by the Madrasa
Madrasa
of Al Quaraouiyine which was established in 859 by Fatima al-Fihri originally as a mosque. The madrasa is the oldest existing, continually operating and the first degree awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO
UNESCO
and Guinness World Records.[37][38] During the Marinid
Marinid
rule, Fez
Fez
was designated as the political and religious capital of the empire, partly due to the Sultan
Sultan
Abu Yaqub Yusuf's intention to mitigate the tension between the ulamas in the old city. This had led to the great attention by the government to the construction of the madrasas following the Maliki orthodoxy, which resulted in the unprecedented prosperity of the city's religious institutions. The first madrasa built during the Marinid
Marinid
era was Saffarin Madrasa
Madrasa
in Fes el Bali
Fes el Bali
by Abu Yaqub Yusuf. Sultan
Sultan
Abu al-Hassan was the most prolific patron of the madrasa construction, completing the Al-Attarine, Mesbahiyya and Sahrij Madrasa
Madrasa
in Fez
Fez
alone, and several other madrasas as well in other cities such as Salé
Salé
and Meknes. His son Abu Inan Faris
Abu Inan Faris
built the famed Bou Inania Madrasa, and by the time of his death, every major city in the Marinid
Marinid
Empire had at least one madrasa.[39] The additional library was established as well for the Madrasa
Madrasa
of Al Quaraouiyine in 1349, which stores a large selection of valuable manuscripts dating back to the medieval era.[40] The largest madrasa in the medina is Shiratin Madrasa
Madrasa
commissioned by the Alaouite
Alaouite
sultan Al-Rashid in 1670, which is the only non- Marinid
Marinid
foundation besides the Madrasa
Madrasa
of Al Quaraouiyine.[41] Fortifications[edit] City walls and gates[edit]

City walls of Fez. The bastion on the right is Kasbah
Kasbah
Cherarda.

The entire medina of Fez
Fez
was heavily fortified with crenelated walls which equip heavy watchtowers and gates, a pattern of urban planning which can be seen in Salé
Salé
and Chellah
Chellah
as well.[39] City walls were placed into the current positions during the 11th century, under the Almoravid
Almoravid
rule. During this period, the two divided cities of Fez
Fez
were united under the single enclosure. The structures of Almoravid
Almoravid
era were later destroyed and subsequently rebuilt by the Almohad
Almohad
dynasty in the 12th century. These fortifications were completed and formed into the current shape under the Marinid
Marinid
rule during the 12th to 16th centuries, along with the founding of Fes
Fes
Jdid.[42] The gates of Fez are adjacent to these city walls, and guarded by the military detachments and shut at night.[39] During its development in the 9th century, Fes el Bali
Fes el Bali
was enclosed by the eight main gates. After the foundation of Fes Jdid
Fes Jdid
by the Marinids in the 13th century on the outside of these gates, new walls and three new gates such as Bab al-Amer were established as perimeters between these two medinas.[43][44] The construction of the new gates employed the Christian labor.[39] Additional gates were constructed during the Alaouite
Alaouite
era, most notably Bab Bou Jeloud
Bab Bou Jeloud
in 1913.[45] Other remaining gates of Fez
Fez
today include Bab el-Seba, Bab Semmarine, Bab al-Fetouh, Bab Mahrouk and Bab Chorfa. Forts and Kasbahs[edit]

Bab Chorfa, the entrance gate to Kasbah
Kasbah
An-Nouar. Open-air markets are held in front of the gate.

Along with the city walls and gates, several forts were constructed as defensive perimeters of the medina during the different time periods. The military watchtowers built in its early days during the Idrisid era were relatively small. However, the city rapidly developed as the military garrison center of the region during the Almoravid
Almoravid
era, in which the military operations were commanded and carried out to other North African regions and Southern Europe to the north, and Senegal river to the south. Subsequently, it led to the construction of numerous forts, kasbahs, and towers against the foreign invasions. Kasbah
Kasbah
in the context of Maghrebi
Maghrebi
region is the traditional military structure for fortification, military preparation, and command and control. Some of them were occupied as well by the citizens, certain tribal groups, and merchants. Throughout the history, 13 kasbahs were constructed surrounding the old city.[46] The most prominent among them is Kasbah
Kasbah
An-Nouar, which dates back to the Almohad
Almohad
era, located at the western or north-western tip of Fes
Fes
el-Bali. Today, the kasbah is a residential district much like the rest of the medina. The kasbah is equipped with the Friday Mosque
Mosque
and Bab Chorfa
Bab Chorfa
entrance gate.[47] Other kasbahs including Kasbah Cherarda
Kasbah Cherarda
located on the outskirts of Fes
Fes
el Bali. It was first established during the Saadi era in the 16th century and later refurbished by the Alaouite
Alaouite
Sultan
Sultan
Mulai al-Rashid as a fortress.[46] Kasbah
Kasbah
Dar Debibagh is a relatively new kasbah built in 1729 during the Alaouite
Alaouite
era at 2km from the city wall in a strategic position.[46][48] To the north, there is Borj Nord
Borj Nord
which dates back to the Saadi era and among the largest defensive structures in the city, now refurbished as a military museum.[49] Tanneries[edit]

Leather tanning in Chouara Tannery.

Since the inception of the city, tanning industry has been continually operating in the same fashion as it did in the early centuries. Today, the tanning industry in the city is considered one of the main tourist attractions. There are three tanneries in the city, largest among them is Chouara Tannery
Chouara Tannery
near the Saffarin Madrasa
Madrasa
along the river, built in the 11th century. The tanneries are packed with the round stone wells filled with dye or white liquids for softening the hides. The leather goods produced in the tanneries are exported around the world.[50][51][52] Tombs and mausoleums[edit] Located in the heart of Fes
Fes
el Bali, the Zaouia
Zaouia
of Moulay Idriss II is a zaouia (a shrine and religious complex; also spelled zawiya), dedicated to and contains the tomb of Idris II (or Moulay Idris II when including his sharifian title) who is considered the main founder of the city of Fez.[53][54] Within the medina quarter, there exists as well the Zaouia
Zaouia
of Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani, which commemorates Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani, the founder of Tijaniyyah
Tijaniyyah
tariqa from the 18th century.[55] To the north, there are Marinid
Marinid
Tombs built during the 14th century as a necropolis for the Marinid
Marinid
sultans.[56] Places of worship[edit] There are numerous old mosques in the medina, some of which are adjacent to the respective madrasa, zaouia or kasbah. Among the oldest are the Mosque
Mosque
of Al-Qarawiyiin, the mosque adjacent to its university, which dates back to 857,[57] the Andalusian Mosque
Mosque
which dates back to 859-860 with the minaret erected in 956,[58] Masjid Ali Boughaleb from 1090,[59] Bou Jeloud Mosque
Mosque
from 1191-1214,[60] and the Mosque
Mosque
of the Kasbah
Kasbah
en-Nouar (or Kasbah
Kasbah
Filala) from around 1200.[61] A number of mosques from the important Marinid
Marinid
era, when Fes
Fes
el-Jdid was created to be the capital of Morocco, and include the Great Mosque of Fez
Fez
Jdid from 1279,[62] the Abu al-Hassan Mosque
Mosque
from 1341,[63] the Chrabliyine Mosque
Mosque
from 1342,[60] the al-Hamra Mosque
Mosque
from 1350,[64] and the Bab Guissa Mosque
Mosque
from the reigh of Abu al-Hassan (1331-1351) (but modified in later centuries).[65] Another major but more recent mosque is the R'cif Mosque
Mosque
built in the reign of Moulay Slimane (1793-1822).[66] The Zaouia
Zaouia
of Moulay Idriss II and the Zaouia
Zaouia
of Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani have their adjacent mosques as well. The Jewish quarter (Mellah) is the site of the 17th-century Ibn Danan Synagogue. Residences[edit]

Gates of the Alaouite
Alaouite
Royal Palace (Dar al-Makhzen).

The old city of Fez
Fez
includes more than a hundred funduqs (traditional inns) for visiting merchants and travelers alike. Among the prominent funduqs are Funduq al-Najjariyyin, which was built in the 18th century by the Alaouite
Alaouite
Sultan
Sultan
Amin Adiyil, in order to provide the stay and the storage facility for merchants.[67] Older funduqs include Funduq Achich from the 16th century.[68] There are other numerous funduqs and riads utilized as hotels for the tourism industry. Some of the historical private residences have been turned into tourist attractions, among them is Alami House of the 17th-18th century which features prevalent Moroccan architectural style.[69] As a former administrative seat, the city contains several palaces as well. Dar Batha is a former palace completed in 1897 by the Alawouite Sultan Moulai Abdelaziz, and turned into a museum in 1915 with around 6,000 collections.[70] On Fes Jdid
Fes Jdid
quarter, there is the 80 hectar wide Royal Palace, or Dar al-Makhzen, with imposing gate but not open to the public.

Panoramic view of the Old Medina

Education[edit]

University
University
of Al Quaraouiyine.

Universities[edit] Main article: University
University
of al-Karaouine The University of Al Quaraouiyine
University of Al Quaraouiyine
is the oldest continually-operating university in the world.[71] The al-Karaouine mosque was founded by Fatima al-Fihri
Fatima al-Fihri
in 859 with an associated school, or madrasa, which subsequently became one of the leading spiritual and educational centers of the historic Muslim world.[72] It became a state university in 1963, and remains an important institution of learning today.[73] Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University
University
is a public university that was founded in 1975 and has two primary campuses in the city (Dhar El Mehraz and Sais). Primary and secondary schools[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2016)

The city has a French international school, Groupe scolaire Jean-de-La-Fontaine, serving moyenne section through collège (junior high school).[74] Transport[edit]

Gare de Fes, train station in the modern urban area of Fez.

The city is served by Saïss Airport. It also has an ONCF
ONCF
train station with lines east to Oujda
Oujda
and west to Tangier
Tangier
and Casablanca.[75] Sport[edit] Fez
Fez
has two football teams, MAS Fez
Fez
(Fés Maghrebi) and Wydad de Fès (WAF). They both play in the Botola
Botola
the highest tier of the Moroccan football system and play their home matches at the 45,000 seat Complexe Sportif de Fès
Complexe Sportif de Fès
stadium. The MAS Fez
Fez
basketball team competes in the Nationale 1, Morocco's top basketball division. International relations[edit] Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Morocco Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Fez
Fez
is twinned with:

Antwerp, Belgium, since 2000 Montpellier, France, since 1961 Strasbourg, France, since 1961 Florence, Italy, since 1961 Kairouan, Tunisia, since 1965 Tlemcen, Algeria, since 1969 Saint Louis, Senegal, since 1979 Córdoba, Andalusia, Spain, since 1982 East Jerusalem, Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
since 1982 İzmir, Turkey, since 1995[76] Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, since 2003 Suwon, South Korea, since 2003 Coimbra, Portugal[77] Lahore, Pakistan Multan, Pakistan Puebla City, Mexico

Partnerships[edit]

Kraków
Kraków
in Poland
Poland
(since 1985)[78]

See also[edit]

Treaty of Fez Bibliography of the history of Fez

Notes[edit]

^ Medina is the Arabic word for "city", which in former French colonies in North Africa is also used to refer to the old part of a city, as the French largely generally built new cities (Ville Nouvelles) next to them and left the historic cities intact.

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

Citations[edit]

^ "Fes, Kingdom of Morocco", Lat34North.com & Yahoo! Weather, 2009, webpages: L34- Fes
Fes
and Yahoo-Fes-stats. ^ Morocco
Morocco
2014 Census ^ cite webauthor= UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre url=http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/170 title=Medina of Fez
Fez
– UNESCO World Heritage Centre publisher=Whc.unesco.org date= accessdate=2017-09-20 ^ "Note de présentation des premiers résultats du Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitat 2014" (in French). High Commission for Planning. 20 March 2015. p. 8. Retrieved 9 October 2017.  ^ Mother Nature Network, 7 car-free cities ^ History of Fes ^ Cities of the Middle-East and North-Africa A historical enceclopedia. Michael Dumper, Bruce E. Stanley, pagina 151. ^ Bigon, Liora. Place Names in Africa: Colonial Urban Legacies, Entangled Histories. Springer. p. 83. ISBN 9783319324852.  ^ An architectural Investigation of Marinid
Marinid
and Watasid Fes
Fes
p. 19 ^ "Fes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 3 Mar. 2007 ^ The Places Where Men Pray Together, p. 463, at Google Books
Google Books
p. 55 ^ A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period By Jamil Mir'i Abun-Nasr. p. 51. ^ Realm of Saints, p. 9, at Google Books ^ Merriam Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia. p.574. ^ The Almoravids and the Meanings of Jihad, p. 43, at Google Books (p.51) ^ Morocco
Morocco
2009, p. 252, at Google Books
Google Books
(p.252) ^ Roudh el-Kartas: Histoire des souverains du Maghreb, p. 459, at Google Books ^ http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/348/1/uk_bl_ethos_426809.pdf An architectural Investigation of Marinid
Marinid
and Watasid Fes
Fes
(p.16) ^ http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/348/1/uk_bl_ethos_426809.pdf An architectural Investigation of Marinid
Marinid
and Watasid Fes
Fes
(p.23) ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 896, at Google Books
Google Books
(p. 605) ^ The Berbers
Berbers
and the Islamic State, p. 91, at Google Books
Google Books
(p. 90) ^ Islamic Art a Visual Culture, p. 121, at Google Books
Google Books
(p. 121) ^ 'http://www.al-hakawati.net/english/Cities/fez.asp ^ http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/348/1/uk_bl_ethos_426809.pdf An architectural Investigation of Marinid
Marinid
and Watasid Fes
Fes
(p.5) ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071219212840/http://www.bartleby.com/67/822.html ^ H. Z(J. W.) Hirschberg (1981). A history of the Jews in North Africa: From the Ottoman conquests to the present time, edited by Eliezer Bashan and Robert Attal. BRILL. p. 318. ISBN 90-04-06295-5.  ^ https://www.mcc.gov/where-we-work/program/morocco-compact Millennium Challenge Corporation, Washington D.C. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-11-18. Retrieved 2014-09-13.  ^ http://www.weather.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world/eng/africa/mor_al/Fes_e.htm[permanent dead link] ^ a b http://voodooskies.com/weather/morocco/fes/monthly/temperature ^ a b "Weather history for Fez, Figuig, Morocco : Fez
Fez
average weather by month". Meoweather.com. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2014.  ^ "Climatological Information for Fez, Morocco". Hong Kong Observatory. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ a b "Fes, Morocco
Morocco
- Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved March 2, 2017.  ^ "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat de 2004" (PDF). Haut-commissariat au Plan, Lavieeco.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012.  ^ Gaudio, Attilio (1982). Fès: Joyau de la civilisation islamique. Paris: Les Presses de l'Unesco: Nouvelles Éditions Latines. ISBN 2723301591.  ^ 170. UNESCO. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Oldest University ^ "Medina of Fez". UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ a b c d Penell, C.R. Morocco: From Empire to Independence; Oneworld Publications, Oct 1, 2013. pp.66-67. ^ Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque
Mosque
and University. Muslim Heritage. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Shiratin Madrasa. Archnet. Retrieved January 23, 2018. ^ Fortifications of Fès. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Meredith, Martin. (2014). Fortunes of Africa: A 5,000 Year History of Wealth, Greed and Endeavour. Simon and Schuster. ^ Hakluyt Society, (1896). Works Issued by the Hakluyt Society, p.592. ^ Bab Bu Jallud. Archnet Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ a b c نفائس فاس العتيقة : بناء 13 قصبة لأغراض عسكرية. Assabah. Retrieved January 11, 2018. ^ Le Tourneau, Roger (1949). Fès
Fès
avant le protectorat : étude économique et sociale d'une ville de l'occident musulman. Casablanca: Société Marocaine de Librairie et d'Édition. pp. 74, 84, 107–108, 188, 265–266.  ^ Qasbah Dar Debibagh. 'Archnet Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ البرج الشمالي. Museum with no Frontiers. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Chouara Tannery. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Why You Need to Visit Fez
Fez
in 20 Photos. Bloomberg. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Aziza Chaouni: Hybrid Urban Sutures: Filling in the Gaps in the Medina of Fez." Archit 96 no. 1 (2007): 58-63. ^ "Fes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 3 Mar. 2007 ^ Abun-Nasr, Jamil (1987). A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period. Cambridge: Cambridge University
University
Press. ISBN 0521337674.  ^ Sidi Ahmed al-Tijani Zawiya. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Métalsi, Mohamed (2003). Fès: La ville essentielle. Paris: ACR Édition Internationale. pp. 8, 273. ISBN 978-2867701528.  ^ Jami' al-Qarawiyyin. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Jami' al-Andalusiyyin. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Masjid Ali Boughaleb. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ a b Fez. Archnet. Retrieved January 23, 2018. ^ Jami' Qasbah Filala. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Métalsi, Mohamed (2003). Fès: La ville essentielle. Paris: ACR Édition Internationale. p. 188. ISBN 978-2867701528.  ^ Abu al-Hassan Mosque. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Hamra Mosque. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Touri, Abdelaziz; Benaboud, Mhammad; Boujibar El-Khatib, Naïma; Lakhdar, Kamal; Mezzine, Mohamed (2010). Le Maroc andalou : à la découverte d'un art de vivre (2 ed.). Ministère des Affaires Culturelles du Royaume du Maroc & Museum With No Frontiers. ISBN 978-3902782311.  ^ Rasif Mosque. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Funduq al-Najjariyyin. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Fondouk Achich. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Alami House. Archnet. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ مدينة فاس. Ministry of Culture. Retrieved January 22, 2018. ^ Guinness World Records, Oldest University ^ UNESCO, World Heritage Listing for Medina of Fez. ^ Larbi Arbaoui, Al Karaouin of Fez: The Oldest University
University
in the World, Morocco
Morocco
World News, 2 October 2012. ^ "Groupe scolaire Jean-de-La-Fontaine." AEFE. Retrieved on June 16, 2016. ^ "::.. Oncf ..::". Oncf.ma. Archived from the original on 2009-02-28. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ "Sister cities of İzmir
İzmir
(1/7)" (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-11-01.  ^ "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). © 2009 Câmara Municipal de Coimbra – Praça 8 de Maio – 3000-300 Coimbra. Retrieved 2009-06-25.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ " Kraków
Kraków
- Miasta Partnerskie" [ Kraków
Kraków
-Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków
Kraków
(in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 

Further reading[edit]

Le Tourneau, Roger (1974) [1961]. Fez
Fez
in the Age of the Marinides. Translated by Besse Clement. Oklahoma University. ISBN 0-8061-1198-4.  Vigo, Julian (2006). "The Renovation of Fes' medina qdima and the (re)Creation of the Traditional". Writing the City, Transforming the City. New Delhi: Katha. pp. 44–58.  "Place Lalla Yeddouna A Neighborhood in the Medina of Fez, Morocco: International open project competition in two phases".  Announced in September 2010 in collaboration with the Union International des Architectes (UIA) and the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), to renew the area and upgrade the living and working standards of the artisans in the medina. The approach of the project is probably one of the most ambitious for an Arab medina and therefore of exemplary character. The open international project was won by the London-based architecture practice Mossessian & Partners.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fes.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Fez.

Look up Fez
Fez
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Official government website of the city Portal
Portal
dedicated to Fez. Online Since 2006. Fez
Fez
Portal
Portal
at Ville Fès Complexe culturel de Fès, Cultural Complex of Fez The portal of Fez
Fez
at Fès-City Competition for the architectural and urban preservation and renovation of the Medina Medina Of Fes The Fez
Fez
Festival: Sacred Music From Around The World – audio report by NPR "Fez". Islamic Cultural Heritage Database. Istanbul: Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture. Archived from the original on 2013-04-27.  ArchNet.org. "Fez". Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT School of Architecture and Planning. Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. 

Preceded by Aleppo Capital of Islamic Culture 2007 Succeeded by Alexandria, Djibouti, Lahore

v t e

Fès-Meknès
Fès-Meknès
region

Capital: Fes

Provinces and prefectures

Boulemane
Boulemane
Province El Hajeb
El Hajeb
Province Fès
Fès
Prefecture Ifrane Province Meknès Prefecture Moulay Yacoub
Moulay Yacoub
Province Sefrou
Sefrou
Province Taounate
Taounate
Province Taza
Taza
Province

Cities

Agourai Ahermoumou Ain Aicha Ain Cheggag Ain Taoujdate Aknoul Azrou Bhalil Bouhouda Boulman El Hajeb El Menzel Fes Guigou Imouzzer Kandar Imouzzer Marmoucha Meknes Missour Mkansa Moulay Idriss Zerhoun Moulay Yacoub Oued Amlil Ouislane Outat El Haj Sabaa Aiyoun Sebt Jahjouh Sefrou Tahla Taza Toulal Tamedit Taounate

v t e

Prefectures and provinces of Morocco

Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima

Prefectures

Tangier-Assilah M'diq-Fnideq

Provinces

Fahs-Anjra Tétouan Al Hoceïma Larache Chefchaouen Ouezzane

Oriental

Prefecture

Oujda-Angad

Provinces

Berkane Taourirt Jerada Figuig Nador Driouch Guercif

Fès-Meknès

Prefectures

Fès Meknès

Provinces

Boulemane Sefrou Moulay Yacoub El Hajeb Ifrane Taounate Taza

Rabat-Salé-Kénitra

Prefectures

Rabat Salé Skhirate-Témara

Provinces

Kénitra Khémisset Sidi Kacem Sidi Slimane

Béni Mellal-Khénifra

Provinces

Béni-Mellal Khouribga Khénifra Azilal Fquih Ben Salah

Casablanca-Settat

Prefectures

Casablanca Mohammedia

Provinces

Settat Berrechid Benslimane Sidi Bennour Nouaceur Médiouna El Jadida

Marrakesh-Safi

Prefecture

Marrakesh

Provinces

Al Haouz Chichaoua El Kelâa des Sraghna Essaouira Safi Rehamna Youssoufia

Drâa-Tafilalet

Provinces

Errachidia Zagora Midelt Ouarzazate Tinghir

Souss-Massa

Prefectures

Agadir-Ida Ou Tanane Inezgane-Aït Melloul

Provinces

Taroudant Tiznit Chtouka Aït Baha Tata

Guelmim-Oued Noun

Provinces

Assa-Zag Guelmim Tan-Tan Sidi Ifni

Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra

Provinces

Laâyoune Tarfaya Boujdour Es Semara

Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab

Provinces

Aousserd Oued Ed-Dahab

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Morocco

Northern

Medina of Fez Rabat, Modern Capital and Historic City: a Shared Heritage Medina of Tétouan
Tétouan
(formerly known as Titawin) Archaeological Site of Volubilis Historic City of Meknes

Central

Medina of Essaouira
Essaouira
(formerly Mogador) Medina of Marrakech Portuguese City of Mazagan (El Jadida)

Southern

Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248988837 LCCN: n79144

.