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The FERTILE CRESCENT (also known as the cradle of civilization ) is a crescent -shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid Western Asia , the Nile Valley and Nile Delta
Nile Delta
. Having originated in the study of ancient history , the concept soon developed and today retains meanings in international geopolitics and diplomatic relations .

The Fertile Crescent includes Mesopotamia , the land in and around the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates rivers; and the Levant
Levant
, the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea . The modern-day countries with significant territory within the Fertile Crescent are Iraq
Iraq
, Syria
Syria
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, Jordan
Jordan
, Israel
Israel
, the State of Palestine , Egypt
Egypt
, as well as the southeastern fringe of Turkey
Turkey
and the western fringes of Iran
Iran
.

The region saw the development of some of the earliest human civilizations , which flourished thanks to the water supplies and agricultural resources available in the Fertile Crescent. Technological advances made in the region include the development of writing , glass , the wheel , agriculture , and the use of irrigation .

CONTENTS

* 1 Terminology * 2 Geography * 3 Climate
Climate
and bio-diversity

* 4 History

* 4.1 Early domestications

* 5 Languages * 6 See also * 7 Notes and references * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links

TERMINOLOGY

The term "Fertile Crescent" was popularized by University of Chicago archaeologist James Henry Breasted
James Henry Breasted
, beginning with his high school textbooks Outlines of European History in 1914 and Ancient Times, A History of the Early World in 1916. Breasted's 1916 textbook description of the Fertile Crescent:

The westernmost extension of Asia
Asia
is an irregular region roughly included within the circuit of waters marked out by the Caspian and Black seas on the north, by the Mediterranean and Red seas on the west, and by the Indian Ocean
Ocean
and the Persian Gulf on the south and east. It is a region consisting chiefly of mountains in the north and desert in the south. The earliest home of men in this great arena of Western Asia is a borderland between the desert and the mountains, a kind of cultivable fringe of the desert, a fertile crescent having the mountains on one side and the desert on the other.

This fertile crescent is approximately a semicircle, with the open side toward the south, having the west end at the southeast corner of the Mediterranean, the center directly north of Arabia, and the east end at the north end of the Persian Gulf (see map, p. 100). It lies like an army facing south, with one wing stretching along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean and the other reaching out to the Persian Gulf, while the center has its back against the northern mountains. The end of the western wing is Palestine; Assyria
Assyria
makes up a large part of the center; while the end of the eastern wing is Babylonia.

This great semicircle, for lack of a name, may be called the Fertile Crescent.1 It may also be likened to the shores of a desert-bay, upon which the mountains behind look down—a bay not of water but of sandy waste, some eight hundred kilometres across, forming a northern extension of the Arabian desert and sweeping as far north as the latitude of the northeast corner of the Mediterranean. This desert-bay is a limestone plateau of some height—too high indeed to be watered by the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates, which have cut cañons obliquely across it. Nevertheless, after the meager winter rains, wide tracts of the northern desert-bay are clothed with scanty grass, and spring thus turns the region for a short time into grasslands. The history of Western Asia may be described as an age-long struggle between the mountain peoples of the north and the desert wanderers of these grasslands—a struggle which is still going on—for the possession of the Fertile Crescent, the shores of the desert-bay.

1 There is no name, either geographical or political, which includes all of this great semicircle (see map, p. 100). Hence we are obliged to coin a term and call it the Fertile Crescent.

In current usage, the Fertile Crescent includes Iraq
Iraq
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, and surrounding portions of Iran
Iran
and Turkey
Turkey
, as well as the rest of the Levantine coast of the Mediterranean Sea , Syria
Syria
, Jordan
Jordan
, Israel
Israel
, Palestine , and Lebanon
Lebanon
. Water sources include the Jordan
Jordan
River . The inner boundary is delimited by the dry climate of the Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
to the south. Around the outer boundary are the Anatolian highlands to the north and the Sahara Desert
Sahara Desert
to the west.

GEOGRAPHY

As crucial as rivers and marshlands were to the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent, they were not the only factor in the area's precocity. The area is important as the "bridge" between Africa
Africa
and Eurasia
Eurasia
. This "bridging role" has allowed the Fertile Crescent to retain a greater amount of biodiversity than either Europe
Europe
or North Africa
Africa
, where climate changes during the Ice Age
Ice Age
led to repeated extinction events when ecosystems became squeezed against the waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Coupled with the Saharan pump theory , this Middle Eastern land-bridge is of extreme importance to the modern distribution of Old World
Old World
flora and fauna , including the spread of humanity .

The area has borne the brunt of the tectonic divergence between the African and Arabian plates and the converging Arabian and Eurasian plates, which has made the region a very diverse zone of high snow-covered mountains.

CLIMATE AND BIO-DIVERSITY

The Fertile Crescent had many diverse climates , and major climatic changes encouraged the evolution of many "r" type annual plants , which produce more edible seeds than "K" type perennial plants . The region's dramatic variety of elevation gave rise to many species of edible plants for early experiments in cultivation. Most importantly, the Fertile Crescent was home to the eight Neolithic founder crops important in early agriculture (i.e. wild progenitors to emmer wheat , einkorn , barley , flax , chick pea , pea , lentil , bitter vetch ), and four of the five most important species of domesticated animals—cows , goats , sheep , and pigs —and the fifth species, the horse , lived nearby.

HISTORY

Further information: History of the Middle East
History of the Middle East

THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

REGIONS AND STATES

Fertile Crescent

MESOPOTAMIA • Akkadian Empire Assyria
Assyria
Babylonia
Babylonia
Neo-Assyrian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Sumer EGYPT • Ancient Egypt
Egypt
PERSIA • Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
Elam Medes ANATOLIA • Hittites Hurrians Neo-Hittite states Urartu
Urartu
THE LEVANT • Ancient Israel
Israel
Phoenicia

ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIODS

Chronology • Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse • Iron Age

LANGUAGES

Akkadian
Akkadian
• Aramaic • Assyriology
Assyriology
Cuneiform script • Elamite • Hebrew • Hittite • Hurrian • Phoenician • Sumerian • Urartian

LITERATURE

Babylonian literature Hittite texts Sumerian literature

MYTHOLOGY

Babylonian mythology Hittite mythology • Mesopotamian mythology • Egyptian mythology

OTHER TOPICS

Cradle of civilization Assyrian law • Babylonian astronomy • Babylonian law Babylonian mathematics Cuneiform law History of the Middle East
History of the Middle East

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The Fertile Crescent has an impressive record of past human activity. As well as possessing many sites with the skeletal and cultural remains of both pre-modern and early modern humans (e.g. at Tabun and Es Skhul
Es Skhul
caves in Israel), later Pleistocene
Pleistocene
hunter-gatherers and Epipalaeolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers (the Natufians ), this area is most famous for its sites related to the origins of agriculture . The western zone around the Jordan
Jordan
and upper Euphrates rivers gave rise to the first known Neolithic farming settlements (referred to as Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA )), which date to around 9,000 BC (and includes sites such as Jericho
Jericho
).

This region, alongside Mesopotamia (which lies to the east of the Fertile Crescent, between the rivers Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates ), also saw the emergence of early complex societies during the succeeding Bronze Age . There is also early evidence from the region for writing and the formation of hierarchical statelevel societies. This has earned the region the nickname "The cradle of civilization ."

It is in this region where the first libraries appeared, some 5,000 years ago. The oldest known library was found in northern Syria, in the ruins of Ebla— a major commercial center that was destroyed around 1650 BCE.

Both the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates start in the Taurus Mountains of what is today Turkey. Farmers in southern Mesopotamia had to protect their fields from flooding each year, except northern Mesopotamia which had just enough rain to make some farming possible. To protect against flooding, they made levees.

Since the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, the region's natural fertility has been greatly extended by irrigation works, upon which much of its agricultural production continues to depend. The last two millennia have seen repeated cycles of decline and recovery as past works have fallen into disrepair through the replacement of states, to be replaced under their successors. Another ongoing problem has been salination — gradual concentration of salt and other minerals in soils with a long history of irrigation.

EARLY DOMESTICATIONS

Prehistoric seedless figs were discovered at Gilgal I
Gilgal I
in the Jordan Valley, suggesting that fig trees were being planted some 11,400 years ago. Cereals were already grown in Syria
Syria
as long as 9,000 years ago.

LANGUAGES

Linguistically, the Fertile Crescent was a region of great diversity. Historically, Semitic languages
Semitic languages
generally prevailed in the lowlands, whilst in the mountainous areas to the east and north a number of generally unrelated languages were found including Elamite , Kassite , and Hurro-Urartian . The precise affiliation of these, and their date of arrival, remain topics of scholarly discussion. However, given lack of textual evidence for the earliest era of prehistory, this debate is unlikely to be resolved in the near future.

The evidence which does exist suggests that by the third millennium BC, and into the second, several language groups already existed in the region. These included:

* Sumerian – a non-Semitic language which displays a Sprachbund -type relationship with neighbouring Akkadian * Semitic languages
Semitic languages
Akkadian
Akkadian
, Amorite , Aramaic , Ugaritic , Canaanite . * Hurro-Urartian languages – a small family. (The otherwise isolated Kassite language may be related.) * Hattic – a language isolate, spoken originally in central Anatolia. * Indo-European languages – generally believed to be later intrusive languages, such as Hittite and the Indo-Aryan material attested in the Mittani civilization.

Links between Hurro-Urartian and Hattic and the indigenous languages of the Caucasus
Caucasus
have frequently been suggested, but are not generally accepted.

SEE ALSO

* Hilly Flanks * History of Mesopotamia * History of agriculture
History of agriculture
* Near East
Near East

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ Haviland, William A., et. al (2013). The Essence of Anthropology (3rd ed.). Belmont, California: Wadsworth. p. 104. ISBN 1111833443 . * ^ Ancient Mesopotamia/India. Culver City, California: Social Studies School Service. 2004. p. 4. ISBN 1560041668 .

* ^ A B Abt, Jeffrey (2011). American Egyptologist: the life of James Henry Breasted
James Henry Breasted
and the creation of his Oriental Institute. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 193–194, 436. ISBN 978-0-226-0011-04 . Goodspeed, George Stephen (1904). A History of the ancient world: for high schools and academies. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 5–6. Breasted, James Henry (1914). "Earliest man, the Orient, Greece, and Rome". In Robinson, James Harvey; Breasted, James Henry; Beard, Charles A. Outlines of European history, Vol. 1 (PDF). Boston: Ginn. pp. 56–57. "The Ancient Orient" map is inserted between pages 56 and 57. Breasted, James Henry (1916). Ancient times, a history of the early world: an introduction to the study of ancient history and the career of early man (PDF). Boston: Ginn. pp. 100–101. "The Ancient Oriental World" map is inserted between pages 100 and 101. Clay, Albert T. (1924). "The so-called Fertile Crescent and desert bay". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 44: 186–201. JSTOR 593554 . doi :10.2307/593554 . Kuklick, Bruce (1996). "Essay on methods and sources". Puritans in Babylon: the ancient Near East
Near East
and American intellectual life, 1880–1930. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-691-02582-7 . Textbooks...The true texts brought all of these strands together, the most important being James Henry Breasted, Ancient Times: A History of the Early World (Boston, 1916), but a predecessor, George Stephen Goodspeed, A History of the Ancient World (New York, 1904), is outstanding. Goodspeed, who taught at Chicago with Breasted, antedated him in the conception of a 'crescent' of civilization. * ^ Diamond, Jared. (March 1997). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies . W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-03891-2 . * ^ Murray, S. (2009). The library : an illustrated history. New York, NY : Skyhorse Pub. ; Chicago : ALA Editions, 2009. * ^ Beck, Roger B.; Black, Linda; Krieger, Larry S.; Naylor, Phillip C.; Shabaka, Dahia Ibo (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 0-395-87274-X . * ^ Norris, Scott (1 June 2006). "Ancient Fig Find May Push Back Birth of Agriculture". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 6 March 2017. * ^ Genographic Project / The Development of Agriculture nationalgeographic.com * ^ Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia. Ed. Steadman ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Maghreb

* Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
* Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains ( Middle Atlas ) * Sahara * Western Sahara * Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt
Egypt

* Upper Egypt
Egypt
* Middle Egypt
Egypt
* Lower Egypt
Egypt
* Cataracts of the Nile
Cataracts of the Nile
* Bashmur

* Nubia
Nubia

* Lower Nubia
Nubia

* Nile Valley
Nile Valley
* Nile Delta
Nile Delta
* Darfur * Gulf of Aqaba * Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia * Swahili coast * East African Rift * Great Rift Valley
Great Rift Valley
* Afar Triangle
Afar Triangle
* Danakil Desert * Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift
Albertine Rift
Valley * Gregory Rift Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands
Ethiopian Highlands
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)
* Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe
Mayombe

* Igboland
Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin * Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast
Pepper Coast
* Gold Coast * Slave Coast
Slave Coast
* Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)
* Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Inner Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar
Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland * Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo * Bushveld
Bushveld
* Highveld
Highveld
* Fynbos
Fynbos
* Cape Floristic Region * Kalahari Desert
Kalahari Desert
* Okavango Delta * False Bay * Hydra Bay * Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa
Africa
* Francophone Africa
Africa
* Lusophone Africa
Africa
* Arabophone Africa
Africa
* Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
* Tropical Africa
Africa
* Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America
North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada
Canada
* Western Canada
Canada
* Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Atlantic Canada
Canada
* French Canada
Canada
* English Canada
Canada

* Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
* Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island)
Newfoundland (island)
* Vancouver island
Vancouver island
* Gulf Islands * Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
* Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Labrador Peninsula
Labrador Peninsula
* Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula * Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay
Georgian Bay
* Hudson Bay * James Bay * Greenland
Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England
New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States
Mountain States
* Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest * Rocky Mountains * West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains * Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South * Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt * Black Belt * Corn Belt * Cotton Belt * Frost Belt * Rice Belt * Rust Belt * Sun Belt
Sun Belt
* Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico
Mexico
* Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California
Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca
La Mixteca
* La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico
Mexico
* Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
* Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands
Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies
West Indies

* Antilles
Antilles

* Greater Antilles
Antilles

* Lesser Antilles
Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles
Antilles
* Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
* Southern Caribbean
Caribbean

* Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
* Mesoamerica * Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America
South America

NORTH

* Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
* West Indies
West Indies
* Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula * Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia
Patagonia
* Pampas * Pantanal
Pantanal
* Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes * Altiplano
Altiplano
* Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin * Caatinga
Caatinga
* Cerrado
Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia
Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana * Khwarezm
Khwarezm
* Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan
Yedisan
* Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains

* Volga region
Volga region
* Idel-Ural * Kolyma
Kolyma
* Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban
Kuban
* Zalesye
Zalesye
* Ingria * Novorossiya * Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
* Tian Shan * Badakhshan
Badakhshan
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions
Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia
Asia
* Northeast

* Far East

* Russian Far East * Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North
Extreme North

* Siberia
Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal ) * Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Khatanga Gulf * Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
* Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf
Yenisei Gulf
* Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
* Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
* Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert
* Greater Khingan
Greater Khingan
* Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia
Asia
* Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
* Outer Mongolia * China proper
China proper

* Manchuria
Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
* Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
* Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas
Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet
Tibet

* Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
* Northern Silk Road * Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang
Liangguang
* Jiangnan * Jianghuai * Guanzhong
Guanzhong
* Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau * Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula * Gulf of Tonkin * Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Caspian Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
* Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula

* Najd
Najd
* Hejaz
Hejaz
* Tihamah
Tihamah
* Eastern Arabia
Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia

* Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
* Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert

* Tigris– Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia * Lower Mesopotamia * Sawad * Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)

* Canaan
Canaan
* Aram * Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
* Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq

* Levant
Levant

* Southern Levant
Levant
* Transjordan * Jordan
Jordan
Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights
Golan Heights
* Hula Valley
Hula Valley
* Gaza Strip * West Bank
West Bank
* Galilee
Galilee
* Gilead * Judea * Samaria * Arabah
Arabah
* Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
Mountains * Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
* Arabian Desert * Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
* Fertile Crescent * Azerbaijan * Syria
Syria
* Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus
Caucasus

* Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains

* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus

* North Caucasus
Caucasus

* South Caucasus
Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland * Alborz
Alborz
* Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia * Cilicia * Cappadocia
Cappadocia
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India * Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
* Himalayas
Himalayas
* Hindu Kush * Western Ghats * Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
* Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta
Ganges Delta
* Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
* Punjab * Balochistan * Thar Desert * Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
* Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab * Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau * Coromandel Coast * Konkan * False Divi Point * Hindi Belt
Hindi Belt
* Lakshadweep * Bay of Bengal * Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
* Trans-Karakoram Tract * Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina
Indochina
* Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor
Timor

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula
Huon Peninsula
* Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago
Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon * Visayas * Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* East Indies
East Indies
* Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
* Tropical Asia
Asia
* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe
Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia * Sápmi
Sápmi
* West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland
Iceland
* Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor
Lithuania Minor
* Nemunas Delta * Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans
Balkans
* Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
* Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Kabardia

* European Russia
European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states
Alpine states
* Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux * Low Countries * Northwest * British Isles
British Isles
* English Channel * Channel Islands
Channel Islands
* Cotentin Peninsula * Normandy * Brittany * Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System

* Pyrenees * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
* Insular Italy * Tuscan Archipelago * Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea
Crimea
* Donbass
Donbass
* Sloboda Ukraine
Sloboda Ukraine
* Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * European Plain * Eurasian Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia
Volhynia
* Karelia * East Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula
Huon Peninsula
* Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand
New Zealand

* South Island
South Island

* North Island
North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula
Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia
Zealandia
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia
Australia
* Capital Country * Eastern Australia
Australia
* Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin
Murray–Darling basin
* Northern Australia
Australia
* Nullarbor Plain * Outback
Outback

* Southern Australia
Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia
Sunraysia
* Great Victoria Desert * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula * Fleurieu Peninsula * Yorke Peninsula
Yorke Peninsula
* Eyre Peninsula * Mornington Peninsula
Mornington Peninsula
* Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji * New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Papua New Guinea * Vanuatu
Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia * Palau
Palau

* Guam * Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru
Nauru
* Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island
Easter Island
* Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
* Cook Islands

* French Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands
Marquesas Islands
* Society Islands * Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands * Mangareva Islands * Samoa
Samoa
* Tokelau
Tokelau
* Tonga * Tuvalu
Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula * East Antarctica
East Antarctica
* West Antarctica
West Antarctica
* Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic
Arctic
Alaska * British Arctic
Arctic
Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Finnmark
Finnmark
* Greenland
Greenland
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Northwest Territories * Nunavik
Nunavik
* Nunavut * Russian Arctic
Arctic
* Sakha * Sápmi
Sápmi
* Yukon * North American Arctic
Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf
Amundsen Gulf
* Barents Sea * Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea * East Siberian Sea * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea
Pechora Sea
* Queen Victoria Sea
Queen Victoria Sea
* Wandel Sea * White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea * Aegean Sea * Alboran Sea
Alboran Sea
* Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea
Balearic Sea
* Baltic Sea * Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
* Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea * Bothnian Sea * Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea * Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
* English Channel * Foxe Basin * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine
Gulf of Maine
* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
* Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra
* Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay * Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Irish Sea
Irish Sea
* Irminger Sea * James Bay * Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea
Libyan Sea
* Ligurian Sea
Ligurian Sea
* Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Myrtoan Sea * North Sea
North Sea
* Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
* Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
* Sea of Crete
Sea of Crete
* Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
* Arabian Sea * Bali Sea * Bay of Bengal * Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
* Java Sea * Laccadive Sea
Laccadive Sea
* Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf * Red Sea
Red Sea
* Timor
Timor
Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea * Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea
Camotes Sea
* Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea
Chilean Sea
* Coral Sea
Coral Sea
* East China Sea * Gulf of Alaska
Gulf of Alaska
* Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California
Gulf of California
* Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* Gulf of Tonkin * Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea * Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan * Sea of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea * Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China Sea * Sulu Sea * Tasman Sea * Visayan Sea
Visayan Sea
* Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea * Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea * D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea
King Haakon VII Sea
* Lazarev Sea * Mawson Sea
Mawson Sea
* Riiser-Larsen Sea * Ross Sea * Scotia Sea
Scotia Sea
* Somov Sea * Weddell Sea
Weddell Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee * Salton Sea

* BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Prehistoric Asia
Asia

PALEOLITHIC

* Homo erectus georgicus
Homo erectus georgicus
* Japanese Paleolithic
Paleolithic
* Java Man * List of Paleolithic
Paleolithic
sites in China * Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Mesopotamia * Peking Man * Riwat * Soanian * Sangiran * South Asian Stone Age * Ubeidiya * Xiaochangliang

NEOLITHIC

* Fertile Crescent * Early Neolithic settlements * Natufian
Natufian
culture * Khiamian culture * Trialetian culture * Nemrikian culture * Zarzian culture * Neolithic China * Neolithic Tibet
Tibet
* Neolithic Korea * Neolithic Revolution * Neolithic South Asia
Asia
* Ohalo * Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (Mesopotamia) * Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (Mesopotamia)

CHALCOLITHIC

* Daimabad
Daimabad
* Halaf culture * Uruk period

BRONZE AGE

* Andronovo culture
Andronovo culture
* Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex
Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex
* Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Anatolia * Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Caucasus
Caucasus
* Bronze Age
Bronze Age
China * Bronze Age
Bronze Age
India * Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Korea * Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Levant
Levant
* List of Bronze Age