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A Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
(sometimes called a big wheel, observation wheel, or, in the case of the very tallest examples, giant wheel) is a nonbuilding structure consisting of a rotating upright wheel with multiple passenger-carrying components (commonly referred to as passenger cars, cabins, tubs, capsules, gondolas, or pods) attached to the rim in such a way that as the wheel turns, they are kept upright, usually by gravity. Some of the largest modern Ferris wheels have cars mounted on the outside of the rim, with electric motors to independently rotate each car to keep it upright. These wheels are sometimes referred to as observation wheels and their cars referred to as capsules, however these alternative names are also used for wheels with conventional gravity-oriented cars. The original Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. as a landmark for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The generic term Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
is now used for all such structures, which have become the most common type of amusement ride at state fairs in the United States.[1] The current tallest wheel is the 167.6-metre (550 ft) High Roller in Las Vegas, US, which opened to the public in March 2014.

Contents

1 Early history

1.1 Somers' Wheel 1.2 The original Ferris Wheel 1.3 Antique Ferris wheels

2 World's tallest Ferris wheels

2.1 Future wheels

2.1.1 Construction in progress 2.1.2 Unfinished projects 2.1.3 Abandoned projects 2.1.4 Quiescent proposals

3 Observation wheels 4 Transportable wheels 5 Double and triple wheels 6 Eccentric wheels 7 Major designers, manufacturers, and operators 8 References

Early history[edit]

Early pleasure wheels depicted in 17th-century engravings, to the left by Adam Olearius, to the right a Turkish design, apparently for adults

Dancing the hora on Dealul Spirii
Dealul Spirii
(Spirii Hill), Bucharest, Romania (1857 lithograph)

Magic-City, Paris, France, 1913

"Pleasure wheels", whose passengers rode in chairs suspended from large wooden rings turned by strong men, may have originated in 17th-century Bulgaria.[1][2] The travels of Peter Mundy
Peter Mundy
in Europe and Asia, 1608–1667[3] describes and illustrates "severall Sorts of Swinginge used in their Publique rejoyceings att their Feast of Biram" on 17 May 1620 at Philippopolis in the Ottoman Balkans.[2] Among means "lesse dangerous and troublesome" was one:

...like a Craine wheele att Customhowse Key and turned in that Manner, whereon Children sitt on little seats hunge round about in severall parts thereof, And though it turne right upp and downe, and that the Children are sometymes on the upper part of the wheele, and sometymes on the lower, yett they alwaies sitt upright.

Five years earlier, in 1615, Pietro Della Valle, a Roman traveller who sent letters from Constantinople, Persia, and India, attended a Ramadan festival in Constantinople. He describes the fireworks, floats, and great swings, then comments on riding the Great Wheel:[4]

I was delighted to find myself swept upwards and downwards at such speed. But the wheel turned round so rapidly that a Greek who was sitting near me couldn't bear it any longer, and shouted out "soni! soni!" (enough! enough!)

Similar wheels also appeared in England
England
in the 17th century, and subsequently elsewhere around the world, including India, Romania, and Siberia.[2] A Frenchman, Antonio Manguino, introduced the idea to America in 1848, when he constructed a wooden pleasure wheel to attract visitors to his start-up fair in Walton Spring, Georgia. Somers' Wheel[edit] In 1892, William Somers installed three fifty-foot wooden wheels at Asbury Park, New Jersey; Atlantic City, New Jersey; and Coney Island, New York. The following year he was granted the first U.S. patent for a "Roundabout".[5][6] George Washington Gale Ferris Jr.
George Washington Gale Ferris Jr.
rode on Somers' wheel in Atlantic City prior to designing his wheel for the World's Columbian Exposition. In 1893 Somers filed a lawsuit against Ferris for patent infringement, however Ferris and his lawyers successfully argued that the Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
and its technology differed greatly from Somers' wheel, and the case was dismissed.[7] The original Ferris Wheel[edit] Main article: Ferris Wheel

The original Chicago
Chicago
Ferris Wheel, built for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition

The original Ferris Wheel, sometimes also referred to as the Chicago Wheel,[8][9][10] was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr..[11] With a height of 80.4 metres (264 ft) it was the tallest attraction at the World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition
in Chicago, Illinois, where it opened to the public on June 21, 1893.[11] It was intended to rival the 324-metre (1,063 ft) Eiffel Tower, the centerpiece of the 1889 Paris
Paris
Exposition. Ferris was a graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
and a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, bridge-builder. He began his career in the railroad industry and then pursued an interest in bridge building. Ferris understood the growing need for structural steel and founded G.W.G. Ferris & Co. in Pittsburgh, a firm that tested and inspected metals for railroads and bridge builders. The wheel rotated on a 71-ton, 45.5-foot axle comprising what was at that time the world's largest hollow forging, manufactured in Pittsburgh by the Bethlehem Iron Company and weighing 89,320 pounds, together with two 16-foot-diameter (4.9 m) cast-iron spiders weighing 53,031 pounds.[9] There were 36 cars, each fitted with 40 revolving chairs and able to accommodate up to 60 people, giving a total capacity of 2,160.[8] The wheel carried some 38,000 passengers daily[1] and took 20 minutes to complete two revolutions, the first involving six stops to allow passengers to exit and enter and the second a nine-minute non-stop rotation, for which the ticket holder paid 50 cents. The Exposition ended in October 1893, and the wheel closed in April 1894 and was dismantled and stored until the following year. It was then rebuilt on Chicago's North Side, near Lincoln Park, next to an exclusive neighborhood. This prompted William D. Boyce, then a local resident, to file a Circuit Court action against the owners of the wheel to have it removed, but without success. It operated there from October 1895 until 1903, when it was again dismantled, then transported by rail to St. Louis for the 1904 World's Fair and finally destroyed by controlled demolition using dynamite on May 11, 1906.[12] Antique Ferris wheels[edit]

Wiener Riesenrad, Vienna, built in 1897, originally had 30 passenger cabins but was rebuilt with 15 cabins following a fire in 1944

The Wiener Riesenrad
Wiener Riesenrad
(German for "Viennese Giant Wheel") is a surviving example of nineteenth-century Ferris wheels. Erected in 1897 in the Wurstelprater
Wurstelprater
section of Prater
Prater
public park in the Leopoldstadt district of Vienna, Austria, to celebrate Emperor Franz Josef I's Golden Jubilee, it has a height of 64.75 metres (212 ft)[13] and originally had 30 passenger cars. A demolition permit for the Riesenrad was issued in 1916, but due to a lack of funds with which to carry out the destruction, it survived.[14] Following the demolition of the 100-metre (328 ft) Grande Roue de Paris
Paris
in 1920,[8] the Riesenrad became the world's tallest extant Ferris wheel. In 1944 it burnt down, but was rebuilt the following year[14] with 15 passenger cars, and remained the world's tallest extant wheel until its 97th year, when the 85-metre (279 ft) Technocosmos
Technocosmos
was constructed for Expo '85, at Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. Still in operation today, it is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions, and over the years has featured in numerous films (including Madame Solange d`Atalide (1914),[14] Letter from an Unknown Woman (1948), The Third Man
The Third Man
(1949), The Living Daylights
The Living Daylights
(1987), Before Sunrise (1995)) and novels. World's tallest Ferris wheels[edit] See also: List of Ferris wheels

The 94 m Great Wheel at Earls Court, London, world's tallest Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
1895–1900

The 100 m Grande Roue de Paris, world's tallest Ferris wheel 1900–1920

Chronology of world's tallest-ever wheels

1893: the original Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
was 80.4 metres (264 ft) tall. Built for the World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition
in Chicago, Illinois, it was moved to St. Louis, Missouri, in 1904 for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and demolished there in 1906. 1895: the Great Wheel was built for the Empire of India
India
Exhibition at Earls Court, London, UK, and was 94 metres (308 ft) tall.[15] Construction began in March 1894[16] and it opened to the public on 17 July 1895.[17] It stayed in service until 1906 and was demolished in 1907, having carried over 2.5 million passengers.[18] 1900: the Grande Roue de Paris
Paris
was built for the Exposition Universelle, a world's fair held in Paris, France. It was demolished in 1920,[8] but its 100-metre (328 ft) height was not surpassed until almost 90 years after its construction. 1920: the Wiener Riesenrad
Wiener Riesenrad
was built to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Emperor Franz Josef I, at the entrance of the Wurstelprater amusement park in Austria's capital Vienna. Constructed in 1897, when the Grande Roue de Paris
Paris
was demolished in 1920, the Riesenrad became the world's tallest extant Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
with 64.75-metre (212 ft), and it remained so for the next 65 years until 1985, its 97th year. 1989: the Cosmo Clock 21
Cosmo Clock 21
was built for the YES '89 Yokohama
Yokohama
Exposition at Minato Mirai 21, Yokohama, Japan. Originally constructed with a height of 107.5 metres (353 ft),[19] it was dismantled in 1997 and then in 1999 relocated onto a taller base which increased its overall height to 112.5 metres (369 ft).[20] 1992: Igosu 108
Igosu 108
at Biwako Tower, Shiga, Japan, opened April 26 at 108 metres (354 ft) tall, hence its name. It has since been moved to Vietnam, where it opened as the Sun Wheel on a new base, now totaling 115 metres (377 ft) tall.[21] 1997: the Tempozan Ferris Wheel, in Osaka, Japan, opened to the public on 13 July, and is 112.5 metres (369 ft) tall.[22] 1999: the Daikanransha
Daikanransha
at Palette Town in Odaiba, Japan, is 115 metres (377 ft) tall.[23] 2000: the London
London
Eye, in London, UK, is 135 metres (443 ft) tall. Although officially opened on 31 December 1999, it did not open to the public until March 2000, because of technical problems. 2006: the Star of Nanchang, in Nanchang, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Province, China, opened for business in May and is 160 metres (525 ft) tall. 2008: the Singapore
Singapore
Flyer, in Singapore, is 165 metres (541 ft) tall. It started rotating on 11 February, and officially opened to the public on 1 March 2008. 2014: the High Roller, in Las Vegas, Nevada, US, is 167.6 metres (550 ft) tall. It opened to the public on 31 March 2014, and is currently the world's tallest Ferris wheel.[24]

Timeline

Name Height m (ft) Completed Country Location Coordinates Remarks

High Roller[24] 167.6 (550) 2014  United States Las Vegas, Nevada 36°07′03″N 115°10′05″W / 36.117402°N 115.168127°W / 36.117402; -115.168127 (High Roller) World's tallest since 2014

Singapore
Singapore
Flyer[25] 165 (541) 2008  Singapore Marina Centre, Downtown Core 1°17′22″N 103°51′48″E / 1.289397°N 103.863231°E / 1.289397; 103.863231 ( Singapore
Singapore
Flyer) World's tallest 2008–2014

Star of Nanchang[25] 160 (525) 2006  China Nanchang, Jiangxi 28°39′34″N 115°50′44″E / 28.659332°N 115.845568°E / 28.659332; 115.845568 (Star of Nanchang) World's tallest 2006–2008

London
London
Eye[25] 135 (443) 2000  United Kingdom South Bank, Lambeth, London 51°30′12″N 0°07′11″W / 51.50334°N 0.1197821°W / 51.50334; -0.1197821 ( London
London
Eye) World's tallest 2000–2006

Redhorse Osaka
Osaka
Wheel[26][27] 123 (404) 2016  Japan Expocity, Suita, Osaka 34°48′19″N 135°32′06″E / 34.805278°N 135.535°E / 34.805278; 135.535 (Redhorse Osaka)

Orlando Eye[28] 122 (400) 2015  United States Orlando, Florida 28°26′36″N 81°28′06″W / 28.443198°N 81.468296°W / 28.443198; -81.468296 (Orlando Eye)

Suzhou
Suzhou
Ferris Wheel[25][29] 120 (394) 2009  China Suzhou, Jiangsu 31°18′59″N 120°42′30″E / 31.3162939°N 120.7084501°E / 31.3162939; 120.7084501 ( Suzhou
Suzhou
Ferris Wheel)

Melbourne
Melbourne
Star[25] 120 (394) 2008  Australia Docklands, Melbourne 37°48′40″S 144°56′13″E / 37.8110723°S 144.9368763°E / -37.8110723; 144.9368763 ( Melbourne
Melbourne
Star)

Tianjin
Tianjin
Eye[25] 120 (394) 2008  China Yongle Bridge, Hongqiao, Tianjin 39°09′12″N 117°10′49″E / 39.1533636°N 117.1802616°E / 39.1533636; 117.1802616 ( Tianjin
Tianjin
Eye)

Changsha
Changsha
Ferris Wheel[25] 120 (394) 2004  China Changsha, Hunan 28°10′56″N 112°58′48″E / 28.1821772°N 112.9800886°E / 28.1821772; 112.9800886 ( Changsha
Changsha
Ferris Wheel)

Zhengzhou Ferris Wheel[25][30] 120 (394) 2003  China Century Amusement Park, Henan 34°43′58″N 113°43′07″E / 34.732871°N 113.718739°E / 34.732871; 113.718739 (Zhengzhou Ferris Wheel)

Sky Dream Fukuoka[25][31] 120 (394) 2002  Japan Evergreen Marinoa, Fukuoka, Kyūshū 33°35′44″N 130°19′21″E / 33.5956845°N 130.3225279°E / 33.5956845; 130.3225279 (Sky Dream Fukuoka) Closed September 2009

Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel 117 (384) 2001  Japan Kasai Rinkai Park, Tokyo, Honshū 35°38′38″N 139°51′26″E / 35.6439052°N 139.8572257°E / 35.6439052; 139.8572257 (Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel)

Sun Wheel[32] 115 (377) 2014  Vietnam Da Nang 16°02′24″N 108°13′35″E / 16.040070°N 108.226492°E / 16.040070; 108.226492 (Sun Wheel)

Star of Lake Tai [citation needed] 115 (377) 2008  China Lake Tai, Wuxi, Jiangsu 31°31′15″N 120°15′39″E / 31.5208296°N 120.260945°E / 31.5208296; 120.260945 (Star of Lake Tai) Picture

Daikanransha[23] 115 (377) 1999  Japan Palette Town, Odaiba, Honshū 35°37′35″N 139°46′56″E / 35.6263915°N 139.7822902°E / 35.6263915; 139.7822902 (Daikanransha) World's tallest 1999–2000

Cosmo Clock 21
Cosmo Clock 21
(2nd installation) 112.5 (369) 1999  Japan Minato Mirai 21, Yokohama, Honshū 35°27′19″N 139°38′12″E / 35.4553872°N 139.6367347°E / 35.4553872; 139.6367347 ( Cosmo Clock 21
Cosmo Clock 21
(2nd installation))

Tempozan Ferris Wheel[19] 112.5 (369) 1997  Japan Osaka, Honshū 34°39′22″N 135°25′52″E / 34.6561657°N 135.431031°E / 34.6561657; 135.431031 (Tempozan Ferris Wheel) World's tallest 1997–1999

Harbin
Harbin
Ferris Wheel[33] 110 (361) 2003  China Harbin, Heilongjiang 45°46′40″N 126°39′48″E / 45.7776481°N 126.6634637°E / 45.7776481; 126.6634637 ( Harbin
Harbin
Ferris Wheel)

Shanghai
Shanghai
Ferris Wheel[34][35] 108 (354) 2002  China Jinjiang Action Park, Shanghai 31°08′24″N 121°24′11″E / 31.1401286°N 121.4030752°E / 31.1401286; 121.4030752 ( Shanghai
Shanghai
Ferris Wheel)

Igosu 108[36] 108 (354) 1992  Japan Biwako Tower, Ōtsu, Shiga, Honshū 35°07′36″N 135°55′35″E / 35.1267338°N 135.9263551°E / 35.1267338; 135.9263551 ( Igosu 108
Igosu 108
(former location)) World's tallest 1992–1997

Cosmo Clock 21
Cosmo Clock 21
(1st installation) 107.5 (353) 1989  Japan Minato Mirai 21, Yokohama, Honshū Unknown World's tallest 1989–1992

Space Eye[37] 100 (328) Unknown  Japan Space World, Kitakyūshū, Kyūshū 33°52′18″N 130°48′36″E / 33.8716939°N 130.8099014°E / 33.8716939; 130.8099014 (Space Eye) Picture

Grande Roue de Paris[8] 100 (328) 1900  France Champ de Mars, Paris 48°51′08″N 2°17′57″E / 48.852222°N 2.299167°E / 48.852222; 2.299167 (Grande Roue de Paris
Paris
(demolished 1920)) World's tallest 1900–1920

Great Wheel[15] 094 94 (308) 1895  United Kingdom Earls Court, London 51°29′18″N 0°11′56″W / 51.48835°N 0.19889°W / 51.48835; -0.19889 ( Great Wheel (demolished 1907)) World's tallest 1895–1900

Aurora Wheel[38] 090 90 (295) Unknown  Japan Nagashima Spa Land, Mie, Honshū 35°01′47″N 136°44′01″E / 35.0298207°N 136.7336351°E / 35.0298207; 136.7336351 (Aurora Wheel) Picture

Eurowheel[39] 090 90 (295) 1999  Italy Mirabilandia, Ravenna 44°20′21″N 12°15′44″E / 44.3392161°N 12.2622228°E / 44.3392161; 12.2622228 (Eurowheel)

Sky Wheel[40] 088 88 (289) Unknown  Taiwan Janfusun Fancyworld, Gukeng 23°37′13″N 120°34′35″E / 23.6202611°N 120.5763352°E / 23.6202611; 120.5763352 (Sky Wheel)

Technostar Technocosmos[8] 085 85 (279) 1985? 1985  Japan Expoland, Osaka, Honshū
Honshū
(?-2009) Expo '85, Tsukuba, Honshū
Honshū
(1985–?) 34°48′14″N 135°32′09″E / 34.803772°N 135.535916°E / 34.803772; 135.535916 (Technostar) 36°03′40″N 140°04′23″E / 36.061203°N 140.073055°E / 36.061203; 140.073055 (Technocosmos) World's tallest extant 1985–1989 Technocosmos
Technocosmos
renamed/relocated World's tallest extant 1985–1989

The original Ferris Wheel 080.40 80.4 (264) 1893  United States Chicago
Chicago
(1893–1903); St. Louis (1904–06)   Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
coordinates World's tallest 1893–1894

Wiener Riesenrad 064.75 64.8 (212) 1897  Austria Wurstelprater, Vienna 48°13′00″N 16°23′45″E / 48.2166505°N 16.3959494°E / 48.2166505; 16.3959494 (Wiener_Riesenrad) World's tallest extant 1920–1985

Future wheels[edit] Following the huge success of the 135-metre (443 ft) London
London
Eye since it opened in 2000, giant Ferris wheels have been proposed for many other cities, however a large number of these projects have stalled or failed.[41] Construction in progress[edit]

The 210 m (689 ft) Ain Dubai
Dubai
(previously name Dubai
Dubai
Eye or Dubai-I[42][43]) at Bluewaters Island in the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
was announced in February 2013.[44] At that time construction was planned to begin in June 2013[45][46] and completion expected sometime during 2015,[45] at an estimated cost of US$1.6 billion,[47] and Hyundai Engineering & Construction and Starneth Engineering were appointed as the primary design and construction contractors.[44][48] Construction eventually began almost two years behind schedule in May 2015[49] and it is now expected to be completed in 2018.[50]

Unfinished projects[edit]

The 190.5 m (625 ft)[51][52][53] New York Wheel
New York Wheel
was first reported in June 2012 and officially announced by mayor Michael Bloomberg in September 2012.[52] Construction at Staten Island, New York
York
City, alongside the planned Empire Outlets
Empire Outlets
retail complex,[51] was originally planned to begin early in 2014,[54][55] and completion was originally expected to be in 2015.[53][55] In October 2014 it was reported that construction would not begin until 2015, with completion delayed until 2017.[56] This was subsequently further pushed back to April 2018, and then delayed indefinitely after developer NY Wheel fired lead contractor Mammoet-Starneth LLC in July 2017 amid a legal dispute over missed design and construction deadlines.[57] The 89-metre (292 ft) Turn of Fortune
Turn of Fortune
has been under construction in Changzhou, Jiangsu, China, since 2009. The 84-metre (276 ft) diameter structure[58] could supersede the 60-metre (197 ft) Big O, in Tokyo, Japan, as the world's tallest centreless Ferris wheel, but completion has been repeatedly delayed.

Abandoned projects[edit]

The Skyvue
Skyvue
Las Vegas
Las Vegas
Super Wheel[59] (or SkyVue—the official website uses both[60]) was announced as being 145 m (476 ft) tall,[61][62] and later reported as 150 m (492 ft)[60] and 152.4 m (500 ft).[63][64][65][66] It was approved by Clark County Commission in March 2011,[67] and announced at a groundbreaking ceremony in May 2011 that "We expect it to be up and running in time for New Year's 2012".[61][68] The completion date for its construction on the Las Vegas
Las Vegas
Strip was subsequently put back several times. [69] [70] As of 2016, no construction work had been done for two years.

Quiescent proposals[edit] Incomplete, delayed, stalled, cancelled, failed, or abandoned proposals:

The 220 m (722 ft) Moscow
Moscow
View, proposed in 2011, was to have featured 48 monorail-mounted passenger capsules, each able to carry 48 passengers, travelling around a centreless non-rotating rim. At that time the timeframe for its construction was unknown and its site within Moscow
Moscow
had yet to be selected,[71][72][73] though candidates were said to include the All-Russia Exhibition Centre, Gorky Park, Prospekt Vernadskogo, and Sparrow Hills.[74] In December 2011 the project was reported to be stalled due to lack of City Hall approval.[75] The 208 m (682 ft) Beijing Great Wheel was originally due to begin construction in 2007 and to open in 2008,[76] but went into receivership in 2010.[77] It was one of at least five Great Wheel Corporation giant Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
projects which failed between 2007 and 2010. The 198 m (650 ft) Baghdad
Baghdad
Eye was proposed for Baghdad, Iraq, in August 2008. At that time, three possible locations had been identified, but no estimates of cost or completion date were given.[78][79][80][81] In October 2008, it was reported that Al-Zawraa Park was expected to be the site,[82] and a 55 m (180 ft) wheel was installed there in March 2011.[83] The 185 m (607 ft) Great Dubai
Dubai
Wheel proposed for Dubailand, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, was granted planning permission in 2006 and expected to open in 2009,[84] but it was subsequently confirmed that it would not be built.[85] It was one of at least five Great Wheel Corporation giant Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
projects which failed between 2007 and 2010. The 183 m (600 ft) Voyager[86] was proposed several times for Las Vegas, Nevada.[87] The 176 m (577 ft) Bangkok
Bangkok
Eye, to be located near the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok, Thailand, was announced by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration on 13 October 2010, at which time the actual site and means of funding the 30-billion baht project had yet to be determined.[88]

Artist's impression of the 175 m Great Berlin Wheel, a project originally due for completion in 2008, but which stalled after encountering financial obstacles

The 175 m (574 ft) Great Berlin Wheel
Great Berlin Wheel
was originally planned to open in 2008 but the project encountered financial obstacles.[89] It was one of at least five Great Wheel Corporation giant Ferris wheel projects which failed between 2007 and 2010. The 150 m (492 ft) Jeddah Eye was proposed in 2008, as part of a development scheduled to open in 2012 in Saudi Arabia. Construction was to have begun in 2009,[90] but there were no subsequent announcements. It was one of at least five Great Wheel Corporation giant Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
projects which failed between 2007 and 2010. A 137.2 m (450 ft) Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
project involving Tussauds was considered for New York
York
City's South Street Seaport
South Street Seaport
in 2004, but was never built.[91] The 122 m (400 ft) Great Orlando Wheel was announced in June 2008[92] but then suspended in early 2009 after losing its funding.[89] It was one of at least five Great Wheel Corporation giant Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
projects which failed between 2007 and 2010. The 120 m (394 ft) Kolkata
Kolkata
Eye[93] was first proposed in 2011 for construction on the banks of Hooghly River
Hooghly River
in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Favoured by Mamata Banerjee, Chief Minister of West Bengal, the project was originally valued at 100 crore rupees.[94] This had risen to 300 crore rupees by May 2014 when Banerjee tweeted "[it] is expected to be ready in a year's time."[93] In January 2015 The Times of India
India
reported that the project was "still a pipe dream".[95] A 120 m (394 ft) wheel for Manchester, England, was proposed by Manchester
Manchester
City Council in 2010 as a replacement for the transportable 60 m (197 ft) Wheel of Manchester installation, with Piccadilly Gardens
Piccadilly Gardens
the possible site and completion expected by Christmas 2011.[96] The 101-metre (331 ft) Eye on Malaysia, a Chinese-manufactured wheel with 54 passenger gondolas, was scheduled to begin operating in April 2013 at Malacca
Malacca
Island, Malaysia. In November 2012, Chief Minister of the state of Malacca
Malacca
Datuk Seri Mohd Ali Rustam
Mohd Ali Rustam
stated that the installation of piles had brought the RM40 million wheel to 15 per cent of completion, and that "the installation of the wheel structure will begin in February [2013]."[97] Mohd Ali Rustam
Mohd Ali Rustam
had previously announced the Malaysia
Malaysia
Eye, which conflicting reports stated would be 85 metres (279 ft)[98] or 88 metres (289 ft)[99] tall, also to be sourced from China
China
and located at Malacca
Malacca
Island, and to have 54 air-conditioned gondolas, each able to carry six people. It was scheduled to open on December 1, 2011,[99] but was never built. A 91.4 m (300 ft) wheel planned for Manchester, England, for 2008,[100] was never constructed. The 87 m (285 ft) Pepsi Globe was proposed for the planned Meadowlands complex in New Jersey
New Jersey
in February 2008 and originally due to open in 2009, then put on hold until 2010.[101] It has since been further delayed, and construction of the host complex, originally due to be completed in 2007, has been stalled since 2009 due to financing problems.[102]

Nippon Moon, described as a "giant observation wheel" by its designers,[103] was reported in September 2013 to be "currently in development". At that time, its height was "currently undisclosed", but "almost twice the scale of the wheel in London." Its location, an unspecified Japanese city, was "currently under wraps", and its funding had "yet to be entirely secured." Commissioned by Ferris Wheel Investment Co., Ltd., and designed by UNStudio in collaboration with Arup, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Experientia, it was expected to have 32 individually themed capsules and take 40 minutes to rotate once.[104] The Shanghai
Shanghai
Star, initially planned as a 200-metre (656 ft) tall wheel to be built by 2005, was revised to 170 metres (558 ft), with a completion date set in 2007, but then cancelled in 2006 due to "political incorrectness".[105] An earlier proposal for a 250-metre (820 ft) structure, the Shanghai
Shanghai
Kiss, with capsules ascending and descending a pair of towers which met at their peaks instead of a wheel, was deemed too expensive at £100m.[106] Rus-3000, a 170-metre (558 ft) wheel planned to open in 2004[107] in Moscow,[108] has since been reported cancelled.[109] Subsequently, an approximately 180-metre (591 ft)[110] wheel was considered for Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure,[111][112] and a 150-metre (492 ft) wheel proposed for location near Sparrow Hills.[113] Another giant wheel planned for Prospekt Vernadskogo for 2002 was also never built.[74] Observation wheels[edit]

The Singapore Flyer
Singapore Flyer
has 28 cylindrical air-conditioned passenger capsules, each able to carry 28 people[114]

The London
London
Eye's 32 ovoidal air-conditioned passenger capsules each weigh 10 tonnes (11 short tons) and can carry 25 people[115]

Observation wheel is an alternative name for Ferris wheel.[116][117] In 1892, when the incorporation papers for the Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
Company (constructors of the original 1893 Chicago
Chicago
Ferris Wheel) were filed, the purpose of the company was stated as: [construction and operation of] "...wheels of the Ferris or other types for the purpose of observation or amusement".[8] Some Ferris wheels are marketed as observation wheels, any distinction between the two names being at the discretion of the operator, however the wheels whose operators reject the term Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
are often those having most in common with the original 1893 Chicago
Chicago
Ferris Wheel, especially in terms of scale and being an iconic landmark for a city or event. Wheels with passenger cars mounted external to the rim and independently rotated by electric motors, as opposed to wheels with cars suspended from the rim and kept upright by gravity, are those most commonly referred to as observation wheels, and their cars are often referred to as capsules. However, these alternative names are also sometimes used for wheels with conventional gravity-oriented cars. Only four Ferris wheels with motorised capsules have ever been built.

The 167.6 m (550 ft) High Roller, world's tallest since March 2014, has externally mounted motorised capsules of a transparent spherical design,[62][118] and is described as both a Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
and an observation wheel by the media.[61][62][119][120]

The 165 m (541 ft) Singapore Flyer
Singapore Flyer
has cylindrical externally mounted motorised capsules and is described as an observation wheel by its operators,[121] but was also credited as "world's largest Ferris wheel" by the media when it opened in 2008.[122][123]

The 135 m (443 ft) London
London
Eye, typically described as a "giant Ferris wheel" by the media,[124][125] has ovoidal externally mounted motorised capsules and is the "world's tallest cantilevered observation wheel"[126] according to its operators, who claim "The London
London
Eye is often mistakenly called a Ferris wheel. This is not the case: first, the passenger capsules are completely enclosed and are climate controlled; secondly, the capsules are positioned on the outside of the wheel structure and are fully motorised; and third, the entire structure is supported by an A-frame on one side only."[126] However the Singapore Flyer
Singapore Flyer
subsequently billed itself as the "world's largest observation wheel", despite being supported on both sides,[127] and the official londoneye.com website also refers to the London
London
Eye as "Europe's tallest Ferris wheel".[128]

Southern Star (now Melbourne
Melbourne
Star), tallest in the Southern Hemisphere, in 2008

The 120 m (394 ft) Melbourne Star
Melbourne Star
(previously the Southern Star) in Australia
Australia
has ovoidal externally mounted motorised capsules and is described by its operators as "the only observation wheel in the southern hemisphere",[129] but also as a Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
by the media.[130][131][132]

Official conceptual renderings[133] of the proposed 190.5 m (625 ft) New York Wheel
New York Wheel
also show a wheel equipped with externally mounted motorised capsules.[51] Transportable wheels[edit] Transportable Ferris wheels are designed to be operated at multiple locations, as opposed to fixed wheels which are usually intended for permanent installation. Small transportable designs may be permanently mounted on trailers, and can be moved intact. Larger transportable wheels are designed to be repeatedly dismantled and rebuilt, some using water ballast instead of the permanent foundations of their fixed counterparts. Fixed wheels are also sometimes dismantled and relocated. Larger examples include the original Ferris Wheel, which operated at two sites in Chicago, Illinois, and a third in St. Louis, Missouri; Technocosmos/Technostar, which moved to Expoland, Osaka, after Expo '85, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, for which it was built, ended; and Cosmo Clock 21, which added 5 metres (16 ft) onto its original 107.5-metre (353 ft) height when erected for the second time at Minato Mirai 21, Yokohama, in 1999. The world's tallest transportable wheel today[update] is the 78-metre (256 ft) Bussink Design
Bussink Design
R80XL.[134][135][136][137] One of the most famous transportable wheels is the 60-metre (197 ft) Roue de Paris, originally installed on the Place de la Concorde in Paris
Paris
for the 2000 millennium celebrations. Roue de Paris left France
France
in 2002 and in 2003–04 operated in Birmingham
Birmingham
and Manchester, England. In 2005 it visited first Geleen
Geleen
then Amsterdam, Netherlands, before returning to England
England
to operate at Gateshead. In 2006 it was erected at the Suan Lum Night Bazaar
Suan Lum Night Bazaar
in Bangkok, Thailand, and by 2008 had made its way to Antwerp, Belgium.[138] Roue de Paris
Paris
is a Ronald Bussink
Ronald Bussink
series R60 design using 40,000 litres (8,800 imperial gallons; 11,000 US gallons) of water ballast to provide a stable base. The R60 weighs 365 tonnes (402 short tons), and can be erected in 72 hours and dismantled in 60 hours by a specialist team. Transport requires seven 20-foot container lorries, ten open trailer lorries, and one closed trailer lorry. Its 42-passenger cars can be loaded either 3 or 6 at a time, and each car can carry 8 people.[139] Bussink R60 wheels have operated in Australia
Australia
(Brisbane), Canada (Niagara Falls), France
France
(Paris), Malaysia
Malaysia
( Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
& Malacca), UK (Belfast, Birmingham, Manchester, Sheffield), US (Atlanta, Myrtle Beach), and elsewhere. Other notable transportable wheels include the 60-metre (197 ft) Steiger Ferris Wheel, which was the world's tallest transportable wheel when it began operating in 1980.[140] It has 42 passenger cars,[141] and weighs 450 tons.[142] On October 11, 2010, it collapsed at the Kramermarkt in Oldenburg, Germany, during deconstruction.[143]

Roue de Paris, a Ronald Bussink
Ronald Bussink
R60 transportable wheel, at Geleen
Geleen
in the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 2005

Notable transportable Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
installations

Name Years Country Location Coordinates

Belfast
Belfast
Wheel 2007–2010  UK Belfast 54°35′48.77″N 5°55′45.06″W / 54.5968806°N 5.9291833°W / 54.5968806; -5.9291833 ( Belfast
Belfast
Wheel)

Brighton
Brighton
Wheel 2011–  UK Brighton 50°49′09″N 0°08′04″W / 50.8191°N 0.1344°W / 50.8191; -0.1344 ( Brighton
Brighton
Wheel)

Delhi
Delhi
Eye see article  India Delhi 28°32′46″N 77°18′31″E / 28.5460153°N 77.3086802°E / 28.5460153; 77.3086802 ( Delhi
Delhi
Eye)

Eye on Malaysia 2007–2008 2008–2010  Malaysia  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Malacca 3°10′39.2″N 101°42′15.68″E / 3.177556°N 101.7043556°E / 3.177556; 101.7043556 (Eye on Malaysia
Malaysia
(Kuala Lumpur installation)) 2°11′23.4312″N 102°14′29.00″E / 2.189842000°N 102.2413889°E / 2.189842000; 102.2413889 (Eye on Malaysia ( Malacca
Malacca
installation))

Royal Windsor Wheel various   UK Windsor, Berkshire 51°29′04″N 0°36′43″W / 51.4845°N 0.6119°W / 51.4845; -0.6119 (Royal Windsor Wheel)

Wheel of Birmingham various   UK Centenary Square, Birmingham 52°28′44.04″N 1°54′32.49″W / 52.4789000°N 1.9090250°W / 52.4789000; -1.9090250 (Wheel of Birmingham)

Wheel of Brisbane 2008–  Australia South Bank
South Bank
Parklands, Brisbane 27°28′31″S 153°01′15″E / 27.4751833°S 153.0209333°E / -27.4751833; 153.0209333 (Wheel of Brisbane)

Wheel of Dublin 2010–2011  Ireland North Wall, Dublin 53°20′50″N 6°13′39″W / 53.3472°N 6.2276°W / 53.3472; -6.2276 (Wheel of Dublin)

Wheel of Liverpool 2010–  UK Liverpool 53°23′54″N 2°59′27″W / 53.39824°N 2.99083°W / 53.39824; -2.99083 (Wheel of Liverpool)

Wheel of Manchester various   UK Manchester multiple locations – see article

Wheel of Sheffield 2009–2010  UK Fargate, Sheffield 53°22′52″N 1°28′12″W / 53.3810°N 1.4699°W / 53.3810; -1.4699 (Wheel of Sheffield)

Yorkshire Wheel various   UK York multiple locations – see article

Double and triple wheels[edit]

Giant Wheel, a double wheel

Sky Whirl, a triple wheel

Hermann Eccentric Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
with sliding cars, from US patent 1354436, 1915; forerunner of the 1920 Wonder Wheel, there is no record of it ever being built[6][144]

Wonder Wheel, a 45.7-metre (150 ft) tall eccentric wheel at Deno's Wonder Wheel
Wonder Wheel
Amusement Park, Coney Island, was built in 1920 by the Eccentric Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
Company[145]

Disney California Adventure Park's Mickey's Fun Wheel, an eccentric wheel modelled on Wonder Wheel, was built in 2001 as Sun Wheel and became Mickey's Fun Wheel
Mickey's Fun Wheel
in 2009[146]

Big O, a 60-metre (197 ft) tall centreless wheel at Tokyo
Tokyo
Dome City in Japan

In March 1966, Thomas Glen Robinson and Ralph G. Robinson received a patent for a ride they developed, called a Planetary Amusement Ride.[147] Robinson sold two of these rides – Astrowheel, which operated at the former Six Flags Astroworld, Houston, Texas, from 1968 until 1980,[148] and Galaxy, which operated at Six Flags Magic Mountain, Valencia, California. Both were manufactured by Astron International Corporation.[citation needed] Swiss manufacturer Intamin
Intamin
produced a similar series of rides comprising a vertical column supporting multiple horizontal arms, with each arm supporting a Ferris wheel. The first Intamin
Intamin
produced was Giant Wheel at Hersheypark
Hersheypark
in Hershey, Pennsylvania. Others include Zodiac (Kings Island, Mason, Ohio), and Scorpion (Parque de la Ciudad, Buenos Aires, Argentina). A triple variant was custom designed for the Marriott Corporation, each ride had three main components: the wheels with their passenger cars; a set of supporting arms; and a single central supporting column. Each wheel rotated about the end of its own supporting arm. The arms in turn would either pivot or rotate together as a single unit about the top of the supporting column. The axis about which the rotating arms turned was offset from vertical, so that as the arms rotated, each arm and its corresponding wheel was raised and lowered. This allowed one wheel to be horizontal at ground level, and brought to a standstill for simultaneous loading and unloading of all its passenger cars, while the other wheel(s) continued to rotate vertically at considerable height. Sky Whirl
Sky Whirl
was the world's first triple Ferris wheel, debuting at both Marriott's Great America parks (now Six Flags Great America, Gurnee, Illinois, and California's Great America, Santa Clara) in 1976. Also known as a triple Ferris wheel,[149] Triple Giant Wheel,[150] or Triple Tree Wheel, it was 33 metres (108 ft) in height.[151] The Santa Clara ride, renamed Triple Wheel in post-Marriott years, closed on 1 September 1997. The Gurnee ride closed in 2000.[152]

Cosmo Clock 21, world's tallest wheel 1989 to 1997

Ruota dei Pionieri, Minitalia Leolandia Park, Italy
Italy
(manufactured by Zamperla[153])

A ride similar to a Ferris wheel, but which inverts its cars and passengers

Four-car 30 m tall drive-in Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
at Harbourfront, Toronto, Canada, in 2004[154]

A wheel constructed by the Swedish contingent at the 21st World Scout Jamboree

Passenger-powered 2-seat Cyclecide
Cyclecide
wheel at the 2007 Bumbershoot festival in Seattle

Eccentric wheels[edit] An eccentric wheel (sometimes called a sliding wheel[155] or coaster wheel[156]) differs from a conventional Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
in that some or all of its passenger cars are not fixed directly to the rim of the wheel, but instead slide on rails between the rim and the hub as the wheel rotates. The two most famous eccentric wheels are Wonder Wheel, at Deno's Wonder Wheel
Wonder Wheel
Amusement Park, Coney Island, US, and Mickey's Fun Wheel (previously Sun Wheel), at Disney California Adventure Park, US. The latter is a replica of the former. There is a second replica in Yokohama
Yokohama
Dreamland, Japan.[145] Mickey's Fun Wheel
Mickey's Fun Wheel
is 48.8 metres (160 ft) tall[155] and has 24 fully enclosed passenger cars, each able to carry 6 passengers. 16 of the cars slide inward and outward as the wheel rotates, the remainder are fixed to the rim. There are separate boarding queues for sliding and fixed cars, so that passengers may choose between the two.[146] Inspired by Coney Island's 1920 Wonder Wheel, it was designed by Walt Disney Imagineering and Waagner Biro, completed in 2001 as the Sun Wheel, and later refurbished and reopened in 2009 as Mickey's Fun Wheel.[155] Wonder Wheel
Wonder Wheel
was built in 1920, is 45.7 metres (150 ft) tall, and can carry 144 people.[157] Major designers, manufacturers, and operators[edit] Allan Herschell Company
Allan Herschell Company
(merged with Chance Rides
Chance Rides
in 1970)[158]

Seattle
Seattle
Wheel (debuted 1962): 16 cars, 2 passengers per car[159] Sky Wheel (debuted 1939; also manufactured by Chance Rides): a double wheel, with the wheels rotating about opposite ends of a pair of parallel beams, and the beams rotating about their centres; 8 cars per wheel, 2 passengers per car[160]

Chance Morgan
Chance Morgan
/ Chance Rides
Chance Rides
/ Chance Wheels / Chance American Wheels[161][162]

Astro Wheel (debuted 1967): 16 cars (8 facing one way, 8 the other), 2 passengers per car[163] Century Wheel: 20 m (66 ft) tall, 15 cars, 4-6 passengers per car[162] Giant Wheel: 27 m (89 ft) tall, 20 cars, 6-8 passengers per car[162] Niagara SkyWheel (2006): 53.3 m (175 ft) tall, 42 air-conditioned cars, 8 passengers per car[164] Myrtle Beach SkyWheel
Myrtle Beach SkyWheel
(2011): 57 m (187 ft) tall, 42 air-conditioned cars, 6 passengers per car[165]

Eli Bridge Company[166] Contemporary models include:

Signature Series: 16 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable Eagle Series: 16 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable HY-5 Series: 12 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable Aristocrat Series: 16 cars, fixed site Standard Series: 12 cars, fixed site Lil' Wheel: 6 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable and fixed site models

Great Wheel Corporation[167] (merged with World Tourist Attractions in 2009 to form Great City Attractions)[168]

Singapore
Singapore
Flyer: 165 m (541 ft) tall, completed 2008; world's tallest 2008 to 2014 Beijing Great Wheel: 208 m (682 ft) tall, was supposed to open in 2008, went into in receivership, [77] never built Great Dubai
Dubai
Wheel: 185 m (607 ft) tall, planning permission granted in 2006, was supposed to open in 2009,[84] never built Great Berlin Wheel: 175 m (574 ft) tall, was supposed to open in 2008,[89] never built Great Orlando Wheel: 122 m (400 ft) tall, project halted in 2009,[89] never built

Intamin
Intamin
/ Waagner-Biro[169] (Rides brokered by Intamin
Intamin
— manufactured by Waagner-Biro)[170]

Mickey's Fun Wheel: an eccentric (sliding) wheel Giant Wheel: a double wheel Sky Whirl: a triple wheel Orlando Eye

Mir / Pax[171]

Moscow-850, a 73-metre (240 ft) tall wheel in Russia; Europe's tallest extant wheel when completed in 1997, until 1999 Eurowheel, a 90-metre (300 ft) tall wheel in Italy; Europe's tallest extant wheel when completed in 1999, until the end of that year

Ronald Bussink[172] (formerly Nauta Bussink; then Ronald Bussink Professional Rides; then Bussink Landmarks since 2008)

Wheels of Excellence range (sold to Vekoma
Vekoma
in 2008) has included:

R40: 40-metre (131 ft) tall fixed or transportable wheel, 15 or 30 cars, 8 passengers per car R50: 50-metre (164 ft) tall fixed or transportable wheel, 18 or 36 cars, 8 passengers per car R60: 60-metre (197 ft) tall transportable wheel, 21 or 42 cars, 8 passengers per car[139] R80: 80-metre (262 ft) tall fixed wheel, 56 cars, 8 passengers per car

Bussink Design:

R80XL: 78-metre (256 ft) tall fixed or transportable wheel, 27 16-person cars, or 54 8-person cars

Sanoyas Rides Corporation (has built more than 80 Ferris wheels[173])

Melbourne
Melbourne
Star: 120 m (394 ft) tall, completed 2008, rebuilt 2009–2013

Senyo Kogyo Co, Ltd.

Cosmo Clock 21: 107.5 m (353 ft) tall, completed 1989; world's tallest 1989 to 1997;[19] 112.5 m (369 ft) tall when re-erected in 1999[20] Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel: 117 m (384 ft) tall, world's second tallest when completed in 2001[174] Tempozan Ferris Wheel: 112.5 m (369 ft) tall, completed 1997; world's tallest 1997 to 1999[19]

World Tourist Attractions / Great City Attractions[175] / Wheels Entertainments[176] / Freij Entertainment International[177]

Belfast
Belfast
Wheel Brighton
Brighton
Wheel Roue de Paris Royal Windsor Wheel Wheel of Birmingham Wheel of Brisbane Wheel of Manchester Wheel of Sheffield Yorkshire Wheel

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ferris wheels.

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Archived March 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Eyes in the sky Archived June 25, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ The travels of Peter Mundy
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– history Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Great Wheel, Earls Court
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to open world's fifth tallest Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
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opens in Osaka ^ 13-year-old leukemia patient becomes Orlando Eye's first official rider ^ The Ferris Wheel
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Ferris wheel
taller than planned Staten Island wheel; would be completed before NYC attraction ^ a b Dubai
Dubai
to get world's largest ferris wheel ^ Dh6b tourism project in Dubai
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unveiled ^ Dubai
Dubai
Eye: Construction Of World's Largest Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
Set To Begin Later This Year ^ Dubai
Dubai
eyes world's tallest observation wheel ^ First leg of Dubai
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Eye big wheel lifted into place ^ Daily Mail: Move over, London
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Eye! The world's largest ferris wheel inches towards completion in Dubai... and it's a sight to behold already ^ a b c St. George Waterfront NYCEDC North Site Conceptual Rendering – View towards Manhattan from Elevated Open Space ^ a b Bloomberg announces plan for record-breaking ferris wheel ^ a b World's tallest observation wheel to tower over New York ^ The New York Wheel
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Ferris Wheel
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Staten Island
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Staten Island
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Skyvue
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Las Vegas
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Observation Wheel Completes First Phase Of Construction, Breaks Ground On Retail & Dining District ^ Las Vegas
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Las Vegas
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Eye ^ Welcome to the Southern Star ^ Work to spin Ferris wheel ^ Southern Star Observation Wheel profile ^ Melbourne’s big wheel of misfortune ^ Official Site of The New York
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Wheel ^ R80 XL World's Largest Transportable Giant Wheel – Welcome ^ Bussink launches world's tallest transportable Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
Archived 2013-06-30 at Archive.is ^ Ferris R80XL Archived 2015-01-19 at the Wayback Machine. ^ München dreht ein großes Ding ^ The History of 'La grande Roue de Paris' ^ a b Technical Information ^ Anker, Jens (4 Nov 2004). "Schausteller verspricht Riesenrad am Container-Bahnhof" [Fairground showman promises Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
at the Goods Station]. Welt Online (in German).  ^ "Steiger Build-Up – Technical data". Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 10 June 2010.  ^ Klessmann, Michael (30 August 2010). "Riesenrad in der Hafencity" [ Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
Harbour Town's City Centre]. HafenCity News (in German). Retrieved 3 March 2011.  ^ "Riesenrad-Unfall: Freimarkt bekommt Europa-Rad als Ersatz" [Ferris wheel accident: Freimarkt gets Europe Wheel instead]. Kreiszeitung (in German). 12 October 2010.  ^ Ocean County NJ History, Seaside ^ a b Wonder Wheel
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History ^ a b Mickey's Fun Wheel
Mickey's Fun Wheel
– Disney's California Adventure ^ "Planetary amusement ride". Retrieved June 3, 2015.  ^ SixFlagsHouston.com – Rides – Astrowheel Archived 2016-03-10 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Need Six Flags Great America
Six Flags Great America
Tickets? Archived 2015-10-17 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Theme Park Timelines Archived 2015-01-18 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Zoning Board Minutes – 10-25-00 Archived March 12, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sky Whirl
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at Marriott's Great America parks ^ Zamperla
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Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Chance, Harold (2004). The Book of Chance. Wichita, Kansas: Wichita Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-9649065-0-3.  ^ Allan Herschell Seattle
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Wheel ^ Skywheel (Manufactured by both Allan Herschell and Chance Rides) ^ Chance Celebrates 50 Years of Fun and Attractions ^ a b c Chance Morgan
Chance Morgan
Archived 11 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Chance Astro Wheel ^ One of a Kind ‘Giant Wheel’ Debuts in Niagara Falls, Canada ^ Myrtle Beach SkyWheel
Myrtle Beach SkyWheel
Press and News Archived 2012-01-20 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Eli Bridge Company :: Jacksonville, IL :: Ferris Wheels ^ The Great Wheel Corporation Singapore Flyer
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Great Wheel Beijing Orlando Berlin Dubai
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Archived 2016-02-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ World Tourist Attractions, Great Wheel Merge Ahead Of IPO ^ Intamin
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Ride Catalogue page ^ A business story with twists and turns Archived 2016-03-07 at the Wayback Machine. ^ bussink.com ^ Docklands' trouble-plagued observation wheel set to open in ten weeks ^ Senyo Kogyo Co, Ltd. - Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel
Ferris Wheel
(in Japanese) Archived 1 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Welcome to Great City Attraction ^ Freij Wheels Attractions ^ Freij – FERRIS WHEEL Archived 2013-09-17 at the Wayback Machine.

v t e

Ferris wheels

World's tallest Ferris wheels (over 80 m)

Americas

US the original Ferris Wheel High Roller Orlando Eye

Asia

China Bailang River Bridge Ferris Wheel Changsha
Changsha
Ferris Wheel Harbin
Harbin
Ferris Wheel Shanghai
Shanghai
Ferris Wheel Star of Lake Tai Star of Nanchang Suzhou
Suzhou
Ferris Wheel Tianjin
Tianjin
Eye Zhengzhou Ferris Wheel

Japan Aurora Wheel Cosmo Clock 21 Daikanransha Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel Igosu 108 Redhorse Osaka
Osaka
Wheel Sky Dream Fukuoka Space Eye Technocosmos
Technocosmos
/ Technostar Tempozan Ferris Wheel

Singapore Singapore
Singapore
Flyer

Taiwan Sky Wheel

Europe

France Grande Roue de Paris

Italy Eurowheel

United Kingdom Great Wheel London
London
Eye

Oceania

Australia Melbourne
Melbourne
Star

Other conventional Ferris wheels

For a more extensive list, see List of Ferris wheels

Americas

Canada Niagara SkyWheel

US Capital Wheel Colossus Myrtle Beach SkyWheel Seattle
Seattle
Great Wheel Texas
Texas
Star Uniroyal Giant Tire

Asia

Hong Kong Hong Kong Observation Wheel

Indonesia J-Sky

Japan Amuran Big O

Turkmenistan Alem

Europe & Eurasia

Austria Wiener Riesenrad

Azerbaijan Baku Ferris Wheel

Russia Moscow-850

Other types of wheel

Transportable Ferris wheels

designs Bussink Design
Bussink Design
R80XL

wheels Roue de Paris Steiger Ferris Wheel

see also List of transportable Ferris wheels

Transportable Ferris wheel installations

Australia Wheel of Brisbane

India Delhi
Delhi
Eye

Malaysia Eye on Malaysia
Malaysia
( Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and Malacca)

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Ireland Belfast
Belfast
Wheel Brighton
Brighton
Wheel Royal Windsor Wheel Wheel of Birmingham Wheel of Dublin Wheel of Liverpool Wheel of Manchester Wheel of Sheffield Yorkshire Wheel

Eccentric wheels

US Mickey's Fun Wheel Wonder Wheel

Double wheels

US Giant Wheel (Hersheypark)

Triple wheels

US Sky Whirl

Major Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
proposals

Construction in progress:

Dubai Dubai
Dubai
Eye

Unfinished projects:

China Turn of Fortune

US New York
York
Wheel

Abandoned projects:

US Skyvue

Quiescent proposals:

China Beijing Great Wheel

Germany Great Berlin Wheel

India Kolkata
Kolkata
Eye

US Great Orlando Wheel

For other quiescent (incomplete, delayed, stalled, cancelled, failed, or abandoned) proposals, see: Ferris wheel#Quiescent proposals

Related topics

Designers, manufacturers, and operators

Allan Herschell Company Chance Morgan Chance Wheels / Chance American Wheels Eli Bridge Company Great City Attractions
Great City Attractions
(previously World Tourist Attractions) Great Wheel Corporation (merged with World Tourist Attractions in 2009) Intamin Maurer German Wheels Mondial Ronald Bussink
Ronald Bussink
(Nauta Bussink / Bussink Landmarks / Bussink Design) Sanoyas Rides Corporation Vekoma
Vekoma
(Dutch Wheels) Waagner-Biro Wheels Entertainments

People

George Washington Gale Ferris Jr.

Popular culture

London
London
Eye in popular culture The Great Wheel (novel) The London
London
Eye Mystery (novel)

Categories Ferris wheels Former Ferris wheels Proposed Ferris wheels Transportable Ferris wheels Unbuilt Ferris wheels Unfinished Ferris wheels

Amusement rides Ferris wheels @

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