A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes
vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water. Most ferries
operate regular return services. A passenger ferry with many stops,
such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water
Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside
cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a
capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels. However, ship
connections of much larger distances (such as over long distances in
water bodies like the Mediterranean Sea) may also be called ferry
services, especially if they carry vehicles.
1.1 In ancient times
2 Notable services
2.3 North America
Cruiseferry / RoPax
3.8 Turntable ferry
3.9 Pontoon ferry
3.10 Train ferry
3.11 Foot ferry
3.12 Cable ferry
3.13 Air ferries
5 First, shortest, largest
6.1 Alternative fuels
8 See also
10 External links
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June
In ancient times
The profession of the ferryman is embodied in
Greek mythology in
Charon, the boatman who transported souls across the
River Styx to the
Speculation that a pair of oxen propelled a ship having a water wheel
can be found in 4th century Roman literature "Anonymus De Rebus
Bellicis". Though impractical, there is no reason why it could not
work and such a ferry, modified by using horses, was used in Lake
Champlain in 19th-century America. See "When Horses Walked on Water:
Horse-Powered Ferries in Nineteenth-Century America" (Smithsonian
Institution Press; Kevin Crisman, co-authored with Arthur Cohn,
Executive Director of the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum). See
Experiment (horse powered boat).
MV Victoria (formerly RMS Victoria) at Bukoba
Port in Lake Victoria,
The Marine Services Company of
Tanzania offers passenger and cargo
services in three of the
African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes viz. Lake Victoria, Lake
Tanganyika and Lake Nyasa. It also operates one of the oldest ferries
in the region, the
MV Liemba which was built in 1913 during the German
The busiest seaway in the world, the English Channel, connects Great
Britain and mainland Europe, sailing mainly to French ports, such as
Calais, Dunkirk, Dover, Dieppe, Roscoff, Cherbourg-Octeville, Caen, St
Malo and Le Havre. Ferries from Great Britain also sail to Belgium,
Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway,
Spain and Ireland. Some ferries
carry mainly tourist traffic, but most also carry freight, and some
are exclusively for the use of freight lorries. In Britain,
car-carrying ferries are sometimes referred to as
roll-off) for the ease by which vehicles can board and leave.
MS Silja Symphony leaving
Helsinki via the Kustaanmiekka strait
to the Baltic Sea.
The busiest single ferry route (at least in terms of the number of
departures) is across the northern part of Øresund, between
Sweden and Elsinore, Denmark. Before the Øresund
bridge was opened in July 2000, car and "car & train" ferries
departed up to seven times every hour. In 2013, this has been reduced,
but a car ferry still departs from each harbor every 15 minutes during
daytime. The route is around 2.2 nautical miles (4.1 km;
2.5 mi) and the crossing takes 22 minutes. Today, all ferries on
this route are constructed so that they do not need to turn around in
the harbors. This also means that the ferries lack natural stems and
sterns, since the vessels sail in both directions (rather than "sail
backwards"). Due to the same circumstances, starboard and port-side
are "dynamic" and depending of in what direction the ferry sails.
Despite the short crossing, the ferries are equipped with restaurants
(on 3 out of 4 ferries), cafeteria, kiosks and WC toilets. (Passengers
without cars often make a "double or triple return" journey in the
restaurants; for this, a common single journey ticket is sufficient.
Passenger and bicycle passenger tickets are inexpensive compared with
Ro-Pax Festos Palace in Piraeus, Greece
Large cruiseferries sail in the
Baltic Sea between Finland, Åland,
Latvia and Saint Petersburg,
Russia and from
Spain and Greece. In many ways, these ferries are
like cruise ships, but they can also carry hundreds of cars on car
decks. Besides providing passenger and car transport across the sea,
Baltic Sea cruiseferries are a popular tourist destination unto
themselves, with multiple restaurants, nightclubs, bars, shops and
entertainment on board. Also many smaller ferries operate on domestic
routes in Finland,
Sweden and Estonia.
The south-west and southern parts of the
Baltic Sea has several routes
mainly for heavy traffic and cars. The ferry routes of
Rostock SWE-GER, Trelleborg-
Świnoujście SWE-POL, Gedser-
Karlskrona POL-SWE, and Ystad-
Świnoujście SWE-POL are all
typical transports ferries. On the longer of these routes, simple
cabins are available. The Rødby-
Puttgarden DEN-GER route also carries
day passenger trains between
Copenhagen and Hamburg, and on the
Sassnitz SWE-GER route, it also has capacities for the
daily night trains between
Berlin and Malmö.
In Istanbul, ferries connect the European and Asian shores of
Bosphorus, as well as
Princes Islands and nearby coastal towns. In
İDO transported 47 million passengers, the largest ferry system
in the world.
MV Spirit of
Vancouver Island en route to Tsawwassen from Swartz
Bay. Route 1 is
BC Ferries busiest route.
Due to the numbers of large freshwater lakes and length of shoreline
in Canada, various provinces and territories have ferry services.
BC Ferries operates the third largest ferry service in the world which
carries travellers between
Vancouver Island and the British Columbia
mainland on the country's west coast. This ferry service operates to
other islands including the
Gulf Islands and Haida Gwaii. In 2015, BC
Ferries carried more than 8 million vehicles and 20 million
Canada's east coast has been home to numerous inter- and
intra-provincial ferry and coastal services, including a large network
operated by the federal government under
CN Marine and later Marine
Atlantic. Private and publicly owned ferry operations in eastern
Canada include Marine Atlantic, serving the island of Newfoundland, as
well as Bay, NFL, CTMA, Coastal Transport, and STQ to name but a few.
Canadian waters in the
Great Lakes once hosted numerous ferry
services, however these have been reduced to those offered by Owen
Sound Transportation and several smaller operations. There are also
several commuter passenger ferry services operated in major cities,
such as Metro Transit in Halifax,
Toronto Island ferries
Toronto Island ferries in Toronto
SeaBus in Vancouver.
The Spokane sailing from Edmonds to Kingston, one of ten routes served
by Washington State Ferries.
Washington State Ferries
Washington State Ferries operates the most extensive ferry system in
the United States and the second largest in the world by vehicles
carried, with ten routes on
Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca
serving terminals in Washington and Vancouver Island. In 2016,
Washington State Ferries
Washington State Ferries carried 10.5 million vehicles and 24.2
million riders in total.
Staten Island Ferry
Staten Island Ferry in New York City, sailing between the boroughs
Manhattan and Staten Island, is the nation's single busiest ferry
route by passenger volume. Unlike riders on many other ferry services,
Staten Island Ferry
Staten Island Ferry passengers do not pay any fare to ride it. New
York City also has a network of smaller ferries, or water taxis, that
shuttle commuters along the
Hudson River from locations in New Jersey
Manhattan down to the midtown, downtown and Wall Street
business centers. Several ferry companies also offer service linking
midtown and lower
Manhattan with locations in the boroughs of Queens
and Brooklyn, crossing the city's East River.
New York City
New York City Mayor Bill
de Blasio announced in February 2015 that city would begin an expanded
Ferry Service some time in 2017 linking heretofore relatively
isolated communities such as Manhattan's Lower East Side, Soundview in
The Bronx, Astoria and the Rockaways in
Queens and such Brooklyn
neighborhoods as Bay Ridge, Sunset Park, and Red Hook with existing
ferry landings in Lower
Manhattan and Midtown Manhattan.
New Orleans area also has many ferries in operation that carry
both vehicles and pedestrians. Most notable is the Algiers Ferry. This
service has been in continuous operation since 1827 and is one of the
oldest operating ferries in North America.
In New England, vehicle-carrying ferry services between mainland Cape
Cod and the islands of
Martha's Vineyard and
Nantucket are operated by
The Woods Hole,
Martha's Vineyard and
Nantucket Steamship Authority,
which sails year-round between
Woods Hole and
Vineyard Haven as well
as Hyannis and Nantucket. Seasonal service is also operated from Woods
Oak Bluffs from Memorial Day to Labor Day. As there are no
bridges or tunnels connecting the islands to the mainland, The
Steamship Authority ferries in addition to being the only method for
transporting private cars to or from the islands, also serves as the
only link by which heavy freight and supplies such as food and
gasoline can be trucked to the islands. Additionally, Hy-Line Cruises
operates high speed catamaran service from Hyannis to both islands, as
well as traditional ferries, and several smaller operations run
seasonal passenger only service primarily geared towards tourist
day-trippers from other mainland ports, including New Bedford, (New
Bedford Fast Ferry) Falmouth, (Island Queen ferry and Falmouth Ferry)
and Harwich (Freedom Cruise Line). Ferries also bring riders and
Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound to such
Connecticut cities as
Bridgeport and New London, and to
Block Island in
Rhode Island from
points on Long Island.
San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area has several ferry services, such as the
Blue & Gold Fleet, connecting with cities as far as Vallejo. The
majority of ferry passengers are daily commuters and tourists. A ferry
serves Angel Island (which also accepts private craft). The only way
to get to
Alcatraz is by ferry.
Until the completion of the Mackinac
Bridge in the 1950s, ferries were
used for vehicle transportation between the Lower Peninsula of
Michigan and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, across the Straits of
Mackinac in the United States.
Ferry service for bicycles and
passengers continues across the straits for transport to Mackinac
Island, where motorized vehicles are almost completely prohibited.
This crossing is made possible by three ferry lines, Arnold Transit
Company, Shepler's Ferry, and Star Line Ferry.
Mexico also has ferry services run by Baja Ferries that connect La Paz
located on the Baja California Peninsula with
Topolobampo. There are also passenger ferries that run from Playa del
Carmen to the island of Cozumel.
Spirit of Tasmania II at port in Devonport, Australia.
In Australia, two
Spirit of Tasmania ferries carry passengers and
vehicles 300 kilometres across Bass Strait, the body of water that
Tasmania from the Australian mainland, often under famously
turbulent sea conditions. These run overnight but also include day
crossings in peak time. Both ferries are based in the northern
Tasmanian port city of Devonport and sail to Melbourne.
In New Zealand, ferries connect
Wellington in the
North Island with
Picton in the South Island, linking New Zealand's two main islands.
The 92 km route takes three hours, and is run by two companies
– government-owned Interislander, and independent Bluebridge.
A ferry underway in Penang, Malaysia.
The inside of a passenger ferry on route between
Shikoku and Kyushu.
The number of actual seats is usually very limited on Japanese
passenger ferries, with larger spaces dedicated to tatami or broadloom
areas where passengers can sit or lie down
Hong Kong has the
Star Ferry carry passengers across Victoria Harbour
and various carriers carrying travellers between Hong Kong Island to
outlying islands like Cheung Chau, Lantau Island and Lamma Island.
Water transport in Mumbai
Water transport in Mumbai consists of ferries, hovercrafts, and
catamarans, operated by various government agencies as well as private
Kerala State Water Transport Department
Kerala State Water Transport Department (SWTD),
operating under the Ministry of Transport, Government of Kerala, India
regulates the inland navigation systems in the Indian state of Kerala
and provides inland water transport facilities. It stands for catering
to the passenger and cargo traffic needs of the inhabitants of the
waterlogged areas of the Districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam,
Kannur and Kasargode. SWTD ferry service is also one of the
most affordable modes to enjoy the beauty of the scenic Kerala
The Malaysian state of
Penang is home to the oldest ferry service in
the country. This famous ferry service, now renamed Rapid Ferry,
Raja Tun Uda Ferry Terminal
Raja Tun Uda Ferry Terminal at Weld Quay in George Town
Penang Island with the
Sultan Abdul Halim Ferry Terminal
Sultan Abdul Halim Ferry Terminal in
Butterworth on Peninsular Malaysia. It has also become a famous
tourist attraction among foreigners. Along the way, ferry commuters
will get to see the skyline of George Town and Butterworth, as well as
India's ro-ro ferry service between
Dahej was inaugurated
by Prime Minister
Narendra Modi on 22 October 2017. It aims to connect
South Gujarat and Saurashtra currently separated by 360 km of roadway
to 31 km of ferry service. It is a part of the larger Sagar Mala
Ferry designs depend on the length of the route, the passenger or
vehicle capacity required, speed requirements and the water conditions
the craft must deal with.
Ferry in Ontario (Manitoulin Island) vehicles load via the front and
back of the ferry opening hull
Double-ended ferries have interchangeable bows and sterns, allowing
them to shuttle back and forth between two terminals without having to
turn around. Well-known double-ended ferry systems include the Staten
Island Ferry, Washington State Ferries, Star Ferry, several boats on
Ferry System, and the Lake Champlain Transportation
Company. Most Norwegian fjord and coastal ferries are double-ended
vessels. All ferries from southern
Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island to the
mainland of Canada are double-ended. Some ferries in Sydney, Australia
British Columbia are also double-ended. In 2008, BC Ferries
launched three of the largest double-ended ferries in the world.
Hydrofoils have the advantage of higher cruising speeds, succeeding
hovercraft on some
English Channel routes where the ferries now
compete against the Eurotunnel and
Eurostar trains that use the
Channel Tunnel. Passenger-only hydrofoils also proved a practical,
fast and relatively economical solution in the
Canary Islands but were
recently replaced by faster catamaran "high speed" ferries that can
carry cars. Their replacement by the larger craft is seen by critics
as a retrograde step given that the new vessels use much more fuel and
foster the inappropriate use of cars in islands already suffering
from the impact of mass tourism.
SR.N4 hovercraft, Dover
Hovercraft were developed in the 1960s and 1970s to carry cars. The
largest was the massive
SR.N4 which carried cars in its centre section
with ramps at the bow and stern between England and France. The
hovercraft was superseded by catamarans which are nearly as fast and
are less affected by sea and weather conditions. Only one service now
remains, a foot passenger service between
Portsmouth and the Isle of
Wight run by Hovertravel.
HSC Manannan entering Douglas, Isle of Man
Since 1990 high speed Catamarans have revolutionised ferry services,
replacing hovercraft, hydrofoils and conventional monohull ferries. In
the 1990s there were a variety of builders, but the industry has
consolidated to two builders of large vehicular ferries between 60 and
Incat of Hobart,
Tasmania favours a
Wave-piercing hull to
deliver a smooth ride, while
Austal of Perth, Western Australia builds
ships based on SWATH designs. Both these companies also compete in the
smaller river ferry industry with a number of other ship builders.
Stena Line once operated the largest catamarans in the world, the
Stena HSS class, between the United Kingdom and Ireland. These
waterjet-powered vessels, displaced 19,638 tonnes, accommodating 375
passenger cars and 1,500 passengers. Other examples of these
super-size catamarans are found in the
Brittany Ferries fleet with the
Normandie Express and the Normandie Vitesse.
Lorries preparing to unload from the Pont-Aven, the Brittany Ferries
Roll-on/roll-off ferries (RORO) are large conventional ferries named
for the ease by which vehicles can board and leave.
Cruiseferry / RoPax
A cruiseferry is a ship that combines the features of a cruise ship
with a roll-on/roll-off ferry. They are also known as
RoPax for their
combined Roll on/Roll Off and passenger design.
MS Superfast XI
RoPax ferries are conventional ferries with a large garage intake
and a relatively large passenger capacity, with conventional diesel
propulsion and propellers that sail over 25 knots (46 km/h;
29 mph). Pioneering this class of ferries was Attica Group, when
it introduced Superfast I between
Italy in 1995 through its
subsidiary company Superfast Ferries. Cabins, if existent, are much
smaller than those on cruise ships.
Turntable ferry at Isle of Skye, Scotland
This type of ferry allows vehicles to load from the "side". The
vehicle platform can be turned. When loading, the platform is turned
sideways to allow sideways loading of vehicles. Then the platform is
turned back, in line with the vessel, and the journey across water is
Kingswear to Dartmouth ferry, Devon, England. The pontoon
carries eight cars and is towed across the
River Dart by a small tug.
Two ropes connect the tug to the pontoon.
Pontoon ferries carry vehicles across rivers and lakes and are widely
used in less-developed countries with large rivers where the cost of
bridge construction is prohibitive. One or more vehicles are carried
on a pontoon with ramps at either end for vehicles to drive on and
off. Cable ferries (next section) are usually pontoon ferries, but
pontoon ferries on larger rivers are motorised and able to be steered
independently like a boat.
Train and car ferry between Calabria and Sicily, Italy
A train ferry is a ship designed to carry railway vehicles. Typically,
one level of the ship is fitted with railway tracks, and the vessel
has a door at the front and/or rear to give access to the wharves.
Foot ferries are small craft used to ferry foot passengers, and often
also cyclists, over rivers. These are either self-propelled craft or
cable ferries. Such ferries are for example to be found on the lower
River Scheldt in
Belgium and in particular the Netherlands. Regular
foot ferry service also exists in the capital of the Czech Republic,
Prague, and across the
Yarra River in Melbourne, Australia at Newport.
Restored, expanded ferry service in the
Port of New York and New
Jersey uses boats for pedestrians only.
Main article: Cable ferry
One of several self-propelled cable ferries that cross the lower
reaches of the
Murray River in South Australia
Very short distances may be crossed by a cable or chain ferry, which
is usually a pontoon ferry (see above), where the ferry is propelled
along and steered by cables connected to each shore. Sometimes the
cable ferry is human powered by someone on the boat. Reaction ferries
are cable ferries that use the perpendicular force of the current as a
source of power. Examples of a current propelled ferry are the four
Rhine ferries in Basel, Switzerland. Cable ferries may be used in
fast-flowing rivers across short distances. With an ocean crossing of
approximately 1900 metres, the cable ferry between Vancouver Island
and Denman Island in British Columbia; is the longest one in the
Free ferries operate in some parts of the world, such as at Woolwich
in London, England (across the River Thames); in Amsterdam,
Netherlands (across the IJ waterway); along the
Murray River in South
Australia, and across many lakes in British Columbia. Many cable
ferries operate on lakes and rivers in Canada, among them a cable
ferry that charges a toll operates on the Rivière des Prairies
Île Bizard in Quebec, Canada.
In the 1950s and 1960s, travel on an "air ferry" was
possible—airplanes, often ex-military, specially equipped to take a
small number of cars in addition to "foot" passengers. These operated
various routes including between the United Kingdom and Continental
Europe. Companies operating such services included Channel Air Bridge,
Silver City Airways, and Corsair.
The term is also applied to any "ferrying" by air, and is commonly
used when referring to airborne military operations.
Drawbridge of the ferry lies on the ferry slip. Note the remarkable
size of this double sided ferry: 74 m × 17.5 m
(243 ft × 57 ft), 2000 passengers with 60 cars
Ferry boats often dock at specialized facilities designed to position
the boat for loading and unloading, called a ferry slip. If the ferry
transports road vehicles or railway carriages there will usually be an
adjustable ramp called an apron that is part of the slip. In other
cases, the apron ramp will be a part of the ferry itself, acting as a
wave guard when elevated and lowered to meet a fixed ramp at the
terminus — a road segment that extends partially underwater.
First, shortest, largest
The world's largest ferries are typically those operated in Europe,
with different vessels holding the record depending on whether length,
gross tonnage or car vehicle capacity is the metric.
On 11 October 1811, inventor John Stevens' ship the Juliana, began
operation as the first steam-powered ferry (service was between New
York City, and Hoboken, New Jersey).
The Elwell Ferry, a cable ferry in North Carolina, travels a distance
of 110 yards (100 m), shore to shore, with a travel time of
A contender as oldest ferry in continuous operation is the Mersey
Liverpool to Birkenhead, England. In 1150, the Benedictine
Birkenhead was established. The monks used to charge a small
fare to row passengers across the estuary. In 1330, Edward III
granted a charter to the Priory and its successors for ever: "the
right of ferry there… for men, horses and goods, with leave to
charge reasonable tolls". However, there may have been a short break
following the Dissolution of the monasteries.
Another claimant as the oldest ferry service in continuous operation
is the Rocky Hill - Glastonbury Ferry, running between the towns of
Rocky Hill and Glastonbury, Connecticut. Established in 1655, the
ferry has run continuously since, only ceasing operation every winter
when the river freezes over. A long running salt water ferry service
is the Halifax/Dartmouth ferry, running between the cities of Halifax
and Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, which has run year-round since 1752, and
is currently run by the region's transit authority, Metro Transit.
Mersey Ferry predates it as the oldest salt water ferry.
By far the largest commuter ferry system in the world is the Ferries
in Istanbul, Turkey, operated by
İDO with 87 vessels serving 86 ports
of call. Another two of the world's large ferry systems are located in
the Strait of Georgia, in the Canadian province of British Columbia,
and Puget Sound, in the U.S. state of Washington.
BC Ferries in
British Columbia operates 36 vessels, visiting 47 ports of call, while
Washington State Ferries
Washington State Ferries owns 28 vessels, travelling to 20 ports of
call around Puget Sound. On the west coast of Scotland, Caledonian
MacBrayne operate a network calling at 50 ports using a fleet of 31
vessels, 10 of which are 80m or longer. This includes a high
proportion of lifeline services to island communities and as such most
of the routes are heavily subsidised by the government.
Sydney Ferries in
Sydney, Australia operates 31 passenger ferries in
Port Jackson (
Sydney Harbour), carrying 18 million passengers
annually. It operates catamarans and other types of ferries on these
routes, with the most famous likely being the Circular Quay-Manly
route. Between 1938 and 1974 this route operated the South Steyne,
billed at the time as the largest and fastest ferry of its type.
Sydney Ferries became an independent corporation owned by the
government in 2004.
Some of world's busiest ferry routes include the
Star Ferry in Hong
Kong and the
Staten Island Ferry
Staten Island Ferry in New York City.
Metrolink Queensland operates 21 passenger ferries on behalf of
Brisbane City Council, 12 being single-hulled ferries and 9 CityCats
(catamarans), along the
Brisbane River from the University of
Queensland through the city to Brett's Wharf.
The gas turbine powered
Luciano Federico L operated by
Montevideo-based Buquebus, holds the Guinness World Record for the
fastest car ferry boat in the world, in service between Montevideo,
Uruguay and Buenos Aires, Argentina: its maximum speed, achieved in
sea trials, was 60.2 knots (111.5 km/h; 69.3 mph). It
can carry 450 passengers and 52 cars along the 110-nautical-mile
(200 km; 130 mi) route.
Fast Ro-Pax ferries, like MS Star, have also notable CO2 emissions.
The contributions of ferry travel to climate change have received less
scrutiny than land and air transport, and vary considerably according
to factors like speed and the number of passengers carried. Average
carbon dioxide emissions by ferries per passenger-kilometre seem to be
0.12 kg (4.2 oz). However, 18-knot ferries between
Sweden produce 0.221 kg (7.8 oz) of CO2, with
total emissions equalling a CO2 equivalent of 0.223 kg
(7.9 oz), while 24–27-knot ferries between
Finland and Estonia
produce 0.396 kg (14.0 oz) of CO2 with total emissions
equalling a CO2 equivalent of 0.4 kg (14 oz).
With the price of oil at high levels, and with increasing pressure
from consumers for measures to tackle global warming, a number of
innovations for energy and the environment were put forward at the
Interferry conference in Stockholm. According to the company Solar
Sailor, hybrid marine power and solar wing technology are suitable for
use with ferries, private yachts and even tankers. Megawatt-class
battery electric ferries operate in Scandinavia, with several more
scheduled for operation.
Alternative fuels are becoming more widespread on ferries. The fastest
passenger ferry in the world Buquebus, runs on LNG, while Sweden's
Stena plans to operate its 1500-passenger ferries on methanol in
2015. Both fuels reduce emissions considerably and displace costly
Since 2015, Norwegian ferry company Norled has operated the electrical
car ferry "MF Ampere" on the Lavik-Opedal connection on the E39 north
of Bergen. The connection Anda-Lote, further north on the Norwegian
west coast, will be the world's first connection served only by
electrical car ferries. The first of the two ships, "MF Gloppefjord",
was put into operation in January 2018. The owner, Fjord1, has
commissioned a further seven battery-powered ferries to be in
operation from 2020.
A total of 60 battery powered car ferries are assumed to be
operational in Norway within 2023.
The following notable maritime disasters involved ferries.
Estonia – 852 deaths
MS Herald of Free Enterprise – 193 deaths
MS Scandinavian Star
MS Scandinavian Star – 159 deaths
MV Doña Paz
MV Doña Paz – 4,386 deaths
MV Sewol – 304 deaths
TEV Wahine – 53 deaths
Experiment (horse-powered boat)
Largest ferries of Europe
List of ferry operators
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ferry.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ferries.
"Off Ferries, New And Old", May 1931, Popular Science
Photography of European locations visitable by ferry
"Ferry". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
Modern merchant ships
Lighter aboard ship
Submarine Cargo Vessel
Diving support vessel
Platform supply vessel
Bus rapid transit
Open top bus
Public light bus
Rail replacement bus
Medium-capacity rail system
Vehicles for hire
Personal rapid transit
Bus garage (bus depot)
Bus turnout (bus bay)
Park and ride
Ticketing and fares
Automated fare collection
Contract of carriage
Farebox recovery ratio
Free public transport
Free travel pass
Manual fare collection
Reduced fare program
Public transport timetable
Transit-oriented development (TOD)
Hail and ride
Passenger load factor