Ferrara ([ferˈraːra] listen (help·info); Emilian: Frara)
is a town and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the
Province of Ferrara. In 2016 it had 132,009 inhabitants. It is
situated 44 kilometres (27 miles) northeast of Bologna, on the Po di
Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po River, located
5 km (3 miles) north. The town has broad streets and numerous
palaces dating from the Renaissance, when it hosted the court of the
House of Este. For its beauty and cultural importance, it has been
UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
1.1 Antiquity and Middle Ages
1.2 Early modern
1.3 Late modern and contemporary
2 Geography and climate
4.2 Parks and gardens
6.2 Visual art
7 International relations
7.1 Twin towns — sister cities
11 External links
See also: Timeline of Ferrara
Antiquity and Middle Ages
Etruscan jewellery displayed at the National Archaeological Museum of
The first documented settlements in the area of the present-day
Province of Ferrara
Province of Ferrara date from the 6th century BCE. The ruins of the
Etruscan town of Spina, established along the lagoons at the ancient
mouth of Po river, were lost until modern times, when drainage schemes
Valli di Comacchio
Valli di Comacchio marshes in 1922 first officially revealed a
necropolis with over 4,000 tombs, evidence of a population centre that
in Antiquity must have played a major role.
There is uncertainty among scholars about the proposed Roman origin of
the settlement in its current location (
Boccaccio refer to
a "Forum Alieni"), for little is known of this period, but some
archeologic evidence points to the hypothesis that
Ferrara could have
been originated from two small
Byzantine settlements: a cluster of
facilities around the Cathedral of St. George, on the right bank of
the main branch of the Po, which then ran much closer to the city than
today, and a castrum, a fortified complex built on the left bank of
the river to defend against the Lombards.
Ferrara appears first in a document of the Lombard king
753 AD, when he captured the town from the Exarchate of Ravenna.
Later the Franks, after routing the Lombards, presented
Ferrara to the
Papacy in 754 or 756. In 988
Ferrara was ceded by the Church to the
House of Canossa, but at the death of
Matilda of Tuscany
Matilda of Tuscany in 1115 it
became a free commune. During the 12th century the history of the
town was marked by the wrestling for power between two preeminent
families, the Guelph Adelardi and the
Ghibelline Salinguerra; however,
at this point, the powerful Imperial
House of Este
House of Este had thrown his
decisive weight behind the Salinguerra and eventually reaped the
benefits of victory for themselves. In 1264 Obizzo II of Este was
thus proclaimed lifelong ruler of Ferrara, Lord of
Modena in 1288 and
of Reggio in 1289. His rule marked the end of the communal period in
Ferrara and the beginning of the Este rule, which lasted until 1598.
Main article: Duchy of Ferrara
Portrait of a Woman by Bartolomeo Veneto, traditionally assumed to be
A page from
Borso d'Este Bible.
In 1452 Borso of Este was created duke of
Modena and Reggio by Emperor
Frederick III and in 1471 duke of
Ferrara by Pope Paul II. Lionello
and, especially, Ercole I were among the most important patrons of the
arts in late 15th- and early 16th-century Italy. During this time,
Ferrara grew into an international cultural centre, renowned for its
architecture, music, literature and visual arts.
The architecture of
Ferrara greatly benefited from the genius of
Biagio Rossetti, who was requested in 1484 by Ercole I to draft a
masterplan for the expansion of the town. The resulting "Erculean
Addition" is considered one of the most important examples of
Renaissance urban planning and contributed to the selection of
Ferrara as a
UNESCO World Heritage Site.
In spite of having entered its golden age,
Ferrara was severely hit by
a war against
Venice fought and lost in 1482-84. Alfonso I succeeded
to the throne in 1505 and married the notorious Lucrezia Borgia. He
Venice in the
Italian Wars after joining the League of
Cambrai. In 1509 he was excommunicated by Pope Julius II, but was able
to overcame the Papal and Spanish armies in 1512 at the Battle of
Ravenna. These successes were based on Ferrara's artillery, produced
in his own foundry which was the best of its time.
At his death in 1534, Alfonso I was succeeded by his son Ercole II
that in 1528 married Renée of France, the second daughter of Louis
XII, thus bringing great prestige to the court of Ferrara. Under his
reign, the Duchy remained an affluent country and a cultural
powerhouse. However, an earthquake struck the town in 1570, causing
the economy to collapse, and when Ercole II's son Alfonso II died
without heirs, the
House of Este
House of Este lost
Ferrara to the Papal States.
Late modern and contemporary
Ferrara as it appeared in 1600.
Ferrara around 1900.
Ferrara, a university city second only to Bologna, remained a part of
Papal States for almost 300 years, an era marked by a steady
decline; in 1792 the population of the town numbered only 27,000, less
than in the 17th century. In 1805-1814 it became briefly part of
Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, a client-state of the French Empire.
After the 1815 Congress of Vienna,
Ferrara was given back to the Pope,
now guaranteed by the Empire of Austria. A bastion fort erected in the
Pope Paul V
Pope Paul V on the site of and old castle called "Castel
Tedaldo", at the south-west angle of the town, was thus occupied by an
Austrian garrison from 1832 until 1859. All of the fortress was
dismantled following the birth of the Kingdom of
Italy and the bricks
used for new constructions all over the town.
During the last decades of the 1800s and the early 1900s, Ferrara
remained a modest trade centre for its large rural hinterland that
relied on commercial crops such as sugar beet and industrial hemp.
Large land reclamation works were carried out for decades with the aim
to expand the available arable land and eradicate malaria from the
wetlands along the Po delta. Mass industrialisation came to
Ferrara only at the end of the 1930s with the set-up of a chemical
plant by the Fascist regime that should have supplied the regime with
synthetic rubber. During the
Second World War
Second World War
repeatedly bombed by Allied warplanes that targeted and destroyed
railway links and industrial facilities. After the war, the industrial
Pontelagoscuro was expanded to become a giant petrochemical
compound operated by Montecatini and other companies, that at its peak
employed 7,000 workers and produced 20% of plastics in Italy. In
recent decades, as part of a general trend in
Italy and Europe,
Ferrara has come to rely more on tertiary and tourism, while the heavy
industry, still present in the town, has been largely phased out.
After almost 450 years, another earthquake struck
Ferrara in May, 2012
causing only limited damage to the historic buildings of the town and
Geography and climate
Ferrara and its Province.
The town of
Ferrara lies on the southern shores of the Po river, about
44 km (27 mi.) north-east of the regional capital, Bologna,
and 87 km (54 mi.) south of Venice. The territory of the
municipality, entirely part of the Padan plain, is overwhelmingly
flat, situated on average just 9 metres (30 ft.) above
sea-level. The proximity to the largest Italian river has been a
constant concern in the history of Ferrara, that has been affected by
recurrent, disastrous floods, the latest occurring as recently as
The climate of the Po valley is classified as humid subtropical (Cfa)
under the Köppen climate classification, a type of climate commonly
referred to as "continental", that features severe winters and warm
summers and heavy rains in spring and autumn.
The 15th century Town Hall.
The legislative body of the
Italian communes is the City Council
(Consiglio Comunale), which, in towns having between 100,000 and
250,000 population, is composed by 32 councillors elected every five
years with a proportional system, contextually to the mayoral
elections. The executive body is the City Committee (Giunta Comunale),
composed by 12 assessors, that is nominated and presided over by a
directly elected Mayor. The current mayor of
Ferrara is Tiziano
Tagliani of the Democratic Party. The urban organisation is governed
Italian Constitution (art. 114), the Municipal Statute and
several laws, notably the Legislative Decree 267/2000 or Unified Text
on Local Administration (Testo Unico degli Enti Locali).
The current division of the 32 seats in the City Council is the
Democratic Party - 20
Forza Italia - 4
Lega Nord - 1
Fratelli d'Italia - 1
Movimento 5 stelle
Movimento 5 stelle - 5
Giustizia, Onore e Libertà - 1
Este Castle covered in snow.
The Gothic façade of the Cathedral.
Palazzo dei Diamanti, seat of the National Gallery.
A section of the
The imposing Este Castle, sited in the very centre of the town, is
iconic of Ferrara. A very large manor house featuring four massive
bastions and a moat, it was erected in 1385 by architect Bartolino da
Novara with the function to protect the town from external threats and
to serve as a fortified residence for the Este family. It was
extensively renovated in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Cathedral of Saint George, designed by
Wiligelmus and consecrated
in 1135, is one of the finest examples of Romanesque architecture.
The duomo has been renovated many times through the centuries, thus
its resulitng eclectic style is a harmoniuous combination of the
Romanesque central scructure and portal, the Gothic upper part of the
façade and the
Renaissance campanile. The sculptures of the main
portal are attributed to Nicholaus. The upper part of the main
façade, with arcades of pointed arches, dates from the 13th century.
The recumbent marble lions guarding the portals are copies of the
originals, now in the cathedral's museum. An elaborated 13th-century
relief depicting the
Last Judgement is found in the second storey of
the porch. The interior was restored in baroque style in 1712. The
marble campanile attributed to Leon Battista Alberti was initiated
in 1412 but is still incomplete, missing one projected additional
storey and a dome, as it can be observed from numerous historical
prints and paintings on the subject.
Near the cathedral and the castle also lies the 15th century city
hall, that served as an earlier residence of the Este family,
featuring a grandiose marble flight of stairs and two ancient bronze
statues of Niccolò III and Borso of Este.
The southern district is the town's oldest, crossed by a myriad narrow
alleys that date back to the Early Middle Ages. Casa Romei is perhaps
the best preserved Mediaval building in Ferrara. It was the private
residence of a merchant Giovanni Romei, related by marriage to the
Este family, and likely the work of the court architect Pietrobono
Brasavola. Thanks to the nuns of the Corpus Domini order, much of
the original decorations in the inner rooms have been saved. The house
features fresco cycles in the "Sala delle Sibille" ("room of sibyls"),
an original terracotta fireplace bearing the coat of arms of Giovanni
Romei in the adjoining Saletta dei Profeti ("room of the prophets"),
depicting allegories from the Bible, and in other rooms, some of which
were commissioned by cardinal Ippolito d'Este, paintings by the school
of Camillo and
Cesare Filippi (16th century).
Palazzo Schifanoia ("sans souci") was built in 1385 for Alberto V
d'Este. The palazzo includes frescoes depicting the life of Borso
d'Este, the signs of the zodiac and allegorical representations of the
months. The vestibule was decorated with stucco mouldings by Domenico
di Paris. The building also contains fine choir-books with miniatures
and a collection of coins and
Renaissance medals. The Renaissance
Palazzo Paradiso, part of the
Ferrara University library system,
displays part of the manuscript of
Orlando furioso and letters by
Tasso as well as Ludovico Ariosto's grave. Its famous alumni include
Nicolaus Copernicus and Paracelsus.
The northern quarter, which was added by Ercole I in 1492–1505
thanks to the masterplan of Biagio Rossetti, and hence called the
Addizione Erculea, features a number of
Renaissance palazzi. Among the
Palazzo dei Diamanti
Palazzo dei Diamanti (
Diamond Palace), named after the
diamond points into which the façade's stone blocks are cut. The
palazzo houses the National Picture Gallery, with a large collection
of the school of Ferrara, which first rose to prominence in the latter
half of the 15th century, with Cosimo Tura,
Francesco Cossa and Ercole
dei Roberti. Noted masters of the 16th-century School of Ferrara
Lorenzo Costa and Dosso Dossi, the most eminent of all,
Girolamo da Carpi
Girolamo da Carpi and
Benvenuto Tisi (il Garofalo). The district is
also home to University of
Ferrara Botanic Garden.
Parks and gardens
The town is still almost totally encircled by 9 kilometres (6 miles)
of ancient brick walls, mostly built between 1492 and 1520. Today
the walls, after a careful restoration, make up a large urban park
around the town and are a popular destination for joggers and
In 2007, there were 135,369 people residing in Ferrara, of whom 46.8%
were male and 53.2% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger)
totalled 12.28 percent of the population compared to pensioners who
number 26.41%. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06%
(minors) and 19.94% (pensioners). The average age of
is 49 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between
2002 and 2007, the population of
Ferrara grew by 2.28%, while
a whole grew by 3.85%. The current birth rate of
Ferrara is 7.02
births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45
Ferrara is known as being the oldest city with a population
over 100,000, as well the city with lowest birth rate.
As of 2006[update], 95.59% of the population was Italian. The largest
immigrant group was other European nations (mostly from the Ukraine,
and Albania: 2.59%) North Africa: 0.51%, and East Asia: 0.39%. The
city is predominantly Roman Catholic, with small Orthodox Christian
adherents. The historical
Jewish community is still surviving.
The town's Synagogue, estabilished in 1485.
Graves in the
Jewish community of
Ferrara is the only one in Emilia Romagna with
a continuous presence from the
Middle Ages to the present day. It
played an important role when
Ferrara enjoyed its greatest splendor in
the 15th and 16th century, with the duke Ercole I d'Este. The
situation of the Jews deteriorated in 1598, when the Este dynasty
Modena and the city came under papal control. The Jewish
settlement, located in three streets forming a triangle near the
cathedral, became a ghetto in 1627. Apart from a few years under
Napoleon and during the 1848 revolution, the ghetto lasted until
Italian unification in 1859.
In 1799, the
Jewish community saved the city from sacking by troops of
the Holy Roman Empire. During the spring of 1799, the city had fallen
into the hands of the Republic of France, which established a small
garrison there. On 15 April, Lieutenant Field Marshal Johann von
Klenau approached the fortress with a modest mixed force of Austrian
cavalry, artillery and infantry augmented by Italian peasant rebels,
commanded by Count Antonio Bardaniand and demanded its capitulation.
The commander refused. Klenau blockaded the city, leaving a small
group of artillery and troops to continue the siege. For the next
three days, Klenau patrolled the countryside, capturing the
surrounding strategic points of Lagoscuro,
Borgoforte and the
Mirandola fortress. The besieged garrison made several sorties from
the Saint Paul's Gate, which were repulsed by the insurgent peasants.
The French attempted two rescues of the beleaguered fortress: the
first, on 24 April, when a force of 400 Modenese was
repulsed at Mirandola. In the second, General
Montrichard tried to
raise the city-blockade by advancing with a force of 4,000. Finally,
at the end of the month, a column led by
Pierre-Augustin Hulin reached
and relieved the fortress.
Klenau took possession of the town on 21 May, and garrisoned it
with a light battalion. The
Jewish residents of
30,000 ducats to prevent the pillage of the city by Klenau's
forces; this was used to pay the wages of Gardani's troops.
Although Klenau held the town, the French still possessed the town's
fortress. After making the standard request for surrender at 0800,
which was refused, Klenau ordered a barrage from his mortars and
howitzers. After two magazines caught fire, the commandant was
summoned again to surrender; there was some delay, but a flag of truce
was sent at 2100, and the capitulation was concluded at 0100 the next
day. Upon taking possession of the fortress, Klenau found 75 new
artillery pieces, plus ammunition and six months worth of
In 1938, Mussolini's fascist government instituted racial laws
reintroducing segregation of Jews which lasted until the end of the
German occupation. During the Second World War, ninety-six of
Ferrara's 300 Jews were deported to German concentration and death
camps; five survived. The Italian
Jewish writer, Giorgio Bassani, was
from Ferrara. His celebrated book, The Garden of the Finzi-Continis,
was published in Italian as Giardino del Finzi-Contini, 1962, by
Giulio Einaudi editore s.p.a. It was made into a film by Vittorio de
Sica in 1970.
During WWII, the Este Castle, adjacent to the Corso Roma, now known as
the Corso Martiri della Libertà, was the site of an infamous massacre
On Dec. 13, 2017, the first day of Hanukkah, Italy’s National Museum
of Italian Judaism and the
Shoah opened on the site of a restored
two-story brick prison built in 1912 that counted Jews during the
Fascist period among its detainees. This is the initial phase of a
project—known as MEIS, after its initials in Italian—to be
completed in 2020, with additional buildings that will create a major
Jewish cultural hub and add exhibits focusing on the Jews in the
Renaissance and the Shoah.
Francesco del Cossa's "May" from the "Salone dei Mesi" ("hall of
months") in Palazzo Schifanoia, circa 1470.
Renaissance the Este family, well known for its partonage
of the arts, welcomed a great number of artists, especially painters,
that formed the so-called School of Ferrara. The astounding list of
painters and artists includes the names of Andrea Mantegna, Vicino da
Ferrara, Giovanni Bellini, Leon Battista Alberti, Pisanello, Piero
della Francesca, Battista Dossi, Dosso Dossi, Cosmé Tura, Francesco
del Cossa and Titian. In the 19th and 20th centuries,
hosted and inspired numerous painters who grew fond of its eerie
atmosphere. Among them Giovanni Boldini,
Filippo de Pisis
Filippo de Pisis and Giorgio
de Chirico. A large collection of paintings is displayed in the
National Gallery of Palazzo dei Diamanti.
Title page of John Harington's translation of Orlando Furioso, 1634.
Renaissance literary men and poets
Torquato Tasso (author of
Ludovico Ariosto (author of the romantic epic
poem Orlando Furioso) and
Matteo Maria Boiardo
Matteo Maria Boiardo (author of the
grandiose poem of chivalry and romance Orlando Innamorato) lived and
worked at the court of
Ferrara during the 15th and 16th century.
Ferrara Bible was a 1553 publication of the Ladino version of the
Tanakh used by Sephardi Jews. It was paid for and made by Yom-Tob ben
Levi Athias (the Spanish
Marrano Jerónimo de Vargas, as typographer)
and Abraham ben Salomon Usque (the Portuguese
Jew Duarte Pinhel, as
translator), and was dedicated to Ercole II d'Este. In the 20th
Ferrara was the home and workplace of writer Giorgio Bassani,
well known for his novels that were often adapted for cinema (The
Garden of the Finzi-Continis, Long Night in 1943). In historical
fiction, British author
Sarah Dunant set her 2009 novel Sacred Hearts
in a convent in Ferrara.
Monument to Girolamo Savonarola.
Ferrara gave birth to Girolamo Savonarola, the famous medieval
Dominican priest and leader of
Florence from 1494 until his execution
in 1498. He was known for his book burning, destruction of what he
considered immoral art, and hostility to the Renaissance. He
vehemently preached against the moral corruption of much of the clergy
at the time, and his main opponent was
Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo
The Ferrarese musician
Girolamo Frescobaldi was one of the most
important composers of keyboard music in the late
Baroque periods. His masterpiece
Fiori musicali (Musical
Flowers) is a collection of liturgical organ music first published in
1635. It became the most famous of Frescobaldi's works and was studied
centuries after his death by numerous composers, including Johann
Maurizio Moro (15??—16??) an Italian poet of
the 16th century best known for madrigals is thought to have been born
Ferrara is the birthplace of Italian film directors Michelangelo
Antonioni and Florestano Vancini. The latter shot in
Ferrara his 1960
film Long Night in 1943. The town was also the setting of the famous
The Garden of the Finzi-Continis
The Garden of the Finzi-Continis by Vittorio De Sica, that
tells the vicissitudes of a rich
Jewish family during the dictatorship
Benito Mussolini and World War II. Furthermore,
Wim Wenders and
Michelangelo Antonioni's Beyond the Clouds in (1995) and Ermanno
Olmi's The Profession of Arms in (2001), a film about the last days of
Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, were also shot in Ferrara.
Kid dressed-up for the Palio.
St. George is a medieval-themed horse race held every
last Sunday of May. Established in 1279, it is probably the oldest
such competition in the world. The
Ferrara Buskers Festival is
a non-competitive parade of street musicians from all over the world.
At the 2017 edition, more than 1,000 artists from 35 different nations
took part in the festival, including dancers, clowns, equilibrists,
jugglers and other original performers. Additionally, the town
hosts the yearly
Ferrara Balloons Festival, a large hot-air balloon
The town's football team, SPAL, was established in 1907. In 2017 it
was promoted to Serie A, Italy's top level football league, after a
49-year absence. Its home ground is Paolo Mazza Memorial Stadium, with
a 13,020 capacity.
Some food items easily found in Ferrara: "coppia" bread, "zia"
garlic salami and muskmelon.
The culinary tradition of
Ferrara features many typical dishes that
can be traced back to the Middle Ages, and that sometimes reveals the
influence of its important
The signature dish is cappellacci di zucca, special ravioli with a
filling of butternut squash,
Parmigiano-Reggiano and flavored with
nutmeg. It is served with a sauce of butter and sage or bolognese
sauce. Another peculiar dish, that was allegedly cooked by Renaissance
chef Cristoforo di Messisbugo, is pasticcio di maccheroni, a domed
macaroni pie, consisting of a crust of sweet dough enclosing macaroni
in a Béchamel sauce, studded with porcini mushrooms and ragù
Christmas first course is cappelletti, large meat and
cheese filled ravioli served in chicken broth. It is often followed by
salama da sugo, a very big, cured sausage made from a selection of
pork meats and spices kneaded with red wine.
Seafood is also an important part of the local tradition, that boast
rich fisheries in the Po delta lagoons and Adriatic sea. Pasta with
clams and grilled or stewed eel dishes are especially well-known.
Popular food items include also zia garlic salami and the traditional
coppia bread, protected by the IGP (Protected Geographical Status)
label. Not unusual is the typical kosher salami made of goose meat
stuffed in goose neck skin.
Local patisserie include spicy pampepato chocolate pie, tenerina, a
dark chocolate and butter cake, and zuppa inglese, a chocolate and
custard pudding on a bed of sponge cake soaked in Alchermes. The clay
terroir of the area, an alluvial plain created by the river Po, is not
ideal for wine; a notable exception is Bosco Eliceo (DOC) wine, made
from grapes cultivated on the sandy coast line.
Twin towns — sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Ferrara is twinned with:
Gießen, Hesse, Germany
Highland Park, IL, USA
Kaufbeuren, Bavaria, Germany
Krasnodar Krai, Russia
Lleida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain
Saint-Étienne, Loire, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 1964
Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom
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^ Colonel Danilo Oreskovich and 1,300 Croatians of the 2nd Banat
battalion, 4,000 Ferrarese auxiliary troops commanded by Count
Antonio Gardani, and several hundred local peasants commanded by Major
Angelo Pietro Poli. Acerbi. The 1799 Campaign in Italy: Klenau and Ott
Vanguards and the Coalition’s Left Wing April – June 1799.
^ Acerbi, The 1799 Campaign in Italy: Klenau and Ott Vanguards and the
Coalition’s Left Wing April – June 1799.
^ Accerbi reports that wages were the equivalent of a daily intake of
21 "Baiocchi" in cash and four in bread. Acerbi, The 1799
Campaign in Italy: Klenau and Ott Vanguards and the Coalition’s Left
Wing April – June 1799.
^ Acerbi, The 1799 Campaign in Italy: Klenau and Ott Vanguards and the
Coalition’s Left Wing April – June 1799; Klenau's force included a
battalion of light infantry, a couple battalions of border infantry, a
squadron of the Nauendorf Hussars (8th Hussars), and approximately
4,000 armed peasants. For details on Austrian force, see Smith,
Ferrara, Data Book, p. 156. Klenau's force also captured 75 guns
from the fortress.
^ "Once It Imprisoned Jews, Now It's a Museum of Their History in
Italy". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
^ Paul Badura-Skoda. "Interpreting Bach at the Keyboard", p. 259.
Translated by Alfred Clayton. Oxford University Press, 1995, 592 p.
^ Butt, John (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Bach. Cambridge
Companions to Music. Cambridge University Press. , p. 139., 1997,
342 p. ISBN 0-521-58780-8
^ "PALIO DI FERRARA". Emiliaromagnaturismo.com. Official tourist
information site of the
Emilia-Romagna Region. Retrieved 28 December
^ Clare, Horatio (28 March 2014). "The
Palio of Ferrara". Financial
Times. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
^ "FERRARA BUSKERS FESTIVAL". Emiliaromagnaturismo.com. Official
tourist information site of the
Emilia-Romagna Region. Retrieved 28
Ferrara Balloons Festival
Ferrara Balloons Festival 2017". www.ferrarainfo.com. "Ferrara
Terra e Acqua", the official website for
Ferrara and its province.
Retrieved 28 December 2017.
^ "SPAL RECEIVES BOOST TO FURTHER EXPAND STADIUM". TheStadiumBusiness.
20 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
^ "Ferrara's bread - IGP". "
Ferrara Terra e Acqua", the official
Ferrara and its province. Retrieved 27 December
^ "The Zia ferrarese Salami". "
Ferrara Terra e Acqua", the official
Ferrara and its province. Retrieved 27 December
^ "Typical Melon from Emilia". "
Ferrara Terra e Acqua", the official
Ferrara and its province. Retrieved 27 December
^ "Bosco Eliceo DOC". Enoteca Regionale Emilia-Romagna. Retrieved 27
^ "Gießen: Städtepartnerschaften" [Giessen: Twin towns] (in German).
Stadt Gießen. Archived from the original on 2013-04-13. Retrieved
Ferrara – Portale Telematico Estense".
Ferrara.comune.fe.it. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
^ "Fraternity cities on
Sarajevo Official Web Site". © City of
Sarajevo 2001-2008. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
^ "Friendship and co-operation agreement between the towns of Tartu
and Ferrara". © City of
Tartu 2002-2009. Retrieved 2009-01-04.
Žilina - oficiálne stránky mesta: Partnerské mestá Žiliny
[Žilina: Official Partner Cities]". © 2008 MaM Multimedia, s.r.o..
Ferrara bibliography (in Italian)
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ferrara".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Acerbi, Enrico. "The 1799 Campaign in Italy: Klenau and Ott Vanguards
and the Coalition’s Left Wing April - June 1799".
Robert Burnham, editor in chief. March 2008. Accessed 30 October
See also: Bibliography of the history of Ferrara
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Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1
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Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)
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Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus located at Campello sul Clitunno
Santa Sofia located at Benevento
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
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Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3
Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4
Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5
Peschiera del Garda
1 Shared with Switzerland
2 Shared with the Holy See
3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland
4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain and Ukraine
5 Shared with
Croatia and Montenegro
Italy by population
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