The Info List - Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor

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Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
(1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary
King of Hungary
(1618–1637).[2][3] His acts started the Thirty Years' War. As a zealous Catholic, Ferdinand wanted to restore Catholicism as the only religion in the Empire and to suppress Protestantism.


1 Childhood 2 Reign 3 Marriages and issue 4 Ancestors 5 Titles 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External links


Ferdinand II, 1626

Born in the castle in Graz
on 9 July 1578, Ferdinand was the son of Charles II, Archduke of Austria, and Maria of Bavaria.[4] Charles II, who was the youngest son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, had inherited the Inner Austrian provinces—Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Gorizia, Fiume (now Rijeka
in Croatia), Trieste
and parts of Istria and Friuli—from his father in 1564.[5] Maria of Bavaria was the daughter of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria
Albert V, Duke of Bavaria
by Charles II's sister, Anna.[6] The marriage of Charles and his niece brought about a reconciliation between the two leading Catholic families of the Holy Roman Empire.[7] He was educated by the Jesuits and later attended the University of Ingolstadt. Reign[edit] After completing his studies in 1595, he acceded to his hereditary lands (where his older cousin, Archduke Maximilian III of Austria, had acted as regent between 1593 and 1595). He made a pilgrimage to Loreto and Rome. Shortly afterward, he began the suppression of Protestantism in his territories. With the Oñate treaty, Ferdinand obtained the support of the Spanish Habsburgs in the succession of his childless cousin Matthias, in exchange for concessions in Alsace
and Italy. In 1617, he was elected King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
by the Bohemian diet; in 1618, as King of Hungary
King of Hungary
by the Hungarian estates; and in 1619, as Holy Roman Emperor. His devout Catholicism and negative view of Protestantism caused immediate turmoil in his non-Catholic subjects, especially in Bohemia. He did not wish to uphold the religious liberties granted by the Letter of Majesty signed by the previous emperor, Rudolph II, which had guaranteed freedom of religion to the nobles and cities. Additionally, Ferdinand as an absolutist monarch infringed several historical privileges of the nobles.[citation needed] Given the relatively great number of Protestants in the kingdom, including some of the nobles, the king's unpopularity soon caused the Bohemian Revolt. The Second Defenestration of Prague
of 22 May 1618 is considered the first step of the Thirty Years' War. In the following events he remained a staunch backer of the Anti- Protestant
Counter Reformation
Counter Reformation
efforts as one of the heads of the German Catholic League. Ferdinand succeeded Matthias as Holy Roman Emperor in 1619. Supported by the Catholic League and the Kings of Spain and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Ferdinand decided to reclaim his possession in Bohemia and to quench the rebels. On 8 November 1620 his troops, led by the Flemish general Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, smashed the rebels of Frederick V, who had been elected as rival King in 1619. After Frederick's flight to the Netherlands, Ferdinand ordered a massive effort to bring about re-conversion to Catholicism in Bohemia and Austria, causing Protestantism there to nearly disappear in the following decades, and reducing the Diet's power. In 1625, despite the subsidies received from Spain and the Pope, Ferdinand was in a bad financial situation. In order to muster an imperial army to continue the war, he applied to Albrecht von Wallenstein, one of the richest men in Bohemia: the latter accepted on condition that he could keep total control over the direction of the war, as well as over the booties taken during the operations. Wallenstein was able to recruit some 30,000 men (later expanded up to 100,000), with whom he was able to defeat the Protestants in Silesia, Anhalt and Denmark. In the wake of these Catholic military successes, in 1629 Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution, by which all the lands stripped from Catholics after the Peace of Passau of 1552 would be returned. His military success caused the tottering Protestants to call in Gustavus II Adolphus, King of Sweden. Soon, some of Ferdinand's allies began to complain about the excessive power exercised by Wallenstein, as well as the ruthless methods he used to finance his vast army. Ferdinand replied by firing the Bohemian general in 1630. The leadership of the war thenceforth passed to Tilly, who was however unable to stop the Swedish march from northern Germany
towards Austria. Some historians directly blame Ferdinand for the large civilian loss of life in the Sack of Magdeburg
Sack of Magdeburg
in 1631: he had instructed Tilly to enforce the edict of Restitution upon the Electorate of Saxony, his orders causing the Belgian general to move the Catholic armies east, ultimately to Leipzig, where they suffered their first substantial defeat at the hands of the Adolphus' Swedes in the First Battle of Breitenfeld (1631). Tilly died in battle in 1632. Wallenstein was recalled, being able to muster an army in only a week, and expelled the Swedes from Bohemia. However, in November 1632 the Catholics were defeated in the Battle of Lützen (1632), where Gustavus Adolphus was himself killed. A period of minor operations followed, perhaps because of Wallenstein's ambiguous conduct, which ended with his assassination in 1634. Despite Wallenstein's fall, the imperial forces recaptured Regensburg and were victorious in the Battle of Nördlingen (1634). The Swedish army was substantially weakened, and the fear that the Habsburg's power would become overwhelming caused France, led by Louis XIII of France and Cardinal Richelieu, to enter the war on the Protestant side. (Louis's father Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France
had once been a Huguenot leader.) In 1635 Ferdinand signed his last important act, the Peace of Prague
(1635), yet this did not end the war. Ferdinand died in 1637, leaving to his son Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, an empire still engulfed in a war and whose fortunes seemed to be increasingly chaotic. Ferdinand II was buried in his Mausoleum in Graz. His heart was interred in the Herzgruft
(heart crypt) of the Augustinian Church, Vienna. Marriages and issue[edit] In 1600, Ferdinand married Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574–1616), daughter of Duke William V of Bavaria. They had seven children:

Archduchess Christine (25 May 1601 – 12/21 June 1601) Archduke Charles (25 May 1603) Archduke John-Charles (1 November 1605 – 26 December 1619) Ferdinand III (13 July 1608 – 2 April 1657) married:

1631 Infanta Maria Anna of Spain 1648 Maria Leopoldine of Austria 1651 Eleanor Gonzaga (1630–1686)

Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria
Maria Anna of Austria
(13 January 1610 – 25 September 1665) Archduchess Cecilia Renata of Austria
Cecilia Renata of Austria
(16 July 1611 – 24 March 1644), who married her cousin Władysław IV Vasa, King of Poland. Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria
Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria

In 1622, he married Eleonore of Mantua (Gonzaga) (1598–1655), the daughter of Duke Vincenzo I of Mantua and Eleonora de' Medici, at Innsbruck. Ancestors[edit]

Ancestors of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor

16. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

8. Philip I of Castile

17. Mary of Burgundy

4. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

18. Ferdinand II of Aragon

9. Joanna of Castile

19. Isabella I of Castile

2. Charles II of Austria

20. Casimir IV Jagiellon

10. Vladislas II of Bohemia and Hungary

21. Elisabeth of Austria

5. Anna of Bohemia and Hungary

22. Gaston de Foix, Count of Candale

11. Anna of Foix-Candale

23. Catherine of Foix

1. Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor

24. Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria

12. William IV, Duke of Bavaria

25. Kunigunde of Austria

6. Albert V, Duke of Bavaria

26. Philip I, Margrave of Baden

13. Marie of Baden-Sponheim

27. Elisabeth of the Palatinate

3. Maria Anna of Bavaria

28. Philip I of Castile
Philip I of Castile
(= 8.)

14. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
(= 4.)

29. Joanna of Castile
Joanna of Castile
(= 9.)

7. Anna of Austria

30. Vladislas II of Bohemia and Hungary
Vladislas II of Bohemia and Hungary
(= 10.)

15. Anna of Bohemia and Hungary
Anna of Bohemia and Hungary
(= 5.)

31. Anna of Foix-Candale
Anna of Foix-Candale
(= 11.)


Ferdinand II, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, King of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania, Bulgaria, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, of the Higher and Lower Silesia, of Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg and Goritia, Marquess of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgovia, the Higher and Lower Lusace, Lord of the Marquisate of Slavonia, of Port Naon and Salines, etc. etc. See also[edit]

Kings of Germany
family tree. He was related to every other king of Germany.


^ Setton, Kenneth Meyer (1991). Venice, Austria, and the Turks in the seventeenth century. American Philosophical Society. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-87169-192-7. Retrieved 27 August 2011.  ^ Hans Sturmberger. "Ferdinand II (Holy Roman emperor) : Introduction - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22.  ^ "Ferdinand II (Holy Roman Empire) – MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.  ^ Bireley 2014, p. 1. ^ Bireley 2014, pp. 1–2. ^ Bireley 2014, pp. 314–315. ^ Bireley 2014, p. 2.


Bireley, Robert (2014). Ferdinand II, Counter-Reformation Emperor, 1578–1637. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-06715-8. 

Further reading[edit]

Bireley, Robert. Religion and Politics in the Age of the Counterreformation: Emperor Ferdinand II, William Lamormaini, SJ, and the Formation of the Imperial Policy (U Press of North Carolina, 2012). Saunders, Steven. Cross, sword, and lyre: sacred music at the imperial court of Ferdinand II of Habsburg
(1619-1637) (Oxford UP, 1995).

External links[edit] Media related to Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
at Wikimedia Commons

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor House of Habsburg Born: 9 July 1578 Died: 15 February 1637

Regnal titles

Preceded by Albert VII Archduke of Further Austria 1619–1623 Succeeded by Leopold V

Archduke of Austria 1619–1637 Succeeded by Ferdinand III

Preceded by Charles II Archduke of Inner Austria 1590–1637

Preceded by Matthias

King in Germany King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia 1618–1637

Holy Roman Emperor 1619–1637

King of Bohemia 1617–1619 Succeeded by Frederick

Preceded by Frederick King of Bohemia 1620–1637 Succeeded by Ferdinand III

v t e

House of Habsburg

Ferdinand II


Maria Anna of Bavaria Eleonora Gonzaga


Archduchess Christine Archduke Charles Archduke John Charles Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Archduchess Maria Anna Cecilia Renata, Queen of Poland Archduke Leopold Wilhelm

Armorial of the Holy Roman Empire

Ferdinand III


Infanta Maria Anna of Spain Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria Eleonora Gonzaga


Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans Mariana, Queen of Spain Archduke Philip August Archduke Maximilian Thomas Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Archduke Charles Joseph Archduchess Theresia Maria Josefa Eleonora Maria Josefa, Queen of Poland, Duchess of Lorraine Maria Anna Josepha, Electress Palatine Archduke Ferdinand Josef

Leopold I


Infanta Margaret Theresa of Spain Archduchess Claudia Felicitas of Austria Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg


Archduke Ferdinand Wenze Maria Antonia, Electress of Bavaria Archduke Johann Leopold Archduchess aria Anna Antonia Archduchess Anna Maria Sophia Archduchess Maria Josepha Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor Archduchess Christina Archduchess Maria Elisabeth Archduke Leopold Joseph Maria Anna, Queen of Portugl Archduchess Maria Theresia Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor Achduchess Maria Josepha Archduchess Maria Magdalena Archduchess Maria Margaretha

Joseph I


Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg


Maria Josepha, Queen of Poland, Electress of Saxony Archduke Leopold Joseph Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress

Charles VI


HH Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel


Archduke Leopold Johann Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Austria Archduchess Maria Anna, Princess Charles Alexander of Lorraine Archduchess Maria Amalia


Archduchess Maria Elisabeth Archduchess Maria Anna, Abbess of Imperial and Royal Convent for Noble Ladies Archduchess Maria Karolina Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen Archduchess Maria Elisabeth Archduke Charles Joseph Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor Archduchess Maria Carolina Archduchess Maria Johanna Gabriela Archduchess Maria Josepha Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Sicily Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria-Este Maria Antoinia, Queen of France Archduke Maximilian Franz

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Holy Roman Emperors

Carolingian Empire (800–888)

Charles I (Charlemagne) Louis I Lothair I Louis II Charles II Charles III Guy Lambert Arnulf Louis III Berengar

Holy Roman Empire (800/962–1806)

Otto I Otto II Otto III Henry II Conrad II Henry III Henry IV Henry V Lothair II Frederick I Henry VI Otto IV Frederick II Henry VII Louis IV Charles IV Sigismund Frederick III Maximilian I Charles V Ferdinand I Maximilian II Rudolph II Matthias Ferdinand II Ferdinand III Leopold I Joseph I Charles VI Charles VII Francis I Joseph II Leopold II Francis II

Book Category

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Monarchs of Bohemia


c. 870–1198 (Dukes)

Bořivoj I Spytihněv I Vratislaus I Saint Wenceslaus Boleslaus I Boleslaus II Boleslaus III Vladivoj Boleslaus the Brave1 Jaromír Oldřich Bretislaus I Spytihněv II Vratislaus II (I)2 Conrad I Bretislaus II Bořivoj II Svatopluk the Lion Vladislaus I Sobeslaus I Vladislaus II (I)2 Frederick Sobeslaus II Frederick Conrad II Otto Wenceslaus II Ottokar I Henry Bretislaus Vladislaus III Henry

1198–1306 (Kings)

Ottokar I Wenceslaus I Ottokar II Wenceslaus II Wenceslaus III



Henry the Carinthian Rudolph I



John the Blind Charles IV (I) Wenceslaus IV Sigismund



Albert Interregnum Ladislaus the Posthumous



George Matthias Corvinus3



Vladislaus II Louis



Ferdinand I Maximilian Rudolph II Matthias Ferdinand II Frederick4 Ferdinand III Leopold I Joseph I Charles II Charles Albert (II)3, 5 Maria Theresa



Joseph II Leopold II Francis II (I) Ferdinand V Francis Joseph Charles I (III)

1 Duke of Poland from the Piast dynasty 2 During his reign obtained non-hereditary royal title 3 Antiking 4 Elector Palatine from the Wittelsbach dynasty 5 Prince-elector
of Bavaria from the Wittelsbach dynasty

v t e

Monarchs of Germany

East Francia
East Francia
within the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire

Louis the German Carloman Louis the Younger Charles the Fat Arnulf Louis the Child

East Francia
East Francia

Conrad I Henry I Arnulf Otto I

Kingdom of Germany
within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire

Otto I Otto II Otto III Henry II Conrad II Henry III Henry IV Rudolf Hermann Conrad (III) Henry V Lothair II Conrad III Henry (VI) Frederick I Henry VI Philip Otto IV Frederick II Henry (VII) Conrad IV Henry (VIII) William Richard Alfonso Rudolf I Adolf Albert I Henry VII Louis IV Frederick (III) Günther Charles IV Wenceslaus Rupert Jobst Sigismund Albert II Frederick III Maximilian I Charles V Ferdinand I Maximilian II Rudolf II Matthias Ferdinand II Ferdinand III Ferdinand IV Leopold I Joseph I Charles VI Charles VII Francis I Joseph II Leopold II Francis II

Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine


German Confederation
German Confederation

Francis I Ferdinand I

German Empire
German Empire

Archduke John of Austria
Archduke John of Austria
(Imperial Regent)

German Confederation
German Confederation

Franz Joseph I

North German Confederation
German Confederation

William I

German Empire
German Empire

William I Frederick III William II

v t e

Austrian archdukes

1st generation

Frederick V Albert VI Sigismund

2nd generation

Cristopher Maximilian I John Wolfgang

3rd generation

Philip I of Castile Archduke Francis

4th generation

Charles I Ferdinand I

5th generation

Philip II of SpainS Maximilian II Ferdinand II FerdinandS JohnS John FerdinandS Charles II

6th generation

Charles, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand Rudolf V Ernest Matthias Maximilian III Albert VII Wenzel Frederick Charles Ferdinand, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand Carlos LorenzoS Diego, Prince of AsturiasS Philip III of SpainS Ferdinand III Charles Maximilian Ernest Leopold V Charles, Bishop of Wroclaw

7th generation

Charles Philip IV of SpainS Philipp John-Charles Albert CharlesS Ferdinand IV FerdinandS Alfonso Mauricio Leopold Wilhelm Ferdinand Charles Sigismund Francis

8th generation

Balthasar Charles, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand IV of Hungary Francisco FernandoS Philip August Maximilian Thomas Leopold VI Charles Joseph Ferdinand Joseph Alois Philip Prospero, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand ThomasS Charles II of SpainS

9th generation

Ferdinand Wenzel John Leopold Joseph I Leopold Joseph Charles III

10th generation

Leopold Joseph Leopold John

11th generation

Joseph IIT Charles JosephT Leopold VIIT FerdinandT Maximilian Franz, Archbishop-Elector of CologneT

12th generation

Emperor Francis IT Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Charles, Duke of TeschenT Alexander Leopold, Palatine of HungaryT Joseph, Palatine of HungaryT Anton VictorT JohnT Rainer JosephT Archduke LouisT Cardinal-Archduke RudolfT Joseph FranzM Francis IV, Duke of ModenaM Ferdinand Karl JosephM MaximilianM Karl, Primate of HungaryM

13th generation

Emperor Ferdinand I Francis Leopold, Grand Prince of TuscanyT Leopold II, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Joseph Franz Franz Karl Johann Nepomuk Albert, Duke of Teschen Stephen, Palatine of Hungary Karl Ferdinand Francis V, Duke of ModenaM Frederick Ferdinand Ferdinand Karl ViktorM Archduke Rudolf Leopold Ludwig Ernest Alexander Sigismund Leopold Rainer Ferdinand Wilhelm Franz Heinrich Anton Maximilian Karl Joseph Karl

14th generation

Emperor Franz Joseph I Maximilian I of Mexico Karl Ludwig Ludwig Viktor Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Karl SalvatorT RainierT Ludwig SalvatorT John SalvatorT Karl Franz Joseph Friedrich, Duke of Teschen Charles Stephen Eugen Joseph August Ladislaus

15th generation

Crown Prince Rudolf Franz FerdinandM Otto Francis Ferdinand Karl Leopold FerdinandT Josef FerdinandT Peter FerdinandT Heinrich FerdinandT Robert FerdinandT Leopold SalvatorT Franz SalvatorT Albrecht SalvatorT Rainier SalvatorT Ferdinand SalvatorT Albrecht Franz, Duke of Teschen Karl Albrecht Leo Karl Wilhelm Joseph Francis Ladislaus Joseph Matthias

16th generation

Emperor Charles I Maximilian Eugen

Habsburg Tuscany

GottfriedT GeorgT RainerT Leopold MariaT AntonT Franz JosephT Karl PiusT Franz KarlT Hubert SalvatorT Theodor SalvatorT Clemens SalvatorT

Palatines of Hungary

Joseph Árpád István Géza Michael Koloman

17th generation

Descent of Charles I

Crown Prince Otto RobertM Felix Carl Ludwig Rudolf

Descent of Maximilian

Ferdinand Karl Heinrich Maria


Leopold FranzT GuntramT RadbotT JohannT GeorgT StephanT DominicT Friederich SalvatorT Andreas SalvatorT MarkusT JohannT MichaelT Franz SalvatorT Karl SalvatorT


Joseph Karl Andreas Agustinus Nicholas Franz Johann Jacob Edward Karl Paul Rudolf

18th generation


Karl Georg LorenzM GerhardM MartinM Karl Philipp Raimund Joseph István Rudolf Carl Christian Karl Peter Simeon Johannes


Maximilian Heinrich Philipp Joachim Ferdinand Karl Konrad


SigismundT GeorgT GuntramT LeopoldT Alexander SalvatorT Thaddäus SalvatorT Casimir SalvatorT MatthiasT JohannesT BernhardT BenediktT


Joseph Albrecht (1994–) Paul Leo (1996–) Friedrich Cyprian (1995–) Pierre (1997–) Benedikt Alexander (2005–) Nicolás (2003–) Santiago (2006–) Johannes (2010–) Paul Benedikt (2000–)

19th generation


Ferdinand Zvonimir Karl Konstantin AmedeoM JoachimM BartholomaeusM EmmanuelM LuigiM Felix Carl Andreas Franz Paul Johannes Carl Christian Johannes Thomas Franz Ludwig Michael Joseph Imre Christoph Alexander Lorenz Carl Johannes Ludwig Philipp


Nicholas Constantin Jacob Maximilian


Leopold AmedeoT MaximilianT LeopoldT Constantin SalvatorT Paul SalvatorT

S: also an infante of Spain T: also a prince of Tuscany M: also a prince of Modena

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Monarchs of Hungary

Family tree

House of Árpád

Grand Princes

(c. 850–c. 895) Árpád
(c. 895–c. 907) Zoltán (c. 907–c. 947) Fajsz
(c. 947–c. 955) Taksony (c. 955–c. 972) Géza (c. 972–997) Stephen (997–1000)


Stephen I (1000–1038) Peter (1038–1041; 1044–1046) Samuel (1041–1044) Andrew I (1046–1060) Béla I (1060–1063) Solomon (1063–1074) Géza I (1074–1077) Ladislaus I (1077–1095) Coloman (1095–1116) Stephen II (1116–1131) Béla II (1131–1141) Géza II (1141–1162) Stephen III (1162–1172)

Ladislaus II (1162–1163) Stephen IV (1163–1165)

Béla III (1172–1196) Emeric (1196–1204) Ladislaus III (1204–1205) Andrew II (1205–1235) Béla IV (1235–1270) Stephen V (1270–1272) Ladislaus IV (1272–1290) Andrew III (1290–1301)

House of Přemysl

Wenceslaus (1301–1305)

House of Wittelsbach

Otto (1305–1307)

Capetian House of Anjou

Charles I (1308–1342) Louis I (1342–1382) Mary (1382–1385; 1386–1395) Charles II (1385–1386)

House of Luxembourg

Sigismund (1387–1437)

House of Habsburg

Albert (1437–1439) Ladislaus V (1440–1457)

House of Jagiellon

Vladislaus I (1440–1444)

House of Hunyadi

Matthias I (1458–1490)

House of Jagiellon

Vladislaus II (1490–1516) Louis II (1516–1526)

House of Zápolya

John (1526–1540) John Sigismund (1540–1570)

House of Habsburg

Ferdinand I (1526–1564) Maximilian (1564–1576) Rudolph (1576–1608) Matthias II (1608–1619) Ferdinand II (1619–1637) Ferdinand III (1637–1657)

Ferdinand IV (1647–1654)

Leopold I (1657–1705) Joseph I (1705–1711) Charles III (1711–1740) Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa

House of Habsburg-Lorraine

Joseph II (1780–1790) Leopold II (1790–1792) Francis (1792–1835) Ferdinand V (1835–1848) Francis Joseph (1848–1916) Charles IV (1916–1918)

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 291482450 LCCN: n80145217 ISNI: 0000 0001 0916 5336 GND: 118532510 SELIBR: 214478 SUDOC: 07696308X BNF: cb12130367b (data) BPN: 51065539 BIBSYS: 97046458 ULAN: 500353798 NKC: jo20000