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Fellowship of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society
Royal Society
judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".[1]

Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
was one of the earliest Fellows of the Royal Society, elected in 1672

Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour which has been awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
(1672),[2] Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(1839),[2] Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
(1824),[2] Ernest Rutherford (1903),[3] Srinivasa Ramanujan
Srinivasa Ramanujan
(1919),[4] Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
(1921),[5] Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1941), Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
(1944),[6] Dorothy Hodgkin
Dorothy Hodgkin
(1947),[7] Alan Turing
Alan Turing
(1951)[8] and Francis Crick (1959).[9][10] More recently, fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking (1974), Tim Hunt
Tim Hunt
(1991), Elizabeth Blackburn
Elizabeth Blackburn
(1992), Tim Berners-Lee (2001), Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
(2003), Atta-ur Rahman (2006),[11] Andre Geim
Andre Geim
(2007), James Dyson
James Dyson
(2015), Ajay Kumar Sood (2015), Subhash Khot (2017) and around 8000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900. As of 2016[update], there are around 1600 living Fellows, Foreign and Honorary Members.[12] Fellowship of the Royal Society
Royal Society
has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar”[13] with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20]

Contents

1 Main Fellowships

1.1 Fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(FRS) 1.2 Foreign Member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(ForMemRS) 1.3 Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(HonFRS) 1.4 Former Statute 12 Fellowships 1.5 Royal Fellows of the Royal Society

2 Election of new fellows

2.1 Nomination 2.2 Selection 2.3 Admission

3 Research Fellowships and other awards 4 References

Main Fellowships[edit] Up to 60 new Fellows (FRS), honorary (HonFRS) and foreign members (ForMemRS) are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year.[21] New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(FRS)[edit] Further information: List of Fellows of the Royal Society

Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
in 1974

Nobel laureate Elizabeth Blackburn
Elizabeth Blackburn
was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1992

Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
which make up around 90% of the society.[1] Each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS.[1] See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society. Foreign Member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(ForMemRS)[edit]

Jennifer Doudna, a professor of chemistry, was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(ForMemRS) in 2016

Every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science. As of 2016[update] there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS.[22] See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(HonFRS)[edit]

Bill Bryson
Bill Bryson
was elected an Honorary Member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
in 2013

Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson (2013), Melvyn Bragg
Melvyn Bragg
(2010), Robin Saxby
Robin Saxby
(2015), David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville (2008) and Onora O'Neill
Onora O'Neill
(2007). Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters HonFRS.[23] Others including John Maddox (2000),[24] Patrick Moore
Patrick Moore
(2001) and Lisa Jardine (2015)[25][26] were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Former Statute 12 Fellowships[edit]

David Attenborough
David Attenborough
was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Royal Society
in 1983 under former statute 12

Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997.[citation needed] Fellows elected under statute 12 include David Attenborough
David Attenborough
(1983) and John Palmer, 4th Earl of Selborne (1991). Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
(1983),[2] Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
(1938),[2] H. H. Asquith (1908)[2] were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(Statute 12). Royal Fellows of the Royal Society[edit] The Council of the Royal Society
Royal Society
can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016[update] there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales (1978),[27] Anne, Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal
(1987),[28] Prince Edward, Duke of Kent (1990),[29] Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
(2009)[30] and Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
(2013).[31] Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
(1951) was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow.[32] Election of new fellows[edit] The election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection.[1] Nomination[edit] Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(a proposer and a seconder), who sign a certificate of proposal.[33] Previously, nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer,[33] which was criticised for supposedly establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.[34][35][36] The certificate of election (see for example[37]) includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership.[1] Selection[edit] The Council of the Royal Society
Royal Society
oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees,[12] to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if he or she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences; and up to 10 from Applied Sciences, Human Sciences and Joint Physical and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair. Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias,[33] each group covers different specialist areas including:

Mathematics Astronomy
Astronomy
and physics Chemistry Engineering Earth science
Earth science
and environmental science Biochemistry
Biochemistry
and molecular cell biology Microbiology, immunology and developmental biology Anatomy, physiology and neuroscience Organismal biology, evolution and ecology Health and human sciences[38]

Admission[edit] New Fellows are admitted to the Society at a formal admissions day ceremony held annually in July,[39] when they sign the Charter
Charter
Book and the Obligation which reads: "We who have hereunto subscribed, do hereby promise, that we will endeavour to promote the good of the Royal Society
Royal Society
of London
London
for Improving Natural Knowledge, and to pursue the ends for which the same was founded; that we will carry out, as far as we are able, those actions requested of us in the name of the Council; and that we will observe the Statutes and Standing Orders of the said Society. Provided that, whensoever any of us shall signify to the President under our hands, that we desire to withdraw from the Society, we shall be free from this Obligation for the future".[1] Since 2014, portraits of Fellows at the admissions ceremony have been published without copyright restrictions in Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
under a more permissive Creative Commons license
Creative Commons license
which allows wider re-use.[40][41] Research Fellowships and other awards[edit]

Brian Cox, a professor of physics, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2016 having previously held a Royal Society
Royal Society
University Research Fellowship (URF) from 2005 to 2013[42]

In addition to the main Fellowships of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(FRS, ForMemRS & HonFRS), other fellowships are available which are applied for by individuals, rather than through election. Holders of these fellowships are known as Royal Society
Royal Society
Research Fellows.[43]

University Research Fellowships (URFs) Royal Society
Royal Society
University Research Fellowships are for outstanding scientists in the UK who are in the early stages of their research career and have the potential to become leaders in their field.[44] Previous holders of URFs have been elected FRS at a later date including Richard Borcherds
Richard Borcherds
(1994), Jean Beggs (1998), Frances Ashcroft (1999), Athene Donald
Athene Donald
(1999) and John Pethica (1999).[45] More recent awardees include Terri Attwood, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Brian Cox, Sarah Bridle, Shahn Majid, Tanya Monro, Beth Shapiro, David J. Wales
David J. Wales
and Kathy Willis Royal Society
Royal Society
Leverhulme Trust
Leverhulme Trust
Senior Research Fellowships are for scientists who would benefit from a period of full-time research without teaching and administrative duties, supported by the Leverhulme Trust.[46] Newton Advanced Fellowships provide established international researchers with an opportunity to develop the research strengths and capabilities of their research group. Provided by the Newton Fund via the official development assistance[47] Industry Fellowships are for academic scientists who want to work on a collaborative project with industry and for scientists in industry who want to work on a collaborative project with an academic organisation.[48] Dorothy Hodgkin
Dorothy Hodgkin
Fellowships are for outstanding scientists in the UK at an early stage of their research career who require a flexible working pattern due to personal circumstances. These fellowships are named after Dorothy Hodgkin.[49]

In addition to the award of Fellowship (FRS, HonFRS & ForMemRS) and the Research Fellowships described above, several other awards, lectures and medals of the Royal Society
Royal Society
are also given. References[edit]

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Royal Society
Fellowship for Crick scientist". London: Francis Crick
Francis Crick
Institute. Archived from the original on 2016-05-25.  ^ Anon (2016). "Manchester scientists elected as Fellows of Royal Society". Manchester: University of Manchester. Archived from the original on 2016-05-07.  ^ Anon (2016). " Royal Society
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University of Aberdeen
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Onora O'Neill
CH CBE HonFRS FBA FMedSci". London: Academy of Medical Sciences. Archived from the original on 2016-04-06.  ^ Gratzer, Walter (2010). "Sir John Royden Maddox. 27 November 1925 -- 12 April 2009". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 56: 237–255. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2009.0024.  ^ Hunter, Michael (2017). " Lisa Jardine
Lisa Jardine
CBE. 12 April 1944 — 25 October 2015". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society: rsbm20170015. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2017.0015. ISSN 0080-4606.  ^ Grafton, Anthony (2015). " Lisa Jardine
Lisa Jardine
(1944–2015)". Nature. 528 (7580): 40. Bibcode:2015Natur.528...40G. doi:10.1038/528040a. PMID 26632582.  ^ Anon (1978). "His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales KG KT GCB OM FRS Royal Fellow". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17.  ^ Anon (1987). "Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal Princess Anne KG KT GCVO GCStJ QSO GCL FRS Royal Fellow". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17.  ^ Anon (1990). "His Royal Highness Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
KG GCMG GCVO ADC(P) FRS Royal Fellow". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17.  ^ Anon (2009). "His Royal Highness Prince William, Duke of Cambridge KG KT ADC(P) FRS Royal Fellow". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17.  ^ Anon (2013). "His Royal Highness Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
KG GCVO FRS Royal Fellow". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17.  ^ Anon (1951). "His Royal Highness Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
KG Kt OM GBE FRS Statute 12". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-11-24.  ^ a b c Athene Donald
Athene Donald
(2012-04-20). "Ten Things You Should Know about Election to the Royal Society". Occam's Typewriter. Archived from the original on 2014-08-24.  ^ Gallagher, Paul (2013). "Sparks fly over Royal Society
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v t e

List of Elected Fellows, Foreign and Honorary Members of the Royal Society

17th century

1660 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 1700

18th century

1701 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 31 32 71 73 78 79 84 87 88 89 92 93 94 95 96 98 99 1800

19th century

1801 02 05 09 11 15 17 19 20 29 39 49 57 59 69 79 80 81 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 1900

20th century

1901 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000

21st century

2001 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Alphabetical

ABC DEF GHI JKL MNO PQR STUV WXYZ

Other lists

By election year Female Founder Original Health

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