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The Info List - Felis Silvestris



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Distribution of five Felis
Felis
silvestris subspecies

Wildcat
Wildcat
range

The WILDCAT ( Felis
Felis
silvestris) is a small cat native to most of Africa
Africa
, Europe
Europe
, and Southwest and Central Asia
Central Asia
into India
India
, western China
China
, and Mongolia
Mongolia
. Because of its wide range it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
since 2002. However, crossbreeding of wildcats and domestic cats ( Felis
Felis
silvestris catus) occur in particular in Europe
Europe
and is considered a potential threat for the preservation of the wild species .

The wildcat shows a high degree of geographic variation. Whereas the Asiatic wildcat is spotted, the African wildcat
African wildcat
is faintly striped, has short sandy-gray fur, banded legs, red-backed ears and a tapering tail. The European wildcat
European wildcat
is striped, has long fur and a bushy tail with a rounded tip, and is larger than a domestic cat.

The wildcat is the ancestor of the domestic cat. Genetic, morphological and archaeological evidence suggests that domestication of Old-World wildcats began approximately 7500 years BCE
BCE
in the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
region of the Near East
Near East
. The association of wildcats with humans appears to have developed along with the growth of agricultural villages during the Neolithic Revolution
Neolithic Revolution
, with wildcats preying on rodents that infested the grain stores of early farmers .

Until 2007, twenty-two subspecies of wildcat were recognised. Since publication of results of a phylogeographical analysis, only five subspecific groups have been suggested, including the Chinese mountain cat .

CONTENTS

* 1 Taxonomy

* 1.1 Evolution

* 1.1.1 Origins * 1.1.2 Domestication
Domestication

* 2 Characteristics

* 2.1 Body size

* 2.2 Fur

* 2.2.1 Forest wildcat * 2.2.2 Steppe wildcat

* 3 Behaviour

* 3.1 Social and territorial behaviours * 3.2 Hunting behaviour * 3.3 Reproduction and development

* 4 Ecology

* 4.1 Diet * 4.2 Predators and competitors

* 5 Communication * 6 Diseases and parasites * 7 Distribution

* 8 Relationships with humans

* 8.1 In culture

* 8.1.1 In mythology * 8.1.2 In heraldry * 8.1.3 In literature

* 8.2 Hunting

* 9 References

* 9.1 Bibliography * 9.2 Notes

* 10 External links

TAXONOMY

In 1778, Johann von Schreber described the European wildcat
European wildcat
using the scientific name Felis
Felis
(catus) silvestris. In subsequent decades, several naturalists and explorers described wildcats from European, African and Asian countries. The taxonomist Pocock reviewed wildcat skins collected in the British Museum
British Museum
, and in 1951 designated three Felis
Felis
bieti subspecies from Eastern Asia
Eastern Asia
, seven Felis
Felis
silvestris subspecies from Europe
Europe
to Asia Minor
Asia Minor
, and 25 Felis
Felis
lybica subspecies from Africa
Africa
, and West to Central Asia
Central Asia
.

As of 2005 , 22 subspecies were recognised by Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World . They were divided into three groups:

* FOREST WILDCATS (silvestris group). * STEPPE WILDCATS (ornata-caudata group): distinguished from the forest wildcats by their smaller size, longer, more sharply pointed tails, and comparatively lighter fur colour; includes the subspecies ornata, nesterovi and iraki. * BAY or BUSH WILDCATS (ornata-lybica group): distinguished from the steppe wildcats by their generally paler colouration, well-developed spot patterns and bands; includes the subspecies chutuchta, lybica, ocreata, rubida, cafra, griselda, and mellandi. The domestic cat is thought to have derived from this group.

The subspecies jordansi, reyi, cretensis, and the European and North African populations of lybica represent transitional forms between the forest and bay wildcat groups.

SUBSPECIES TRINOMIAL AUTHORITY DESCRIPTION RANGE SYNONYMS

EUROPEAN WILDCAT F. s. silvestris

( Nominate subspecies ) Schreber, 1777 A large subspecies, measuring 40–91 cm in body length, 28–35 cm in tail length, and weighing 3.75–11.5 kg. Its fur is quite dark, with a gray tone. The pattern on the head, the dorsal band and the transverse stripes and spots on the trunk are distinct and usually vivid. Most of Europe
Europe
, except Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and islands in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
euxina (Pocock, 1943)

ferox (Martorbelli, 1896) ferus (Erxleben, 1777) foxi (Pocock, 1944) hybrida (J. B. Fischer, 1829) molisana (Altobello, 1921) morea (Trouessart, 1904) obscura (Desmarest, 1820) tartessia (Miller, 1907)

SOUTHERN AFRICAN WILDCAT F. s. cafra

Desmarest, 1822 Similar to ugandae in colour and pattern. It comes in two colour phases; iron-gray, with black and whitish speckling, and tawny-gray, with less black and more buffy speckling. Its skull is noticeably larger than lybica's. Southern and southeastern Africa
Africa
caffra (A. Smith, 1826)

caligata (Temminck, 1824) obscura (Anderson and de Winton, 1902) namaquana (Thomas, 1926) rusticana (Thomas, 1928)

CAUCASIAN WILDCAT F. s. caucasica

Satunin, 1905 Smaller than silvestris, measuring 70–75 cm in body length, 26–28 cm in shoulder height, and weighing usually 5.20–6 kg. Its fur is generally lighter than that of silvestris, and is grayer in shade. The patterns on the head and the dorsal band are well developed, though the transverse bands and spots on the trunk are mostly faint or absent. The tail has a black tip, and only three distinct, black transverse rings. Caucasus
Caucasus
and Asia Minor
Asia Minor
trapezia (Blackler, 1916)

TURKESTAN WILDCAT F. s. caudata

Gray, 1874 Similar to caucasica, measuring 44–74 cm in body length, 24–36 cm in tail length, and weighing 2.045–6 kg. However, caudata's head is slighter larger, and its tail is longer. Its fur is mainly light, ochreous-gray. Its dark spots are small and sharp, but well developed throughout its trunk. It has a chain of spots along the back, rather than the continuous band present in most other subspecies. Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
, Iran
Iran
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and Dzhungaria griseoflava (Zukowsky, 1915)

issikulensis (Ognev, 1930) kozlovi (Satunin, 1905) longipilis (Zukowsky, 1915) macrothrix (Zukowsky, 1915) matschiei (Zukowsky, 1914) murgabensis (Zukowsky, 1915) schnitnikovi (Birula, 1915)

MONGOLIAN WILDCAT F. s. chutuchta Birula, 1916

Southern Mongolia
Mongolia

CRETAN WILDCAT F. s. cretensis Haltenorth, 1953

Crete
Crete

MID-BELT WILDCAT F. s. foxi Pocock, 1944 Similar to hausa, but has a deeper red colour, and a larger skull. Guinea
Guinea
, French Sudan
French Sudan
and Nigeria
Nigeria
in West Africa
Africa

ARABIAN WILDCAT F. s. gordoni

Harrison, 1968

Arabian peninsula
Arabian peninsula

SCOTTISH WILDCAT F. s. grampia

Miller, 1907 Once considered distinct from silvestris by its slightly larger size, its darker colour and better defined markings on the flanks and legs, though this subspecific classification may not be justified, as there is considerable variation within Scottish wildcat populations. It measures 47–66 cm in body length, 26–33 cm in tail length, and weighs 2.35-7.26 kg. Scotland
Scotland
, extirpated in England
England
and Wales
Wales

KALAHARI WILDCAT F. s. griselda Thomas, 1926 Similar to cafra, but differs by its paler, brighter ochreous ears, paler colour, and the less distinct pattern on its fur. Central and southern Angola
Angola
, northern southeast Africa
Africa
and Kalahari
Kalahari
vernayi (Roberts, 1932)

xanthella (Thomas, 1926)

HAUSA WILDCAT F. s. hausa Thomas and Hinton, 1921 A small subspecies, with palish, buffish or light-grayish fur, and a tinge of red on the dorsal band. Sudan
Sudan
and Sahel
Sahel
woodlands

IRAQI WILDCAT F. s. iraki Cheesman, 1921 Differs from tristrami by its more uniformly tawny hue on the upper parts, its undifferentiated dorsal band, and whiter face and feet. Kuwait
Kuwait
, Iraq
Iraq

BALEARIC WILDCAT F. s. jordansi Schwarz, 1930

Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands

AFRICAN WILDCAT F. s. lybica Forster, 1780 Its general colour is grizzled buff, with indistinct stripes and spots, and a pale brown lacrimal stripe. Its ears are reddish brown, and its tail is relatively long, with several rings and a brown tip. It measures 45 cm in body length, 29 cm in tail length, and weighs 3 kg. Specimens in Sardinia
Sardinia
differ from their North African counterparts by their darker ears and generally darker upper sides, lacking the typical sandy tone present in North African specimens.

This species gave rise to the domestic cat . Sardinia
Sardinia
, Sicily
Sicily
, northern parts of North Africa
Africa
from Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
to Morocco
Morocco
and southern Atlas
Atlas
, and Algerian Sahara
Sahara
bubastis (Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1833)

cristata (Lataste, 1885) cyrenarum (Ghigi, 1920) dongolana (Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1832) libyca (Olivier, 1804) maniculata (Temminck, 1824) mauritana (Cabrera, 1906) mediterranea (Martorelli, 1896) ruppelii (Schinz, 1824) sarda (Lataste, 1885)

RHODESIAN WILDCAT F. s. mellandi Schwann, 1904

Northern Angola
Angola
, southern part of the Congo basin
Congo basin
and northern Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
pyrrhus (Pocock, 1944)

SYRIAN WILDCAT F. s. nesterovi

Birula, 1916

Mespotamia , southwestern Iran
Iran
, northwestern Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
, Syria
Syria
, Israel
Israel
and Palestine

ABYSSINIAN WILDCAT F. s. ocreata Gmelin, 1791 Differs from lybica by its larger skull, and its fur, which is of a more grayish ground colour with more black speckling, and a more reddish or yellow wash, in adaptation to its desert environment. Ethiopia
Ethiopia
brockmani (Pocock, 1944)

guttata (Hermann, 1804) maniculata (Cretschmar, 1826) nubiensis (Kerr, 1792)

ASIATIC WILDCAT F. s. ornata

Gray, 1832 Resembles lybica and iraqi, but differs by its strongly emphasised black or brown spot pattern. Central and northwestern India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
servalina (Jardine, 1834)

torquata (Blyth, 1863)

CORSICAN WILDCAT F. s. reyi Lavauden, 1929

Corsica
Corsica

EAST AFRICAN WILDCAT F. s. rubida Schwann, 1904

East Africa
Africa
, southern Sudan
Sudan
and the northeastern part of the Congo basin

TRISTRAM\'S WILDCAT F. s. tristrami Pocock, 1944 Compared to lybica, this subspecies is darker and more grayish in colour, with slightly more prominent markings. Israel
Israel
and Palestine maniculata (Yerbury and Thomas, 1895)

syriaca (Trsitam, 1867)

UGANDAN WILDCAT F. s. ugandae Schwann, 1904

Uganda
Uganda
nandae (Heller, 1913)

taitae (Heller, 1913)

Based on results of a phylogeographical analysis, scientists proposed in 2007 to recognise the five subspecies F. s. lybica, F. s. ornata, F. s. silvestris, F. s. cafra and F. s. bieti. The first four are recognised by International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) as subspecies of F. silvestris, but Felis
Felis
bieti is considered a separate species.

EVOLUTION

Origins

The wildcat's direct ancestor was Felis
Felis
lunensis , or Martelli's wildcat, which lived in Europe
Europe
as early as the late Pliocene
Pliocene
. Fossil remains of the wildcat are common in cave deposits dating from the last ice age and the Holocene
Holocene
. At some point during the Late Pleistocene (possibly 50,000 years ago), the wildcat migrated from Europe
Europe
into the Middle East, giving rise to the steppe wildcat phenotype . Within possibly 10,000 years, the steppe wildcat spread eastwards into Asia and southwards to Africa.

The wildcat's closest living relatives are the sand cat , the Chinese mountain cat (which may be a subspecies of wildcat), the jungle cat and the black-footed cat . As a whole, the wildcat (along with the jungle and leopard cat ) represents a much less specialised form than the sand cat and manul . However, wildcat subspecies of the lybica group do exhibit some further specialisation, namely in the structure of the auditory bullae , which bears similarity to those of the sand cat and manul.

Domestication

Skulls of a wildcat (top left), a housecat (top right), and a hybrid between the two (bottom centre)

The earliest evidence of wildcat taming comes from 9,500-year-old Neolithic
Neolithic
graves excavated in Shillourokambos , Cyprus
Cyprus
, that contained the skeletons of a human and a cat, buried close to one another. As no records of native cats in Cyprus
Cyprus
exist, this discovery indicates that Neolithic
Neolithic
farmers brought cats to Cyprus
Cyprus
from the Middle East
Middle East
, most likely to control rodents. Wildcats were probably domesticated in the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
around the time of the introduction of agriculture .

Despite thousands of years of domestication, there is very little difference between the housecat and its wild ancestor, as its breeding has been more subject to natural selection imposed by its environment, rather than artificial selection by humans. The wildcat subspecies that gave rise to the housecat is most likely the African wildcat
African wildcat
, based on genetics , morphology , and behaviour. The African wildcat lacks the sharply defined dorsal stripe present in the European wildcat, a trait which corresponds with the coat patterns found in striped tabbies. Also, like the African wildcat, the housecat's tail is usually thin, rather than thick and bushy like the European wildcat's. In contrast to European wildcats, which are notoriously difficult to tame, hand-reared African wildcats behave almost exactly like domestic tabbies, but are more intolerant of other cats, and almost invariably drive away their siblings, mates, and grown kittens. Further evidence of an African origin for the housecat is present in the African wildcat's growth; like housecat kittens, African wildcat
African wildcat
kittens undergo rapid physical development during the first two weeks of life. In contrast, European wildcat
European wildcat
kittens develop much more slowly. The bacula of European domestic cats bear closer resemblance to those of local, rather than African wildcats, thus indicating that crossbreeding between housecats and wildcats of European origin has been extensive.

CHARACTERISTICS

Scottish wildcat

BODY SIZE

Compared to other members of the Felinae
Felinae
, the wildcat is a small species, but is nonetheless larger than the housecat . The wildcat is similar in appearance to a striped tabby cat , but has relatively longer legs, a more robust build, and a greater cranial volume. The tail is long, and usually slightly exceeds one-half of the animal's body length. Its skull is more spherical in shape than that of the jungle and leopard cat . The ears are moderate in length, and broad at the base. The eyes are large, with vertical pupils , and yellowish-green irises . Its dentition is relatively smaller and weaker than the jungle cat's. The species size varies according to Bergmann\'s rule , with the largest specimens occurring in cool, northern areas of Europe
Europe
(such as Scotland
Scotland
and Scandinavia
Scandinavia
) and of Middle Asia (such as Mongolia
Mongolia
, Manchuria
Manchuria
and Siberia
Siberia
). Males measure 43 to 91 cm (17 to 36 in) in body length, 23 to 40 cm (9.1 to 15.7 in) in tail length, and normally weigh 5 to 8 kg (11 to 18 lb). Females are slightly smaller, measuring 40 to 77 cm (16 to 30 in) in body length and 18 to 35 cm (7.1 to 13.8 in) in tail length, and weighing 3 to 5 kg (6.6 to 11.0 lb). Both sexes possess pre-anal glands, which consist of moderately sized sweat and sebaceous glands around the anal opening . Large-sized sebaceous and scent glands extend along the full length of the tail on the dorsal side. Male wildcats have pre-anal pockets located on the tail, which are activated upon reaching sexual maturity . These pockets play a significant role in reproduction and territorial marking . The species has two thoracic and two abdominal teats . The wildcat has good night vision , having 20 to 100% higher retinal ganglion cell densities than the housecat. It may have colour vision as the densities of its cone receptors are more than 100% higher than in the housecat. Its sense of smell is acute, and it can detect meat at up to 200 metres. The wildcat's whiskers are white; they can reach 5 to 8 cm in length on the lips, and number 7 to 16 on each side. The eyelashes range from 5 to 6 cm in length, and can number 6 to 8 per side. Whiskers are also present on the inner surface of the wrist , and can measure 3 to 4 cm.

FUR

Forest Wildcat

Skin of a European forest wildcat Skin of an Indian steppe wildcat

The forest wildcat's fur is fairly uniform in length throughout the body. The hair on the tail is very long and dense, thus making it look furry and thick. In winter, the guard hairs measure 7 cm, the tip hairs 5.5–6 cm, and the underfur 4.5–5.5 cm. Corresponding measurements in the summer are 5–6.7 cm, 4.5–6 cm, and 5.3 cm. In winter, the forest wildcat's main coat colour is fairly light gray, becoming richer along the back, and fading onto the flanks. A slight ochreous shade is visible on the undersides of the flanks. A black and narrow dorsal band starts on the shoulders, and runs along the back, usually terminating at the base of the tail. Indistinct black smudges are present around the dorsal band, which may form a transverse striping pattern on rare occasions. The undersurface of the body is very light gray, with a light ochreous tinge. One or more white spots may occur on rare occasions on the throat, between the forelegs, or in the inguinal region. The tail is the same colour as the back, with the addition of a pure black tip. 2–3 black, transverse rings occur above the tail tip. The dorsal surface of the neck and head are the same colour as that of the trunk, but is lighter gray around the eyes, lips, cheeks, and chin. The top of the head and the forehead bear four well-developed dark bands. These bands sometimes split into small spots which extend to the neck. Two short and narrow stripes are usually present in the shoulder region, in front of the dorsal band. A dark and narrow stripe is present on the outer corner of the eye, under the ear. This stripe may extend into the neck. Another such stripe occurs under the eye, which also extends into the neck. The wildcat's summer coat has a fairly light, pure background colour, with an admixture of ochre or brown. In some animals, the summer coat is ashen coloured. The patterns on the head and neck are as well-developed as those on the tail, though the patterns on the flanks are almost imperceptible.

Steppe Wildcat

The steppe wildcat's coat is lighter than the forest wildcat's, and never attains the level of density, length, or luxuriance as that of the forest wildcat, even in winter. The tail appears much thinner than that of the forest wildcat, as the hairs there are much shorter, and more close-fitting. The colours and patterns of the steppe wildcat vary greatly, though the general background colour of the skin on the body's upper surface is very lightly coloured. The hairs along the spine are usually darker, forming a dark gray, brownish, or ochreous band. Small and rounded spots cover the entirety of the species' upper body. These spots are solid and sharply defined, and do not occur in clusters or appear in rosette patterns. They usually do not form transverse rows or transverse stripes on the trunk, as is the case in the forest wildcat. Only on the thighs are distinct striping patterns visible. The underside is mainly white, with a light gray, creamy or pale yellow tinge. The spots on the chest and abdomen are much larger and more blurred than on the back. The lower neck, throat, neck, and the region between the forelegs are devoid of spots, or have bear them only distinctly. The tail is mostly the same colour as the back, with the addition of a dark and narrow stripe along the upper two-thirds of the tail. The tip of the tail is black, with 2–5 black transverse rings above it. The upper lips and eyelids are light, pale yellow-white. The facial region is of an intense gray colour, while the top of the head is covered with a dark gray coat. In some specimens, the forehead is covered in dense clusters of brown spots. A narrow, dark brown stripe extends from the corner of the eye to the base of the ear.

BEHAVIOUR

Scottish wildcat with kitten, British Wildlife Centre , Surrey

SOCIAL AND TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOURS

The wildcat is a largely solitary animal, except during the breeding period. The size of its home range varies according to terrain, the availability of food, habitat quality, and the age structure of the population. Male and female ranges overlap, though core areas within territories are avoided by other cats. Females tend to be more sedentary than males, as they require an exclusive hunting area when raising kittens. Within its territory , the wildcat leaves scent marks in different sites, the quantity of which increases during estrus , when the cat's preanal glands enlarge and secrete strong smelling substances, including trimethylamine . Territorial marking consists of urinating on trees, vegetation and rocks , and depositing faeces in conspicuous places. The wildcat may also scratch trees, leaving visual markers, and leaving its scent through glands in its paws.

The wildcat does not dig its own burrows, instead sheltering in the hollows of old or fallen trees, rock fissures, and the abandoned nests or earths of other animals (heron nests, and abandoned fox or badger earths in Europe, and abandoned fennec dens in Africa
Africa
). When threatened, a wildcat with a den will retreat into it, rather than climb trees. When taking residence in a tree hollow, the wildcat selects one low to the ground. Dens in rocks or burrows are lined with dry grasses and bird feathers . Dens in tree hollows usually contain enough sawdust to make lining unnecessary. During flea infestations, the wildcat leaves its den in favour of another. During winter, when snowfall prevents the wildcat from travelling long distances, it remains within its den more than usual.

HUNTING BEHAVIOUR

European wildcat
European wildcat
killing a deer fawn, as illustrated in Lydekker 's Wild Life of the World (1916)

When hunting, the wildcat patrols forests and along forest boundaries and glades. In favourable conditions, it will readily feed in fields. The wildcat will pursue prey atop trees, even jumping from one branch to another. On the ground, it lies in wait for prey, then catches it by executing a few leaps, which can span three metres. Sight and hearing are the wildcat's primary senses when hunting, its sense of smell being comparatively weak. When hunting aquatic prey, such as ducks or nutrias , the wildcat waits on trees overhanging the water. It kills small prey by grabbing it in its claws, and piercing the neck or occiput with its fangs. When attacking large prey, the wildcat leaps upon the animal's back, and attempts to bite the neck or carotid . It does not persist in attacking if prey manages to escape it. Wildcats hunting rabbits have been observed to wait above rabbit warrens for their prey to emerge. Although primarily a solitary predator, the wildcat has been known to hunt in pairs or in family groups, with each cat devoted entirely to listening, stalking, or pouncing. While wildcats in Europe
Europe
will cache their food, such a behaviour has not been observed in their African counterparts.

REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

The wildcat has two estrus periods, one in December–February and another in May–July. Estrus lasts 5–9 days, with a gestation period lasting 60–68 days. Ovulation
Ovulation
is induced through copulation . Spermatogenesis occurs throughout the year. During the mating season , males fight viciously, and may congregate around a single female. There are records of male and female wildcats becoming temporarily monogamous. Kittens usually appear in April–May, though some may be born from March–August. Litter size ranges from 1–7 kittens.

Kittens are born blind and helpless, and are covered in a fuzzy coat. At birth, the kittens weigh 65-163 grams, though kittens under 90 grams usually do not survive. They are born with pink paw pads, which blacken at the age of three months, and blue eyes, which turn amber after five months. Their eyes open after 9–12 days, and their incisors erupt after 14–30 days. The kittens' milk teeth are replaced by their permanent dentition at the age of 160–240 days. The kittens start hunting with their mother at the age of 60 days, and will start moving independently after 140–150 days. Lactation
Lactation
lasts 3–4 months, though the kittens will eat meat as early as 1.5 months of age. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of 300 days. Similarly to the housecat, the physical development of African wildcat
African wildcat
kittens over the first two weeks of their lives is much faster than that of European wildcats. The kittens are largely fully grown by 10 months, though skeletal growth continues for over 18–19 months. The family dissolves after roughly five months, and the kittens disperse to establish their own territories. The species' maximum life span is 21 years, though it usually only lives up to 13–14 years.

ECOLOGY

Scottish wildcat with black grouse carcass, as illustrated by Archibald Thorburn (1902)

DIET

Indian wildcat hunting monitor lizard, as illustrated by Daniel Giraud Elliot (1883)

Throughout its range, small rodents (mice , voles , and rats ) are the wildcat's primary prey, followed by birds (especially ducks and other waterfowl , galliformes , pigeons and passerines ), dormice , hares , nutria , and insectivores . Unlike the housecat, the wildcat can consume large fragments of bone without ill-effect. Although it kills insectivores, such as moles and shrews , it rarely eats them because of the pungent scent glands on their flanks. When living close to human habitations, the wildcat can be a serious poultry predator. In the wild, the wildcat consumes up to 600 grams of food daily.

The diet of wildcats in Great Britain
Great Britain
varies geographically; in eastern Scotland
Scotland
, lagomorphs make up 70% of their diet, while in the west, 47% consists of small rodents. In Western Europe, the wildcat feeds on hamsters , brown rats , dormice, water voles , voles, and wood mice . From time to time, small carnivores (martens , polecats , stoats , and weasels ) are preyed upon, as well as the fawns of red deer , roe deer , and chamois . In the Carpathians
Carpathians
, the wildcat feeds primarily on yellow-necked mice , red-backed voles , and ground voles . European hares are also taken on occasion. In Transcarpathia , the wildcat's diet consists of mouse-like rodents, galliform birds, and squirrels . Wildcats in the Dnestr swamps feed on small voles , water voles, and birds, while those living in the Prut
Prut
swamps primarily target water voles, brown rats, and muskrats . Birds taken by Prut wildcats include warblers , ferruginous ducks , coots , spotted crakes , and gadwalls . In Moldavia
Moldavia
, the wildcat's winter diet consists primarily of rodents, while birds, fish , and crayfish are eaten in summer. Brown rats and water voles, as well as muskrats and waterfowl are the main sources of food for wildcats in the Kuban delta . Wildcats in the northern Caucasus
Caucasus
feed on mouse-like rodents and edible dormice , as well as birds on rare occasions. On rare occasions, young chamois and roe deer, are also attacked. Wildcats on the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast are thought to feed on small birds, shrews, and hares. On one occasion, the feathers of a white-tailed eagle and the skull of a kid were found at a den site. In Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
, the wildcat's diet consists of gerbils , voles, birds, and reptiles in the summer, and birds, mouse-like rodents, and hares in winter. Turkmenian wildcats feed on great and red-tailed gerbils, Afghan voles , thin-toed ground squirrels , Tolai hares , small birds (particularly larks ), lizards , beetles , and grasshoppers . Near Repetek , the wildcat is responsible for destroying over 50% of nests made by desert finches , streaked scrub warblers , red-tailed warblers, and turtledoves . In the Qarshi
Qarshi
steppes of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, the wildcat's prey, in descending order of preference, includes great and red-tailed gerbils, jerboas , other rodents and passerine birds, reptiles, and insects. Wilcats in eastern Kyzyl Kum
Kyzyl Kum
have similar prey preferences, with the addition of tolai hares, midday gerbils , five-toed jerboas , and steppe agamas . In Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, the wildcat's primary prey varies from tolai hares near Issyk Kul
Issyk Kul
, pheasants in the Chu and Talas valleys, and mouse-like rodents and gray partridges in the foothills. In Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
's lower Ili , the wildcat mainly targets rodents, muskrats, and Tamarisk gerbils . Occasionally, remains of young roe deer and wild boar are present in its faeces. After rodents, birds follow in importanance, along with reptiles, fish, insects, eggs, grass stalks and nuts (which probably enter the cat's stomach through pheasant crops ). In west Africa
Africa
, the wildcat feeds on rats, mice, gerbils, hares, small to medium-sized birds (up to francolins ), and lizards. In southern Africa, where wildcats attain greater sizes than their western counterparts, antelope fawns and domestic stock, such as lambs and kids are occasionally targeted.

PREDATORS AND COMPETITORS

Because of its habit of living in areas with rocks and tall trees for refuge, dense thickets and abandoned burrows, wildcats have few natural predators. In Central Europe, many kittens are killed by pine martens , and there is at least one account of an adult wildcat being killed and eaten. In the steppe regions of Europe
Europe
and Asia, village dogs constitute serious enemies of wildcats, along with the much larger Eurasian Lynx
Eurasian Lynx
, one of the rare habitual predators of healthy adults. In Tajikistan, wolves are their most serious enemies, having been observed to destroy cat burrows. Birds of prey
Birds of prey
, including eagle-owls and saker falcons , have been known to kill wildcat kittens. Seton Gordon recorded an instance where a wildcat fought a golden eagle , resulting in the deaths of both combatants. In Africa, wildcats are occasionally eaten by pythons . Competitors of the wildcat include the jungle cat , golden jackal , red fox , marten , and other predators. Although the wildcat and the jungle cat occupy the same ecological niche, the two rarely encounter one another, on account of different habitat preferences: jungle cats mainly reside in lowland areas, while wildcats prefer higher elevations in beech forests.

COMMUNICATION

The wildcat is a mostly silent animal. The voice of steppe wildcats differs little from the housecat's, while that of forest wildcats is similar, but coarser.

NAME/TRANSCRIPTION SOUND DESCRIPTION POSTURE CONTEXT

Brrrooo A rolling turtledove -like call.

Emitted as a greeting and as a means of self-identification.

Hiss

Mau Similar to a housecat's miaow, but with the preliminary ee omitted.

Emitted by kittens requesting food.

Meeeoo! Meeeoo! A piercing buzzard -like call that can be heard 200 yards away.

Distress call emitted by kittens.

Noine, noine, noine

Emitted by adults feeding contentedly.

PAAAH!

Accompanied by bracing and stamping of forelimbs. Emitted when angered.

Rumble Transcribed as urrr urrr, and described by Mike Tomkies as sounding "like a dynamo throbbing deep in the bowels of the earth".

Emitted when approached by humans, but does not attack.

Squawk A loud squawking noise, similar to that of ducks .

Emitted by kittens grabbed by the scruff of the neck.

Wheeou wheeou A high pitched whistle, similar to a weak buzzard call. The sound is piercing, but not far-carrying. Made with the mouth barely open. Emitted by kittens summoning their mother.

DISEASES AND PARASITES

The wildcat is highly parasitised by helminths . Some wildcats in Georgia may carry five helminth species: Hydatigera taeniaeformis
Hydatigera taeniaeformis
, Diphyllobothrium mansoni , Toxocara mystax , Capillaria feliscati and Ancylostoma caninum . Wildcats in Azerbaijan carry Hydatigera krepkogorski and T. mystax. In Transcaucasia, the majority of wildcats are infested by the tick Ixodes ricinus
Ixodes ricinus
. In some summers, wildcats are infested with fleas of the Ceratophyllus genus, which they likely contract from brown rats .

DISTRIBUTION

The wildcat's distribution is very broad, encompassing most of Africa , Europe
Europe
, and southwest and central Asia into India
India
, China
China
, and Mongolia
Mongolia
. Subspecies are distributed as follows:

* The African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. s. lybica) occurs across northern Africa
Africa
, around the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
's periphery to the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
, encompassing a wide range of habitats, with the exception of closed tropical forests. It occurs throughout the savannahs of West Africa
Africa
, from Mauritania
Mauritania
on the Atlantic seaboard eastwards to the Horn of Africa
Africa
( Somalia
Somalia
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, Eritrea
Eritrea
, and Djibouti
Djibouti
) and Sudan. In north Africa, it occurs discontinuously from Morocco
Morocco
through Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, Libya
Libya
into Egypt
Egypt
. Small numbers occur in true deserts such as the Sahara
Sahara
, particularly in hilly and mountainous areas, such as the Hoggar . * The Southern African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. s. cafra) is distributed in all east and southern African countries. The border between the two subspecies is estimated to occur in the area of Tanzania
Tanzania
and Mozambique
Mozambique
. * The Asiatic wildcat (F. s. ornata) ranges from the east of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
into western India, north to Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and into western China
China
and southern Mongolia. * The Chinese mountain cat (F. s. bieti) is indigenous to western China, and is particularly abundant in the Qinghai
Qinghai
and possibly Sichuan
Sichuan
provinces. * The European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. s. silvestris) was once very widely distributed in Europe
Europe
and absent only in Fennoscandia
Fennoscandia
and Estonia
Estonia
. Between the late 1700s and mid-1900s, it was extirpated locally so that its European range became fragmented. In the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
, it occurs from sea level to 2,250 m (7,380 ft). It is possible that in some areas, including Scotland
Scotland
and Stromberg , Germany
Germany
, pure wildcats have crossbred extensively with domestic cats. The only islands in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
with native populations of wildcats are Sicily
Sicily
, Sardinia
Sardinia
, Corsica
Corsica
and possibly Crete
Crete
, where wildcats likely descended from feral populations introduced in Neolithic
Neolithic
times. It is possibly extinct in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, and considered regionally extinct in Austria
Austria
, though vagrants from Italy
Italy
are spreading into Austrian territory.

The European wildcat
European wildcat
was thought extinct in the Netherlands
Netherlands
. In 2006, a wildcat was photographed by a camera trap in the province of Limburg . Since then there were frequent, but unconfirmed sightings in this province until December 2012 when a cat was photographed again. A male wildcat was photographed several times in April 2013 while it was scavenging the carcass of a dead deer, an unusual behavior for a wildcat.

RELATIONSHIPS WITH HUMANS

Crest of Clan Sutherland
Clan Sutherland

IN CULTURE

In Mythology

In Celtic mythology
Celtic mythology
, the wildcat was associated with rites of divination and Otherworldly encounters. Domestic cats are not prominent in Insular Celtic tradition (as housecats were not introduced to the British Isles until the Mediaeval period). Fables of the Cat
Cat
Sìth , a fairy creature described as resembling a large white-chested black cat, are thought to have been inspired by the Kellas cat , itself thought to be a free ranging wildcat-houscat crossbreed. Doctor William Salmon , writing in 1693, mentioned how portions of the wildcat were used for medicinal purposes; its flesh was used to treat gout , its fat used for dissolving tumours and easing pain, its blood used for curing "falling sickness ", and its excrement used for treating baldness . European wildcat
European wildcat
caught in jaw trap, as illustrated in Brehms Tierleben
Brehms Tierleben

In Heraldry

The wildcat is considered an icon of the Scottish wilderness, and has been used in clan heraldry since the 13th century. The Picts venerated wildcats, having probably named Caithness
Caithness
(Land of the Cats) after them. According to the foundation myth of the Catti tribe, their ancestors were attacked by wildcats upon landing in Scotland. Their ferocity impressed the Catti so much, that the wildcat became their symbol. A thousand years later, the progenitors of Clan Sutherland
Clan Sutherland
, equally impressed, adopted the wildcat on their family crest. The Chief of Clan Sutherland
Clan Sutherland
bears the title Morair Chat (Great Man of the Cats). The Clan Chattan Association (also known as the Clan of Cats) is made up of 12 different clans, the majority of which display the wildcat on their badges.

In Literature

Shakespeare
Shakespeare
referenced the wildcat three times: THE PATCH IS KIND ENOUGH ; BUT A HUGE FEEDER SNAIL-SLOW IN PROFIT, AND HE SLEEPS BY DAY MORE THAN THE WILD CAT. —  The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice
Act 2 Scene 5 lines 47–49 THOU MUST BE MARRIED TO NO MAN BUT ME ; FOR I AM HE, AM BORN TO TAME YOU, KATE ; AND BRING YOU FROM A WILD CAT to a Kate Comfortable, as other household Kates. — The Taming
Taming
of the Shrew Act 2 Scene 1 lines 265–268 THRICE THE BRINDED CAT hath mew'd. —  Macbeth
Macbeth
Act 4 Scene 1 line 1

HUNTING

Although a furbearer, the wildcat's skin is of little commercial value, due to the unattractive colour of its natural state, and the difficulties present in dyeing it. In the former Soviet Union , the fur of a forest wildcat usually fetched 50 kopecks , while that of a steppe wildcat fetched 60 kopecks. Wildcat
Wildcat
skin is almost solely used for making cheap scarfs , muffs , and women's coats. It is sometimes converted into imitation sealskin . As a rule, wildcat fur is difficult to dye in dark brown or black, and has a tendency to turn green when the dye is not well settled into the hair. When dye is overly applied, wildcat fur is highly susceptible to singeing .

In the former Soviet Union, wildcats were usually caught accidentally in traps set for martens. In modern times, they are caught in unbaited traps on pathways or at abandoned fox, badger, hare or pheasant trails. One method of catching wildcats consists of using a modified muskrat trap with a spring placed in a concealed pit. A scent trail of pheasant viscera leads the cat to the pit. A wildcat caught in a trap growls and snorts.

REFERENCES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Hamilton, Edward (1896). "The wild cat of Europe
Europe
(Felix catus)". R.H. Porter. * Harris, Stephen; Yalden, Derek (2008). Mammals of the British Isles (4th Revised ed.). Mammal
Mammal
Society. ISBN 0906282659 . * Hemmer, Helmut (1990). Domestication: the decline of environmental appreciation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521341787 . * Heptner, V. G.; Sludskii, A. A. (1992). "Mammals of the Soviet Union: Carnivora
Carnivora
(hyaenas and cats), Volume 2". Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation. * Kingdon, Jonathan (1988). "East African mammals: an atlas of evolution in Africa, Volume 3, Part 1". University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226437213 . * Kurtén, Björn (1968). "Pleistocene mammals of Europe". Weidenfeld and Nicolson. * Osborn, Dale. J.; Helmy, Ibrahim (1980). "The contemporary land mammals of Egypt
Egypt
(including Sinai)". Field Museum of Natural History. * Pocock, R. I. (1951). "Catalogue of the Genus Felis". London. * Rosevear, Donovan R. (1974). "The carnivores of West Africa". London : Trustees of the British Museum
British Museum
(Natural History). ISBN 0565007238 . * Tomkies, Mike (1987). " Wildcat
Wildcat
Haven". Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-02502-3 .

NOTES

* ^ A B C D E F G Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.; Driscoll, C. & Nussberger, B. (2015). " Felis
Felis
silvestris". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. International Union for Conservation of Nature . * ^ A B C D E Driscoll, C. A.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Roca, A. L.; Hupe, K.; Johnson, W. E.; Geffen, E.; Harley, E. H.; Delibes, M.; Pontier, D.; Kitchener, A. C.; Yamaguchi, N.; O’Brien, S. J.; Macdonald, D. W. (2007). "The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication" (PDF). Science. 317 (5837): 519–523. PMID 17600185 . doi :10.1126/science.1139518 . * ^ A B Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.; Driscoll, C. ">(PDF). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 83: 47–63. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8312.2004.00372.x . * ^ A B Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). " Felis
Felis
silvestris". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 536–537. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0 . OCLC
OCLC
62265494 . * ^ Schreber, J. C. D. (1778). Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen (Dritter Theil). Expedition des Schreber'schen Säugthier- und des Esper'schen Schmetterlingswerkes, Erlangen. Pages 397−402 : Die wilde Kaze. * ^ Pocock, R. I. (1951). Catalogue of the Genus Felis. Trustees of the British Museum, London. * ^ Hemmer 1990 , pp. 45 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 442–443 & 465 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 442–443 * ^ A B Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 465 * ^ A B C Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 452–455 * ^ A B C Clutton-Brock, J. (1999). "Cats". A Natural History of Domesticated
Domesticated
Mammals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 423 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 418–420 * ^ Pocock 1951 , pp. 103 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 420–421 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 461–462 * ^ A B Rosevear 1974 , pp. 393–394 * ^ Pocock 1951 , pp. 36 * ^ A B C Harris & Yalden 2008 , pp. 400–401 * ^ Pocock 1951 , pp. 109 * ^ Rosevear 1974 , pp. 392–393 * ^ Osborn & Helmy 1980 , pp. 118 * ^ Osborn & Helmy 1980 , pp. 440–443 * ^ A B Pocock 1951 , pp. 53 * ^ "The Lion
Lion
In Your Living Room." The Nature Of Things. Netflix. Dir. Donna Zuckerbrot. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2015. * ^ Pocock 1951 , pp. 69–70 * ^ Osborn & Helmy 1980 , pp. 119 * ^ Osborn Mallon, D. P.; Driscoll, C. (2010). " Felis
Felis
bieti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature . * ^ Kurtén 1968 , pp. 77–79 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 455–456 * ^ Vigne, J. D., Guilaine, J., Debue, K., Haye, L., & Gérard, P. (2004). Early taming of the cat in Cyprus. Science 304 (5668): 259–259. * ^ Pickrell, J. (2004). "Oldest Known Pet Cat? 9500-Year-Old Burial Found on Cyprus". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 6 March 2007. * ^ Muir, H. (2004). "Ancient remains could be oldest pet cat". New Scientist . Retrieved 23 November 2007. * ^ Walton, M. (2004). "Ancient burial looks like human and pet cat". CNN. Retrieved 23 November 2007. * ^ Hemmer 1990 , pp. 46 * ^ A B C D Tomkies 1987 , pp. 15 * ^ A B Kingdon 1988 , pp. 313 * ^ A B Hemmer 1990 , pp. 47 * ^ A B Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 402–403 * ^ Harris & Yalden 2008 , pp. 397–398 * ^ A B Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 408–409 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 452 * ^ Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0789477645 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 405–407 * ^ A B Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 403–405 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 442–450 * ^ A B C Harris & Yalden 2008 , p. 403 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 432–433 * ^ A B Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 433–434 * ^ A B Rosevear 1974 , pp. 388 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 432 * ^ A B C D E F Harris & Yalden 2008 , p. 404 * ^ Kingdon 1988 , pp. 314 * ^ A B C D E Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 434–437 * ^ A B C D Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 429–431 * ^ Tomkies 1987 , pp. 50 * ^ Tomkies 1987 , pp. 25 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 480 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 476–481 * ^ A B C Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 438 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 491–493 * ^ Watson, J. (2010). The Golden Eagle. pp. 306. A&C Black. ISBN 1408114208 * ^ Kingdon 1988 , pp. 316 * ^ A B C D E Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 440–441 & 496–498 * ^ A B Tomkies 1987 , pp. 73 & 77 * ^ A B Tomkies 1987 , pp. 16 & 25 * ^ A B Tomkies 1987 , pp. 75 * ^ Tomkies 1987 , pp. 48 * ^ A B Tomkies 1987 , pp. 36 * ^ Tomkies 1987 , pp. 17 * ^ Heptner Wilde kat duikt op in Limburg - with picture of the cat scavenging the dead deer; Parool.nl (2013). Wilde Kat duikt weer op in Nederland Articles retrieved on 3 May 2013. * ^ A B C Kilshaw 2011 , pp. 2–3 * ^ A B Hamilton 1896 , pp. 17–18 * ^ A B "The evolution and history of the Scottish wildcat and the felids". Scottish Wildcat
Wildcat
Association. Retrieved 2012-02-28. * ^ A B Vinycomb, John (1906). Fictitious & symbolic creatures in art, with special reference to their use in British heraldry. pp. 205-208. London, Chapman and Hall, limited. * ^ A B C Bachrach, Max (1953). Fur: a practical treatise. pp. 188–189. New York : Prentice-Hall, 3rd edition * ^ Heptner ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata * Class: Mammalia * Infraclass: Eutheria
Eutheria
* Superorder: Laurasiatheria
Laurasiatheria

SUBORDER FELIFORMIA

NANDINIIDAE

NANDINIA

* African palm civet (N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

ATILAX

* Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)

BDEOGALE

* Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) * Jackson\'s mongoose (B. jacksoni) * Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

CROSSARCHUS

* Alexander\'s kusimanse (C. alexandri) * Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei) * Common kusimanse (C. obscurus) * Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)

CYNICTIS

* Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

DOLOGALE

* Pousargues\'s mongoose (D. dybowskii)

GALERELLA

* Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens) * Black mongoose (G. nigrata) * Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea) * Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) * Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

HELOGALE

* Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula) * Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)

HERPESTES

* Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus) * Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii) * Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus) * Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) * Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) * Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) * Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus) * Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) * Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) * Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)

ICHNEUMIA

* White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)

LIBERIICTUS

* Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

MUNGOS

* Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus) * Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

PARACYNICTIS

* Selous\' mongoose (P. selousi)

RHYNCHOGALE

* Meller\'s mongoose (R. melleri)

SURICATA

* Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

CROCUTA

* Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)

HYAENA

* Brown hyena (H. brunnea) * Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

PROTELES

* Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

FELIDAE Large family listed below

VIVERRIDAE Large family listed below

EUPLERIDAE Small family listed below

FAMILY FELIDAE

FELINAE

ACINONYX

* Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

CARACAL

* Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) * African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

CATOPUMA

* Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) * Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

FELIS

* Wildcat
Wildcat
(F. silvestris) * Jungle cat (F. chaus) * Black-footed cat (F. nigripes) * Sand cat (F. margarita) * Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti) * Domestic cat (F. catus)

LEOPARDUS

* Pantanal cat (L. braccatus) * Colocolo
Colocolo
(L. colocolo) * Geoffroy\'s cat (L. geoffroyi) * Kodkod (L. guigna) * Southern tigrina (L. guttulus) * Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) * Pampas cat (L. pajeros) * Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) * Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) * Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii)

LEPTAILURUS

* Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

LYNX

* Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) * Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) * Iberian lynx (L. pardinus) * Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

OTOCOLOBUS

* Pallas\'s cat (O. manul)

PARDOFELIS

* Marbled cat (P. marmorata)

PRIONAILURUS

* Fishing cat (P. viverrinus) * Leopard cat (P. bengalensis) * Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) * Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps) * Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)

PUMA

* Cougar (P. concolor) * Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(P. yagouaroundi)

PANTHERINAE

PANTHERA

* Lion
Lion
(P. leo) * Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) * Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) * Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) * Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

NEOFELIS

* Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) * Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

FAMILY VIVERRIDAE (INCLUDES CIVETS )

PARADOXURINAE

ARCTICTIS

* Binturong (A. binturong)

ARCTOGALIDIA

* Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)

MACROGALIDIA

* Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)

PAGUMA

* Masked palm civet (P. larvata)

PARADOXURUS

* Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) * Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) * Jerdon\'s palm civet (P. jerdoni) * Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

HEMIGALINAE

CHROTOGALE

* Owston\'s palm civet (C. owstoni)

CYNOGALE

* Otter civet (C. bennettii)

DIPLOGALE

* Hose\'s palm civet (D. hosei)

HEMIGALUS

* Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

PRIONODON

* Banded linsang (P. linsang) * Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)

VIVERRINAE

CIVETTICTIS

* African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

* Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) * Angolan genet (G. angolensis) * Bourlon\'s genet (G. bourloni) * Crested servaline genet (G. cristata) * Common genet (G. genetta) * Johnston\'s genet (G. johnstoni) * Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata) * Pardine genet (G. pardina) * Aquatic genet (G. piscivora) * King genet (G. poensis) * Servaline genet (G. servalina) * Haussa genet (G. thierryi) * Cape genet (G. tigrina) * Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)

POIANA

* African linsang (P. richardsonii) * Leighton\'s linsang (P. leightoni)

VIVERRA

* Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) * Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) * Malayan civet (V. tangalunga) * Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)

VIVERRICULA

* Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

FAMILY EUPLERIDAE

EUPLERINAE

CRYPTOPROCTA

* Fossa (C. ferox)

EUPLERES

* Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii) * Western falanouc (E. major)

FOSSA

* Malagasy civet (F. fossana)

GALIDIINAE

GALIDIA

* Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)

GALIDICTIS

* Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata) * Grandidier\'s mongoose (G. grandidieri)

MUNGOTICTIS

* Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)

SALANOIA

* Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor) * Durrell\'s vontsira (S. durrelli)

SUBORDER CANIFORMIA (CONT. BELOW)

Ursidae (Bears)

AILUROPODA

* Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)

HELARCTOS

* Sun bear (H. malayanus)

MELURSUS

* Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

TREMARCTOS

* Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

URSUS

* American black bear (U. americanus) * Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) * Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) * Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae (Skunks)

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

* Molina\'s hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga) * Humboldt\'s hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii) * American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus) * Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)

MEPHITIS

* Hooded skunk (M. macroura) * Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

MYDAUS

* Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis) * Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

* Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons) * Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) * Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius) * Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)

PROCYONIDAE

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

* Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni) * Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) * Western lowland olingo (B. medius) * Olinguito (B. neblina)

BASSARISCUS

* Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) * Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

* White-nosed coati (N. narica) * South American coati (N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

* Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) * Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

POTOS

* Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

PROCYON

* Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) * Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) * Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)

AILURIDAE

AILURUS

* Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

SUBORDER CANIFORMIA (CONT. ABOVE)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions ) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

ARCTOCEPHALUS

* South American fur seal (A. australis) * Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) * Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) * Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) * Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) * Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) * Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) * Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

CALLORHINUS

* Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)

EUMETOPIAS

* Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)

NEOPHOCA

* Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

OTARIA

* South American sea lion (O. flavescens)

PHOCARCTOS

* New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

ZALOPHUS

* California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) * Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

ODOBENUS

* Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

CYSTOPHORA

* Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

ERIGNATHUS

* Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

HALICHOERUS

* Gray seal (H. grypus)

HISTRIOPHOCA

* Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)

HYDRURGA

* Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

LEPTONYCHOTES

* Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

LOBODON

* Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

* Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris) * Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)

MONACHUS

* Mediterranean
Mediterranean
monk seal (M. monachus) * Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)

OMMATOPHOCA

* Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

PAGOPHILUS

* Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

PHOCA

* Spotted seal (P. largha) * Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

PUSA

* Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) * Ringed seal (P. hispida) * Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

CANIDAE Large family listed below

MUSTELIDAE Large family listed below

FAMILY CANIDAE (INCLUDES DOGS )

ATELOCYNUS

* Short-eared dog (A. microtis)

CANIS

* Side-striped jackal (C. adustus) * African golden wolf (C. anthus) * Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) * Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) * Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) * Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas) * Red wolf (C. rufus) * Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

CERDOCYON

* Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

CHRYSOCYON

* Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

CUON

* Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

LYCALOPEX

* Culpeo (L. culpaeus) * Darwin\'s fox (L. fulvipes) * South American gray fox (L. griseus) * Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus) * Sechuran fox (L. sechurae) * Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

LYCAON

* African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

NYCTEREUTES

* Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

OTOCYON

* Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

SPEOTHOS

* Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

UROCYON

* Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) * Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes
Vulpes
(Foxes )

* Bengal fox (V. bengalensis) * Blanford\'s fox (V. cana) * Cape fox (V. chama) * Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) * Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata) * Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) * Kit fox (V. macrotis) * Pale fox (V. pallida) * Rüppell\'s fox (V. rueppelli) * Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) * Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) * Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

FAMILY MUSTELIDAE

Lutrinae (Otters)

AONYX

* African clawless otter (A. capensis) * Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)

ENHYDRA

* Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

HYDRICTIS

* Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)

LONTRA

* North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) * Marine otter (L. felina) * Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis) * Southern river otter (L. provocax)

LUTRA

* Eurasian otter (L. lutra) * Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)

LUTROGALE

* Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)

PTERONURA

* Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae
Mustelinae
(including badgers )

ARCTONYX

* Hog badger (A. collaris)

EIRA

* Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

GALICTIS

* Lesser grison (G. cuja) * Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

GULO

* Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

ICTONYX

* Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca) * Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

LYNCODON

* Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

* American marten
American marten
(M. americana) * Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula) * Beech marten (M. foina) * Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii) * European pine marten (M. martes) * Japanese marten (M. melampus) * Fisher (M. pennanti) * Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

MELES

* Japanese badger (M. anakuma) * Asian badger (M. leucurus) * European badger (M. meles)

MELLIVORA

* Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

* Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti) * Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) * Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis) * Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets )

* Amazon weasel (M. africana) * Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) * Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) * Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) * Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) * Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata) * Japanese weasel (M. itatsi) * Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah) * European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) * Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina) * Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) * Least weasel (M. nivalis) * Malayan weasel (M. nudipes) * European polecat (M. putorius) * Siberian weasel (M. sibirica) * Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa) * Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks )

* American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

POECILOGALE

* African striped weasel (P. albinucha)

TAXIDEA

* American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

VORMELA

* Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

* Cats portal * Mammals portal * Animals portal * Biology portal

TAXON IDENTIFIERS

* Wd : Q43576 * ADW : Felis_silvestris * BioLib: 1943 * EoL : 328605 * Fossilworks : 224042 * GBIF : 2435041 * iNaturalist : 41960 * ITIS : 180589 * IUCN : 60354712 * MSW : 14000057 * NCBI : 9683 * Species+ : 7300

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4189899-0

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