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The Info List - Felis Silvestris


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Distribution of five Felis
Felis
species

Wildcat
Wildcat
range

The WILDCAT is a small cat species complex comprising Felis silvestris and the Felis
Felis
lybica . The former is native to Europe
Europe
and the Caucasus
Caucasus
; the latter to much of Africa
Africa
, Southwest and Central Asia into India
India
, and western China
China
.

Because of the species' wide range the wildcat is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
since 2002. However, crossbreeding of wildcats and domestic cat ( Felis
Felis
catus) occurs in particular in Europe and is considered a potential threat for the preservation of the wild species .

The wildcat shows a high degree of geographic variation. Whereas the Asiatic wildcat is spotted, the African wildcat
African wildcat
is faintly striped, has short sandy-gray fur, banded legs, red-backed ears and a tapering tail. The European wildcat
European wildcat
is striped, has long fur and a bushy tail with a rounded tip, and is larger than a domestic cat.

The African wildcat
African wildcat
is the ancestor of the domestic cat. Genetic, morphological and archaeological evidence suggests that domestication of Old-World wildcats began approximately 7500 years BCE
BCE
in the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
region of the Near East
Near East
. The association of wildcats with humans appears to have developed along with the growth of agricultural villages during the Neolithic Revolution
Neolithic Revolution
, with wildcats preying on rodents that infested the grain stores of early farmers . Results of a phylogeographic analysis suggest to include the Chinese mountain cat as a Felis
Felis
silvestris subspecies.

In 2005, 22 wildcat subspecies were recognised as valid taxa .

CONTENTS

* 1 Taxonomy

* 1.1 Evolution

* 1.1.1 Origins * 1.1.2 Domestication
Domestication

* 2 Characteristics

* 2.1 Body size

* 2.2 Fur

* 2.2.1 Forest wildcat * 2.2.2 Steppe wildcat

* 3 Behaviour

* 3.1 Social and territorial behaviours * 3.2 Hunting behaviour * 3.3 Reproduction and development

* 4 Ecology

* 4.1 Diet * 4.2 Predators and competitors

* 5 Communication * 6 Diseases and parasites * 7 Distribution

* 8 Relationships with humans

* 8.1 In culture

* 8.1.1 In mythology * 8.1.2 In heraldry * 8.1.3 In literature

* 8.2 Hunting

* 9 References

* 9.1 Further reading

* 10 External links

TAXONOMY

In 1778, Johann von Schreber described the European wildcat
European wildcat
using the scientific name Felis
Felis
(catus) silvestris. In 1780, Georg Forster described a cat from the Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
using the name Felis
Felis
lybica. In subsequent decades, several naturalists and explorers described 40 wildcats from European, African and Asian countries. The taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock
Reginald Innes Pocock
reviewed the collection of wildcat skins in the British Museum
British Museum
, and in 1951 designated seven Felis
Felis
silvestris subspecies from Europe
Europe
to Asia Minor
Asia Minor
, and 25 Felis
Felis
lybica subspecies from Africa
Africa
, and West to Central Asia
Central Asia
.

As of 2005 , 22 subspecies were recognised by Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World . They were divided into three groups:

* FOREST WILDCATS (silvestris group). * STEPPE WILDCATS (ornata-caudata group): distinguished from the forest wildcats by their smaller size, longer, more sharply pointed tails, and comparatively lighter fur colour; includes the subspecies ornata, nesterovi and iraki. * BAY or BUSH WILDCATS (ornata-lybica group): distinguished from the steppe wildcats by their generally paler colouration, well-developed spot patterns and bands; includes the subspecies chutuchta, lybica, ocreata, rubida, cafra, griselda, and mellandi. The domestic cat is thought to have derived from this group.

The following tables are based on the classification of the species provided in Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World . They also reflect the classification used in the revision of the Cat
Cat
Classification Task Force:

FOREST WILDCAT SUBSPECIES CHARACTERISTICS DISTRIBUTION

F. SILVESTRIS SILVESTRIS Schreber, 1777, syn. F. s. ferus Erxleben, 1777; obscura Desmarest, 1820; hybrida J. B. Fischer, 1829; ferox Martorbelli, 1896; morea Trouessart, 1904; grampia Miller, 1907; tartessia Miller, 1907; molisana Altobello, 1921; reyi Lavauden, 1929; jordansi Schwarz, 1930; euxina Pocock, 1943; cretensis Haltenorth, 1953 A large subspecies, measuring 40–91 cm in body length, 28–35 cm in tail length, and weighing 3.75–11.5 kg. Its fur is dark, with a gray tone. The pattern on the head, the dorsal band and the transverse stripes and spots on the trunk are distinct and usually vivid. Most of continental Europe
Europe
, Scotland
Scotland
, Crete
Crete
, Balearic Islands , Corsica
Corsica

F. S. CAUCASICA Satunin, 1905; trapezia Blackler, 1916 Smaller than silvestris, measuring 70–75 cm in body length, 26–28 cm in shoulder height, and weighing usually 5.20–6 kg. Its fur is generally lighter than that of silvestris, and is grayer in shade. The patterns on the head and the dorsal band are well developed, though the transverse bands and spots on the trunk are mostly faint or absent. The tail has a black tip, and only three distinct, black transverse rings. Caucasus
Caucasus
and Asia Minor
Asia Minor

STEPPE WILDCAT SUBSPECIES CHARACTERISTICS DISTRIBUTION

F. lybica lybica Forster, 1780; syn. F. l. ocreata Gmelin, 1791; nubiensis Kerr, 1792; guttata Hermann, 1804; maniculata Cretschmar, 1826; mellandi Schwann, 1904; rubida Schwann, 1904; ugandae Schwann, 1904; nandae Heller, 1913; taitae Heller, 1913; nesterovi Birula, 1916; iraki Cheesman, 1921; hausa Thomas and Hinton, 1921; griselda Thomas, 1926; brockmani Pocock, 1944; foxi Pocock, 1944; pyrrhus Pocock, 1944; gordoni Harrison, 1968 This subspecies has palish, buffish or light-grayish fur, and a tinge of red on the dorsal band. Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
, Mespotamia , Israel
Israel
, Syria
Syria
and Palestine , Kuwait
Kuwait
, Iraq
Iraq
, southwestern Iran
Iran
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, Guinea
Guinea
, French Sudan
French Sudan
and Nigeria
Nigeria
in West Africa
Africa
East Africa
Africa
, Sudan
Sudan
and Sahel woodlands, northeastern part of the Congo basin
Congo basin
, Angola
Angola
, southern part of the Congo basin
Congo basin
and northern Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe

F. lybica cafra Desmarest, 1822; syn. F. l. xanthella Thomas, 1926; vernayi Roberts, 1932 This subspecies has a pale fur with a faint pattern. Southern Africa
Africa

F. lybica ornata Gray, 1830; syn. syriaca Tristam, 1867; caudata Gray, 1874; maniculata Yerbury and Thomas, 1895; griseoflava Zukowsky, 1915; kozlovi Satunin, 1905; matschiei Zukowsky, 1914; longipilis Zukowsky, 1915; schnitnikovi Birula, 1915; macrothrix Zukowsky, 1915; murgabensis Zukowsky, 1915; issikulensis Ognev, 1930; tristrami Pocock, 1944 This subspecies has light, ochreous-gray coloured fur with dark spots on the back. Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
, Iran
Iran
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and Dzhungaria , western India
India

EVOLUTION

Origins

The wildcat's direct ancestor was Felis
Felis
lunensis , or Martelli's wildcat, which lived in Europe
Europe
as early as the late Pliocene
Pliocene
. Fossil remains of the wildcat are common in cave deposits dating from the last ice age and the Holocene
Holocene
. At some point during the Late Pleistocene (possibly 50,000 years ago), the wildcat migrated from Europe
Europe
into the Middle East, giving rise to the steppe wildcat phenotype . Within possibly 10,000 years, the steppe wildcat spread eastwards into Asia and southwards to Africa.

The wildcat's closest living relatives are the sand cat , the Chinese mountain cat (which may be a subspecies of wildcat), the jungle cat and the black-footed cat . As a whole, the wildcat (along with the jungle and leopard cat ) represents a much less specialised form than the sand cat and manul . However, wildcat subspecies of the lybica group do exhibit some further specialisation, namely in the structure of the auditory bullae , which bears similarity to those of the sand cat and manul.

Domestication

Skulls of a wildcat (top left), a housecat (top right), and a hybrid between the two (bottom centre)

The earliest evidence of wildcat taming comes from 9,500-year-old Neolithic
Neolithic
graves excavated in Shillourokambos , Cyprus
Cyprus
, that contained the skeletons of a human and a cat, buried close to one another. As no records of native cats in Cyprus
Cyprus
exist, this discovery indicates that Neolithic
Neolithic
farmers brought cats to Cyprus
Cyprus
from the Middle East
Middle East
, most likely to control rodents. Wildcats were probably domesticated in the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
around the time of the introduction of agriculture .

Despite thousands of years of domestication, there is very little difference between the housecat and its wild ancestor, as its breeding has been more subject to natural selection imposed by its environment, rather than artificial selection by humans. The wildcat subspecies that gave rise to the housecat is most likely the African wildcat
African wildcat
, based on genetics , morphology , and behaviour. The African wildcat lacks the sharply defined dorsal stripe present in the European wildcat, a trait which corresponds with the coat patterns found in striped tabbies. Also, like the African wildcat, the housecat's tail is usually thin, rather than thick and bushy like the European wildcat's. In contrast to European wildcats, which are notoriously difficult to tame, hand-reared African wildcats behave almost exactly like domestic tabbies, but are more intolerant of other cats, and almost invariably drive away their siblings, mates, and grown kittens. Further evidence of an African origin for the housecat is present in the African wildcat's growth; like housecat kittens, African wildcat
African wildcat
kittens undergo rapid physical development during the first two weeks of life. In contrast, European wildcat
European wildcat
kittens develop much more slowly. The bacula of European domestic cats bear closer resemblance to those of local, rather than African wildcats, thus indicating that crossbreeding between housecats and wildcats of European origin has been extensive.

CHARACTERISTICS

Scottish wildcat

BODY SIZE

Compared to other members of the Felinae
Felinae
, the wildcat is a small species, but is nonetheless larger than the housecat . The wildcat is similar in appearance to a striped tabby cat , but has relatively longer legs, a more robust build, and a greater cranial volume. The tail is long, and usually slightly exceeds one-half of the animal's body length. Its skull is more spherical in shape than that of the jungle and leopard cat . The ears are moderate in length, and broad at the base. The eyes are large, with vertical pupils , and yellowish-green irises . Its dentition is relatively smaller and weaker than the jungle cat's. The species size varies according to Bergmann\'s rule , with the largest specimens occurring in cool, northern areas of Europe
Europe
(such as Scotland
Scotland
and Scandinavia
Scandinavia
) and of Middle Asia (such as Mongolia
Mongolia
, Manchuria
Manchuria
and Siberia
Siberia
). Males measure 43 to 91 cm (17 to 36 in) in body length, 23 to 40 cm (9.1 to 15.7 in) in tail length, and normally weigh 5 to 8 kg (11 to 18 lb). Females are slightly smaller, measuring 40 to 77 cm (16 to 30 in) in body length and 18 to 35 cm (7.1 to 13.8 in) in tail length, and weighing 3 to 5 kg (6.6 to 11.0 lb). Both sexes possess pre-anal glands, which consist of moderately sized sweat and sebaceous glands around the anal opening . Large-sized sebaceous and scent glands extend along the full length of the tail on the dorsal side. Male wildcats have pre-anal pockets located on the tail, which are activated upon reaching sexual maturity . These pockets play a significant role in reproduction and territorial marking . The species has two thoracic and two abdominal teats . The wildcat has good night vision , having 20 to 100% higher retinal ganglion cell densities than the housecat. It may have colour vision as the densities of its cone receptors are more than 100% higher than in the housecat. Its sense of smell is acute, and it can detect meat at up to 200 metres. The wildcat's whiskers are white; they can reach 5 to 8 cm in length on the lips, and number 7 to 16 on each side. The eyelashes range from 5 to 6 cm in length, and can number 6 to 8 per side. Whiskers
Whiskers
are also present on the inner surface of the wrist , and can measure 3 to 4 cm.

FUR

Forest Wildcat

Skin of a European forest wildcat Skin of an Indian steppe wildcat

The forest wildcat's fur is fairly uniform in length throughout the body. The hair on the tail is very long and dense, thus making it look furry and thick. In winter, the guard hairs measure 7 cm, the tip hairs 5.5–6 cm, and the underfur 4.5–5.5 cm. Corresponding measurements in the summer are 5–6.7 cm, 4.5–6 cm, and 5.3 cm. In winter, the forest wildcat's main coat colour is fairly light gray, becoming richer along the back, and fading onto the flanks. A slight ochreous shade is visible on the undersides of the flanks. A black and narrow dorsal band starts on the shoulders, and runs along the back, usually terminating at the base of the tail. Indistinct black smudges are present around the dorsal band, which may form a transverse striping pattern on rare occasions. The undersurface of the body is very light gray, with a light ochreous tinge. One or more white spots may occur on rare occasions on the throat, between the forelegs, or in the inguinal region. The tail is the same colour as the back, with the addition of a pure black tip. 2–3 black, transverse rings occur above the tail tip. The dorsal surface of the neck and head are the same colour as that of the trunk, but is lighter gray around the eyes, lips, cheeks, and chin. The top of the head and the forehead bear four well-developed dark bands. These bands sometimes split into small spots which extend to the neck. Two short and narrow stripes are usually present in the shoulder region, in front of the dorsal band. A dark and narrow stripe is present on the outer corner of the eye, under the ear. This stripe may extend into the neck. Another such stripe occurs under the eye, which also extends into the neck. The wildcat's summer coat has a fairly light, pure background colour, with an admixture of ochre or brown. In some animals, the summer coat is ashen coloured. The patterns on the head and neck are as well-developed as those on the tail, though the patterns on the flanks are almost imperceptible.

Steppe Wildcat

The steppe wildcat's coat is lighter than the forest wildcat's, and never attains the level of density, length, or luxuriance as that of the forest wildcat, even in winter. The tail appears much thinner than that of the forest wildcat, as the hairs there are much shorter, and more close-fitting. The colours and patterns of the steppe wildcat vary greatly, though the general background colour of the skin on the body's upper surface is very lightly coloured. The hairs along the spine are usually darker, forming a dark gray, brownish, or ochreous band. Small and rounded spots cover the entirety of the species' upper body. These spots are solid and sharply defined, and do not occur in clusters or appear in rosette patterns. They usually do not form transverse rows or transverse stripes on the trunk, as is the case in the forest wildcat. Only on the thighs are distinct striping patterns visible. The underside is mainly white, with a light gray, creamy or pale yellow tinge. The spots on the chest and abdomen are much larger and more blurred than on the back. The lower neck, throat, neck, and the region between the forelegs are devoid of spots, or have bear them only distinctly. The tail is mostly the same colour as the back, with the addition of a dark and narrow stripe along the upper two-thirds of the tail. The tip of the tail is black, with 2–5 black transverse rings above it. The upper lips and eyelids are light, pale yellow-white. The facial region is of an intense gray colour, while the top of the head is covered with a dark gray coat. In some specimens, the forehead is covered in dense clusters of brown spots. A narrow, dark brown stripe extends from the corner of the eye to the base of the ear.

BEHAVIOUR

Scottish wildcat with kitten, British Wildlife Centre , Surrey

SOCIAL AND TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOURS

The wildcat is a largely solitary animal, except during the breeding period. The size of its home range varies according to terrain, the availability of food, habitat quality, and the age structure of the population. Male and female ranges overlap, though core areas within territories are avoided by other cats. Females tend to be more sedentary than males, as they require an exclusive hunting area when raising kittens. Within its territory , the wildcat leaves scent marks in different sites, the quantity of which increases during estrus , when the cat's preanal glands enlarge and secrete strong smelling substances, including trimethylamine . Territorial marking consists of urinating on trees, vegetation and rocks , and depositing faeces in conspicuous places. The wildcat may also scratch trees, leaving visual markers, and leaving its scent through glands in its paws.

The wildcat does not dig its own burrows, instead sheltering in the hollows of old or fallen trees, rock fissures, and the abandoned nests or earths of other animals (heron nests, and abandoned fox or badger earths in Europe, and abandoned fennec dens in Africa
Africa
). When threatened, a wildcat with a den will retreat into it, rather than climb trees. When taking residence in a tree hollow, the wildcat selects one low to the ground. Dens in rocks or burrows are lined with dry grasses and bird feathers . Dens in tree hollows usually contain enough sawdust to make lining unnecessary. During flea infestations, the wildcat leaves its den in favour of another. During winter, when snowfall prevents the wildcat from travelling long distances, it remains within its den more than usual.

HUNTING BEHAVIOUR

European wildcat
European wildcat
killing a deer fawn, as illustrated in Lydekker 's Wild Life of the World (1916)

When hunting, the wildcat patrols forests and along forest boundaries and glades. In favourable conditions, it will readily feed in fields. The wildcat will pursue prey atop trees, even jumping from one branch to another. On the ground, it lies in wait for prey, then catches it by executing a few leaps, which can span three metres. Sight and hearing are the wildcat's primary senses when hunting, its sense of smell being comparatively weak. When hunting aquatic prey, such as ducks or nutrias , the wildcat waits on trees overhanging the water. It kills small prey by grabbing it in its claws, and piercing the neck or occiput with its fangs. When attacking large prey, the wildcat leaps upon the animal's back, and attempts to bite the neck or carotid . It does not persist in attacking if prey manages to escape it. Wildcats hunting rabbits have been observed to wait above rabbit warrens for their prey to emerge. Although primarily a solitary predator, the wildcat has been known to hunt in pairs or in family groups, with each cat devoted entirely to listening, stalking, or pouncing. While wildcats in Europe
Europe
will cache their food, such a behaviour has not been observed in their African counterparts.

REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

The wildcat has two estrus periods, one in December–February and another in May–July. Estrus lasts 5–9 days, with a gestation period lasting 60–68 days. Ovulation
Ovulation
is induced through copulation . Spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis
occurs throughout the year. During the mating season , males fight viciously, and may congregate around a single female. There are records of male and female wildcats becoming temporarily monogamous. Kittens usually appear in April–May, though some may be born from March–August. Litter size ranges from 1–7 kittens.

Kittens are born blind and helpless, and are covered in a fuzzy coat. At birth, the kittens weigh 65-163 grams, though kittens under 90 grams usually do not survive. They are born with pink paw pads, which blacken at the age of three months, and blue eyes, which turn amber after five months. Their eyes open after 9–12 days, and their incisors erupt after 14–30 days. The kittens' milk teeth are replaced by their permanent dentition at the age of 160–240 days. The kittens start hunting with their mother at the age of 60 days, and will start moving independently after 140–150 days. Lactation
Lactation
lasts 3–4 months, though the kittens will eat meat as early as 1.5 months of age. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of 300 days. Similarly to the housecat, the physical development of African wildcat
African wildcat
kittens over the first two weeks of their lives is much faster than that of European wildcats. The kittens are largely fully grown by 10 months, though skeletal growth continues for over 18–19 months. The family dissolves after roughly five months, and the kittens disperse to establish their own territories. The species' maximum life span is 21 years, though it usually only lives up to 13–14 years.

ECOLOGY

Scottish wildcat with black grouse carcass, as illustrated by Archibald Thorburn
Archibald Thorburn
(1902)

DIET

Indian wildcat hunting monitor lizard, as illustrated by Daniel Giraud Elliot (1883)

Throughout its range, small rodents (mice , voles , and rats ) are the wildcat's primary prey, followed by birds (especially ducks and other waterfowl , galliformes , pigeons and passerines ), dormice , hares , nutria , and insectivores . Unlike the housecat, the wildcat can consume large fragments of bone without ill-effect. Although it kills insectivores, such as moles and shrews , it rarely eats them because of the pungent scent glands on their flanks. When living close to human habitations, the wildcat can be a serious poultry predator. In the wild, the wildcat consumes up to 600 grams of food daily.

The diet of wildcats in Great Britain
Great Britain
varies geographically; in eastern Scotland
Scotland
, lagomorphs make up 70% of their diet, while in the west, 47% consists of small rodents. In Western Europe, the wildcat feeds on hamsters , brown rats , dormice, water voles , voles, and wood mice . From time to time, small carnivores (martens , polecats , stoats , and weasels ) are preyed upon, as well as the fawns of red deer , roe deer , and chamois . In the Carpathians
Carpathians
, the wildcat feeds primarily on yellow-necked mice , red-backed voles , and ground voles . European hares are also taken on occasion. In Transcarpathia , the wildcat's diet consists of mouse-like rodents, galliform birds, and squirrels . Wildcats in the Dnestr
Dnestr
swamps feed on small voles , water voles, and birds, while those living in the Prut
Prut
swamps primarily target water voles, brown rats, and muskrats . Birds taken by Prut wildcats include warblers , ferruginous ducks , coots , spotted crakes , and gadwalls . In Moldavia
Moldavia
, the wildcat's winter diet consists primarily of rodents, while birds, fish , and crayfish are eaten in summer. Brown rats and water voles, as well as muskrats and waterfowl are the main sources of food for wildcats in the Kuban delta . Wildcats in the northern Caucasus
Caucasus
feed on mouse-like rodents and edible dormice , as well as birds on rare occasions. On rare occasions, young chamois and roe deer, are also attacked. Wildcats on the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast are thought to feed on small birds, shrews, and hares. On one occasion, the feathers of a white-tailed eagle and the skull of a kid were found at a den site. In Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
, the wildcat's diet consists of gerbils , voles, birds, and reptiles in the summer, and birds, mouse-like rodents, and hares in winter. Turkmenian wildcats feed on great and red-tailed gerbils, Afghan voles , thin-toed ground squirrels , Tolai hares , small birds (particularly larks ), lizards , beetles , and grasshoppers . Near Repetek , the wildcat is responsible for destroying over 50% of nests made by desert finches , streaked scrub warblers , red-tailed warblers, and turtledoves . In the Qarshi steppes of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, the wildcat's prey, in descending order of preference, includes great and red-tailed gerbils, jerboas , other rodents and passerine birds, reptiles, and insects. Wilcats in eastern Kyzyl Kum
Kyzyl Kum
have similar prey preferences, with the addition of tolai hares, midday gerbils , five-toed jerboas , and steppe agamas . In Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, the wildcat's primary prey varies from tolai hares near Issyk Kul
Issyk Kul
, pheasants in the Chu and Talas valleys, and mouse-like rodents and gray partridges in the foothills. In Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
's lower Ili , the wildcat mainly targets rodents, muskrats, and Tamarisk gerbils . Occasionally, remains of young roe deer and wild boar are present in its faeces. After rodents, birds follow in importanance, along with reptiles, fish, insects, eggs, grass stalks and nuts (which probably enter the cat's stomach through pheasant crops ). In west Africa
Africa
, the wildcat feeds on rats, mice, gerbils, hares, small to medium-sized birds (up to francolins ), and lizards. In southern Africa, where wildcats attain greater sizes than their western counterparts, antelope fawns and domestic stock, such as lambs and kids are occasionally targeted.

PREDATORS AND COMPETITORS

Because of its habit of living in areas with rocks and tall trees for refuge, dense thickets and abandoned burrows, wildcats have few natural predators. In Central Europe, many kittens are killed by pine martens , and there is at least one account of an adult wildcat being killed and eaten. In the steppe regions of Europe
Europe
and Asia, village dogs constitute serious enemies of wildcats, along with the much larger Eurasian Lynx
Eurasian Lynx
, one of the rare habitual predators of healthy adults. In Tajikistan, wolves are their most serious enemies, having been observed to destroy cat burrows. Birds of prey
Birds of prey
, including eagle-owls and saker falcons , have been known to kill wildcat kittens. Seton Gordon recorded an instance where a wildcat fought a golden eagle , resulting in the deaths of both combatants. In Africa, wildcats are occasionally eaten by pythons . Competitors of the wildcat include the jungle cat , golden jackal , red fox , marten , and other predators. Although the wildcat and the jungle cat occupy the same ecological niche, the two rarely encounter one another, on account of different habitat preferences: jungle cats mainly reside in lowland areas, while wildcats prefer higher elevations in beech forests.

COMMUNICATION

The wildcat is a mostly silent animal. The voice of steppe wildcats differs little from the housecat's, while that of forest wildcats is similar, but coarser.

NAME/TRANSCRIPTION SOUND DESCRIPTION POSTURE CONTEXT

Brrrooo A rolling turtledove -like call.

Emitted as a greeting and as a means of self-identification.

Hiss

Mau Similar to a housecat's miaow, but with the preliminary ee omitted.

Emitted by kittens requesting food.

Meeeoo! Meeeoo! A piercing buzzard -like call that can be heard 200 yards away.

Distress call emitted by kittens.

Noine, noine, noine

Emitted by adults feeding contentedly.

PAAAH!

Accompanied by bracing and stamping of forelimbs. Emitted when angered.

Rumble Transcribed as urrr urrr, and described by Mike Tomkies as sounding "like a dynamo throbbing deep in the bowels of the earth".

Emitted when approached by humans, but does not attack.

Squawk A loud squawking noise, similar to that of ducks .

Emitted by kittens grabbed by the scruff of the neck.

Wheeou wheeou A high pitched whistle, similar to a weak buzzard call. The sound is piercing, but not far-carrying. Made with the mouth barely open. Emitted by kittens summoning their mother.

DISEASES AND PARASITES

The wildcat is highly parasitised by helminths . Some wildcats in Georgia may carry five helminth species: Hydatigera taeniaeformis , Diphyllobothrium mansoni , Toxocara mystax , Capillaria feliscati and Ancylostoma caninum . Wildcats in Azerbaijan carry Hydatigera krepkogorski and T. mystax. In Transcaucasia, the majority of wildcats are infested by the tick Ixodes ricinus . In some summers, wildcats are infested with fleas of the Ceratophyllus genus, which they likely contract from brown rats .

DISTRIBUTION

The wildcat's distribution is very broad, encompassing most of Africa , Europe
Europe
, and southwest and central Asia into India
India
, China
China
, and Mongolia
Mongolia
. Subspecies
Subspecies
are distributed as follows:

* The African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. s. lybica) occurs across northern Africa
Africa
, around the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
's periphery to the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
, encompassing a wide range of habitats, with the exception of closed tropical forests. It occurs throughout the savannahs of West Africa
Africa
, from Mauritania
Mauritania
on the Atlantic seaboard eastwards to the Horn of Africa
Africa
( Somalia
Somalia
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, Eritrea
Eritrea
, and Djibouti
Djibouti
) and Sudan. In north Africa, it occurs discontinuously from Morocco
Morocco
through Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, Libya
Libya
into Egypt
Egypt
. Small numbers occur in true deserts such as the Sahara
Sahara
, particularly in hilly and mountainous areas, such as the Hoggar . * The Southern African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. s. cafra) is distributed in all east and southern African countries. The border between the two subspecies is estimated to occur in the area of Tanzania
Tanzania
and Mozambique
Mozambique
. * The Asiatic wildcat (F. s. ornata) ranges from the east of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
into western India, north to Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and into western China
China
and southern Mongolia. * The Chinese mountain cat (F. s. bieti) is indigenous to western China, and is particularly abundant in the Qinghai
Qinghai
and possibly Sichuan
Sichuan
provinces. * The European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. s. silvestris) was once very widely distributed in Europe
Europe
and absent only in Fennoscandia
Fennoscandia
and Estonia
Estonia
. Between the late 1700s and mid-1900s, it was extirpated locally so that its European range became fragmented. In the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
, it occurs from sea level to 2,250 m (7,380 ft). It is possible that in some areas, including Scotland
Scotland
and Stromberg , Germany
Germany
, pure wildcats have crossbred extensively with domestic cats. The only islands in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
with native populations of wildcats are Sicily
Sicily
, Sardinia
Sardinia
, Corsica
Corsica
and possibly Crete
Crete
, where wildcats likely descended from feral populations introduced in Neolithic
Neolithic
times. It is possibly extinct in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, and considered regionally extinct in Austria
Austria
, though vagrants from Italy
Italy
are spreading into Austrian territory.

The European wildcat
European wildcat
was thought extinct in the Netherlands
Netherlands
. In 2006, a wildcat was photographed by a camera trap in the province of Limburg . Since then there were frequent, but unconfirmed sightings in this province until December 2012 when a cat was photographed again. A male wildcat was photographed several times in April 2013 while it was scavenging the carcass of a dead deer, an unusual behavior for a wildcat.

RELATIONSHIPS WITH HUMANS

Crest of Clan Sutherland
Clan Sutherland

IN CULTURE

In Mythology

In Celtic mythology , the wildcat was associated with rites of divination and Otherworldly encounters. Domestic cats are not prominent in Insular Celtic tradition (as housecats were not introduced to the British Isles until the Mediaeval period). Fables of the Cat
Cat
Sìth , a fairy creature described as resembling a large white-chested black cat, are thought to have been inspired by the Kellas cat
Kellas cat
, itself thought to be a free ranging wildcat-houscat crossbreed. Doctor William Salmon , writing in 1693, mentioned how portions of the wildcat were used for medicinal purposes; its flesh was used to treat gout , its fat used for dissolving tumours and easing pain, its blood used for curing "falling sickness ", and its excrement used for treating baldness . European wildcat
European wildcat
caught in jaw trap, as illustrated in Brehms Tierleben
Brehms Tierleben

In Heraldry

The wildcat is considered an icon of the Scottish wilderness, and has been used in clan heraldry since the 13th century. The Picts venerated wildcats, having probably named Caithness
Caithness
(Land of the Cats) after them. According to the foundation myth of the Catti tribe, their ancestors were attacked by wildcats upon landing in Scotland. Their ferocity impressed the Catti so much, that the wildcat became their symbol. A thousand years later, the progenitors of Clan Sutherland
Clan Sutherland
, equally impressed, adopted the wildcat on their family crest. The Chief of Clan Sutherland
Clan Sutherland
bears the title Morair Chat (Great Man of the Cats). The Clan Chattan Association (also known as the Clan of Cats) is made up of 12 different clans, the majority of which display the wildcat on their badges.

In Literature

Shakespeare
Shakespeare
referenced the wildcat three times: THE PATCH IS KIND ENOUGH ; BUT A HUGE FEEDER SNAIL-SLOW IN PROFIT, AND HE SLEEPS BY DAY MORE THAN THE WILD CAT. —  The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice
Act 2 Scene 5 lines 47–49 THOU MUST BE MARRIED TO NO MAN BUT ME ; FOR I AM HE, AM BORN TO TAME YOU, KATE ; AND BRING YOU FROM A WILD CAT to a Kate Comfortable, as other household Kates. — The Taming
Taming
of the Shrew Act 2 Scene 1 lines 265–268 THRICE THE BRINDED CAT hath mew'd. —  Macbeth
Macbeth
Act 4 Scene 1 line 1

HUNTING

Although a furbearer, the wildcat's skin is of little commercial value, due to the unattractive colour of its natural state, and the difficulties present in dyeing it. In the former Soviet Union , the fur of a forest wildcat usually fetched 50 kopecks , while that of a steppe wildcat fetched 60 kopecks. Wildcat
Wildcat
skin is almost solely used for making cheap scarfs , muffs , and women's coats. It is sometimes converted into imitation sealskin . As a rule, wildcat fur is difficult to dye in dark brown or black, and has a tendency to turn green when the dye is not well settled into the hair. When dye is overly applied, wildcat fur is highly susceptible to singeing .

In the former Soviet Union, wildcats were usually caught accidentally in traps set for martens. In modern times, they are caught in unbaited traps on pathways or at abandoned fox, badger, hare or pheasant trails. One method of catching wildcats consists of using a modified muskrat trap with a spring placed in a concealed pit. A scent trail of pheasant viscera leads the cat to the pit. A wildcat caught in a trap growls and snorts.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.; Driscoll, C. & Nussberger, B. (2015). " Felis
Felis
silvestris". The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species . IUCN
IUCN
. 2015: e.T60354712A50652361. doi :10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T60354712A50652361.en . Retrieved 15 January 2018. * ^ A B C D Driscoll, C. A.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Roca, A. L.; Hupe, K.; Johnson, W. E.; Geffen, E.; Harley, E. H.; Delibes, M.; Pontier, D.; Kitchener, A. C.; Yamaguchi, N.; O’Brien, S. J.; Macdonald, D. W. (2007). "The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication" (PDF). Science. 317 (5837): 519–523. doi :10.1126/science.1139518 . PMID 17600185 . * ^ A B Kitchener, A. C., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Eizirik, E., Gentry, A., Werdelin, L., Wilting A., Yamaguchi, N., Abramov, A. V., Christiansen, P., Driscoll, C., Duckworth, J. W., Johnson, W., Luo, S.-J., Meijaard, E., O’Donoghue, P., Sanderson, J., Seymour, K., Bruford, M., Groves, C., Hoffmann, M., Nowell, K., Timmons, Z. ">(PDF). Cat
Cat
News. Special
Special
Issue 11. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ A B Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.; Driscoll, C. ">(PDF). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 83: 47–63. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8312.2004.00372.x . * ^ A B C Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). " Felis
Felis
silvestris". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 536–537. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0 . OCLC
OCLC
62265494 . * ^ Schreber, J. C. D. (1778). "Die wilde Kaze". Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen (Dritter Theil)'. Erlangen: Expedition des Schreber'schen Säugthier- und des Esper'schen Schmetterlingswerkes. pp. 397−402. * ^ Forster, G. (1780). "LIII. Der Karakal". Herrn von Buffon’s Naturgeschichte der vierfüssigen Thiere. Mit Vermehrungen, aus dem Französischen übersetzt. Vol. 6. Berlin: J. Pauli. pp. 304−307. * ^ Pocock, R. I. (1951). Catalogue of the Genus Felis. Trustees of the British Museum, London. * ^ Hemmer 1990 , pp. 45 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 442–443 & 465 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 442–443 * ^ A B Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 465 * ^ A B C Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 452–455 * ^ A B C Clutton-Brock, J. (1999). "Cats". A Natural History of Domesticated
Domesticated
Mammals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 418–420 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 420–421 * ^ Rosevear 1974 , pp. 392–393 * ^ Rosevear 1974 , pp. 393–394 * ^ Pocock 1951 , pp. 109 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 461–462 * ^ Kurtén 1968 , pp. 77–79 * ^ A B Harris & Yalden 2008 , pp. 400–401 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 455–456 * ^ Vigne, J. D., Guilaine, J., Debue, K., Haye, L., & Gérard, P. (2004). Early taming of the cat in Cyprus. Science 304 (5668): 259–259. * ^ Pickrell, J. (2004). "Oldest Known Pet Cat? 9500-Year-Old Burial Found on Cyprus". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 6 March 2007. * ^ Muir, H. (2004). "Ancient remains could be oldest pet cat". New Scientist . Retrieved 23 November 2007. * ^ Walton, M. (2004). "Ancient burial looks like human and pet cat". CNN. Retrieved 23 November 2007. * ^ Hemmer 1990 , pp. 46 * ^ A B C D Tomkies 1987 , pp. 15 * ^ A B Kingdon 1988 , pp. 313 * ^ A B Hemmer 1990 , pp. 47 * ^ A B Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 402–403 * ^ Harris & Yalden 2008 , pp. 397–398 * ^ A B Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 408–409 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 452 * ^ Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0789477645 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 405–407 * ^ A B Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 403–405 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 442–450 * ^ A B C Harris & Yalden 2008 , p. 403 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 432–433 * ^ A B Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 433–434 * ^ A B Rosevear 1974 , pp. 388 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 432 * ^ A B C D E F Harris & Yalden 2008 , p. 404 * ^ Kingdon 1988 , pp. 314 * ^ A B C D E Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 434–437 * ^ A B C D Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 429–431 * ^ Tomkies 1987 , pp. 50 * ^ Tomkies 1987 , pp. 25 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 480 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 476–481 * ^ A B C Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 438 * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 491–493 * ^ Watson, J. (2010). The Golden Eagle. pp. 306. A&C Black. ISBN 1408114208 * ^ Kingdon 1988 , pp. 316 * ^ A B C D E Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 440–441 & 496–498 * ^ A B Tomkies 1987 , pp. 73 & 77 * ^ A B Tomkies 1987 , pp. 16 & 25 * ^ A B Tomkies 1987 , pp. 75 * ^ Tomkies 1987 , pp. 48 * ^ A B Tomkies 1987 , pp. 36 * ^ Tomkies 1987 , pp. 17 * ^ Heptner Wilde kat duikt op in Limburg - with picture of the cat scavenging the dead deer; Parool.nl (2013). Wilde Kat duikt weer op in Nederland Articles retrieved on 3 May 2013. * ^ A B C Kilshaw 2011 , pp. 2–3 * ^ A B Hamilton 1896 , pp. 17–18 * ^ A B "The evolution and history of the Scottish wildcat and the felids". Scottish Wildcat
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Association. Retrieved 2012-02-28. * ^ A B Vinycomb, John (1906). Fictitious & symbolic creatures in art, with special reference to their use in British heraldry. pp. 205-208. London, Chapman and Hall, limited. * ^ A B C Bachrach, Max (1953). Fur: a practical treatise. pp. 188–189. New York : Prentice-Hall, 3rd edition * ^ Heptner & Sludskii 1992 , pp. 487

FURTHER READING

* Hamilton, Edward (1896). "The wild cat of Europe
Europe
(Felix catus)". R.H. Porter. * Harris, Stephen; Yalden, Derek (2008). Mammals of the British Isles (4th Revised ed.). Mammal
Mammal
Society. ISBN 0906282659 . * Hemmer, Helmut (1990). Domestication: the decline of environmental appreciation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521341787 . * Heptner, V. G.; Sludskii, A. A. (1992) . "Wildcat". Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola . Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 398−498. * Kilshaw, Kerry (2011). "Scottish Wilcats: Naturally Scottish" (PDF). SNH publishing. ISBN 9781853976834 . * Kingdon, Jonathan (1988). "East African mammals: an atlas of evolution in Africa, Volume 3, Part 1". University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226437213 . * Kurtén, Björn (1968). "Pleistocene mammals of Europe". Weidenfeld and Nicolson. * Osborn, Dale. J.; Helmy, Ibrahim (1980). "The contemporary land mammals of Egypt
Egypt
(including Sinai)". Field Museum of Natural History. * Pocock, R. I. (1951). "Catalogue of the Genus Felis". London. * Rosevear, Donovan R. (1974). "The carnivores of West Africa". London : Trustees of the British Museum
British Museum
(Natural History). ISBN 0565007238 . * Tomkies, Mike (1987). " Wildcat
Wildcat
Haven". Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-02502-3 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

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Wikispecies
has information related to FELIS SILVESTRIS

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* IUCN/SSC Cat

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