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Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (Italian: [fedeˈriːko felˈliːni]; 20 January 1920 – 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter. Known for his distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness, he is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time.[1][2][3] His films have ranked, in polls such as Cahiers du cinéma and Sight & Sound, as some of the greatest films of all time. Sight & Sound lists his 1963 film 8½ as the 10th-greatest film of all time. In a career spanning almost fifty years, Fellini
Fellini
won the Palme d'Or for La Dolce Vita, was nominated for twelve Academy Awards, and directed four motion pictures that won Oscars in the category of Best Foreign Language Film. In 1993, he was awarded an honorary Oscar for Lifetime Achievement at the 65th Annual Academy Awards
Academy Awards
in Los Angeles.[4] Besides La Dolce Vita
La Dolce Vita
and 8½, his other well-known films include La Strada, Nights of Cabiria, Juliet of the Spirits, Satyricon, Amarcord and Fellini's Casanova.

Contents

1 Early life and education

1.1 Rimini
Rimini
(1920–1938) 1.2 Rome
Rome
(1939)

2 Career and later life

2.1 Early screenplays (1940–1943) 2.2 Neorealist apprenticeship (1944–1949) 2.3 Early films (1950–1953) 2.4 Beyond neorealism (1954–1960) 2.5 Art films and dreams (1961–1969) 2.6 Nostalgia, sexuality, and politics (1970–1980) 2.7 Late films and projects (1981–1990) 2.8 Final years (1991–1993)

3 Death 4 Religious views 5 Political views 6 Influence and legacy 7 Award and Nominations

7.1 Academy Awards 7.2 Selected awards and nominations 7.3 Distinctions

8 Filmography

8.1 As writer and director 8.2 Screenplay contributions 8.3 Television commercials

9 Documentaries on Fellini 10 See also 11 References

11.1 Notes 11.2 Bibliography

12 Further reading 13 External links

Early life and education[edit] Rimini
Rimini
(1920–1938)[edit] Fellini
Fellini
was born on 20 January 1920, to middle-class parents in Rimini, then a small town on the Adriatic Sea. His father, Urbano Fellini
Fellini
(1894–1956), born to a family of Romagnol peasants and small landholders from Gambettola, moved to Rome
Rome
in 1915 as a baker apprenticed to the Pantanella pasta factory. His mother, Ida Barbiani (1896–1984), came from a bourgeiois Catholic family of Roman merchants. Despite her family's vehement disapproval, she had eloped with Urbano in 1917 to live at his parents' home in Gambettola.[5] A civil marriage followed in 1918 with the religious ceremony held at Santa Maria Maggiore
Santa Maria Maggiore
in Rome
Rome
a year later. The couple settled in Rimini
Rimini
where Urbano became a traveling salesman and wholesale vendor. Fellini
Fellini
had two siblings: Riccardo (1921–1991), a documentary director for RAI
RAI
Television, and Maria Maddalena (m. Fabbri; 1929–2002). In 1924, Fellini
Fellini
started primary school in an institute run by the nuns of San Vincenzo in Rimini, attending the Carlo Tonni public school two years later. An attentive student, he spent his leisure time drawing, staging puppet shows, and reading Il corriere dei piccoli, the popular children’s magazine that reproduced traditional American cartoons by Winsor McCay, George McManus and Frederick Burr Opper. (Opper’s Happy Hooligan
Happy Hooligan
would provide the visual inspiration for Gelsomina in Fellini's 1954 film La Strada; McCay’s Little Nemo
Little Nemo
would directly influence his 1980 film City of Women.)[6] In 1926, he discovered the world of Grand Guignol, the circus with Pierino
Pierino
the Clown, and the movies. Guido Brignone’s Maciste all’Inferno (1926), the first film he saw, would mark him in ways linked to Dante
Dante
and the cinema throughout his entire career.[7] Enrolled at the Ginnasio Giulio Cesare in 1929, he made friends with Luigi ‘Titta’ Benzi, later a prominent Rimini
Rimini
lawyer (and the model for young Titta in Amarcord
Amarcord
(1973)). In Mussolini’s Italy, Fellini
Fellini
and Riccardo became members of the Avanguardista, the compulsory Fascist youth group for males. He visited Rome
Rome
with his parents for the first time in 1933, the year of the maiden voyage of the transatlantic ocean liner SS Rex
SS Rex
(which is shown in Amarcord). The sea creature found on the beach at the end of La Dolce Vita
La Dolce Vita
(1960) has its basis in a giant fish marooned on a Rimini
Rimini
beach during a storm in 1934. Although Fellini
Fellini
adapted key events from his childhood and adolescence in films such as I Vitelloni
I Vitelloni
(1953),
(1963), and Amarcord
Amarcord
(1973), he insisted that such autobiographical memories were inventions:

It is not memory that dominates my films. To say that my films are autobiographical is an overly facile liquidation, a hasty classification. It seems to me that I have invented almost everything: childhood, character, nostalgias, dreams, memories, for the pleasure of being able to recount them.[8]

In 1937, Fellini
Fellini
opened Febo, a portrait shop in Rimini, with the painter Demos Bonini. His first humorous article appeared in the "Postcards to Our Readers" section of Milan’s Domenica del Corriere. Deciding on a career as a caricaturist and gag writer, Fellini travelled to Florence
Florence
in 1938, where he published his first cartoon in the weekly 420. According to a biographer, Fellini
Fellini
found school "exasperating"[9] and, in one year, had 67 absences.[10] Failing his military culture exam, he graduated from high school in July 1938 after doubling the exam. Rome
Rome
(1939)[edit] In September 1939, he enrolled in law school at the University of Rome to please his parents. Biographer Hollis Alpert reports that "there is no record of his ever having attended a class".[11] Installed in a family pensione, he met another lifelong friend, the painter Rinaldo Geleng. Desperately poor, they unsuccessfully joined forces to draw sketches of restaurant and café patrons. Fellini
Fellini
eventually found work as a cub reporter on the dailies Il Piccolo and Il Popolo di Roma, but quit after a short stint, bored by the local court news assignments. Four months after publishing his first article in Marc’Aurelio, the highly influential biweekly humour magazine, he joined the editorial board, achieving success with a regular column titled But Are You Listening?[12] Described as “the determining moment in Fellini’s life”,[13] the magazine gave him steady employment between 1939 and 1942, when he interacted with writers, gagmen, and scriptwriters. These encounters eventually led to opportunities in show business and cinema. Among his collaborators on the magazine’s editorial board were the future director Ettore Scola, Marxist
Marxist
theorist and scriptwriter Cesare Zavattini, and Bernardino Zapponi, a future Fellini
Fellini
screenwriter. Conducting interviews for CineMagazzino also proved congenial: when asked to interview Aldo Fabrizi, Italy’s most popular variety performer, he established such immediate personal rapport with the man that they collaborated professionally. Specializing in humorous monologues, Fabrizi commissioned material from his young protégé.[14] Career and later life[edit] Early screenplays (1940–1943)[edit]

Federico Fellini
Fellini
during the 1950s

Retained on business in Rimini, Urbano sent wife and family to Rome
Rome
in 1940 to share an apartment with his son. Fellini
Fellini
and Ruggero Maccari, also on the staff of Marc’Aurelio, began writing radio sketches and gags for films. Not yet twenty and with Fabrizi’s help, Fellini
Fellini
obtained his first screen credit as a comedy writer on Mario Mattoli’s Il pirata sono io (The Pirate's Dream). Progressing rapidly to numerous collaborations on films at Cinecittà, his circle of professional acquaintances widened to include novelist Vitaliano Brancati and scriptwriter Piero Tellini. In the wake of Mussolini’s declaration of war against France and England on 10 June 1940, Fellini
Fellini
discovered Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, Gogol, John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
and William Faulkner along with French films by Marcel Carné, René Clair, and Julien Duvivier.[15] In 1941 he published Il mio amico Pasqualino, a 74-page booklet in ten chapters describing the absurd adventures of Pasqualino, an alter ego.[16] Writing for radio while attempting to avoid the draft, Fellini
Fellini
met his future wife Giulietta Masina
Giulietta Masina
in a studio office at the Italian public radio broadcaster EIAR in the autumn of 1942. Well-paid as the voice of Pallina in Fellini's radio serial, Cico and Pallina, Masina was also well known for her musical-comedy broadcasts which cheered an audience depressed by the war.[17] In November 1942, Fellini
Fellini
was sent to Libya, occupied by Fascist Italy, to work on the screenplay of I cavalieri del deserto (Knights of the Desert, 1942), directed by Osvaldo Valenti
Osvaldo Valenti
and Gino Talamo. Fellini
Fellini
welcomed the assignment as it allowed him "to secure another extension on his draft order".[18] Responsible for emergency re-writing, he also directed the film's first scenes. When Tripoli
Tripoli
fell under siege by British forces, he and his colleagues made a narrow escape by boarding a German military plane flying to Sicily. His African adventure, later published in Marc’Aurelio
Marc’Aurelio
as "The First Flight", marked “the emergence of a new Fellini, no longer just a screenwriter, working and sketching at his desk, but a filmmaker out in the field”.[19] The apolitical Fellini
Fellini
was finally freed of the draft when an Allied air raid over Bologna
Bologna
destroyed his medical records. Fellini
Fellini
and Giulietta hid in her aunt’s apartment until Mussolini's fall on 25 July 1943. After dating for nine months, the couple were married on 30 October 1943. Several months later, Masina fell down the stairs and suffered a miscarriage. She gave birth to a son, Pierfederico, on 22 March 1945, but the child died of encephalitis a month later on 24 April 1945.[20] The tragedy had enduring emotional and artistic repercussions.[21] Neorealist apprenticeship (1944–1949)[edit] After the Allied liberation of Rome
Rome
on 4 June 1944, Fellini
Fellini
and Enrico De Seta opened the Funny Face Shop where they survived the postwar recession drawing caricatures of American soldiers. He became involved with Italian Neorealism
Italian Neorealism
when Roberto Rossellini, at work on Stories of Yesteryear (later Rome, Open City), met Fellini
Fellini
in his shop, and proposed he contribute gags and dialogue for the script. Aware of Fellini’s reputation as Aldo Fabrizi’s “creative muse”,[22] Rossellini also requested that he try to convince the actor to play the role of Father Giuseppe Morosini, the parish priest executed by the SS on 4 April 1944. In 1947, Fellini
Fellini
and Sergio Amidei
Sergio Amidei
received an Oscar nomination for the screenplay of Rome, Open City. Working as both screenwriter and assistant director on Rossellini’s Paisà
Paisà
(Paisan) in 1946, Fellini
Fellini
was entrusted to film the Sicilian scenes in Maiori. In February 1948, he was introduced to Marcello Mastroianni, then a young theatre actor appearing in a play with Giulietta Masina.[23] Establishing a close working relationship with Alberto Lattuada, Fellini
Fellini
co-wrote the director’s Senza pietà (Without Pity) and Il mulino del Po
Il mulino del Po
(The Mill on the Po). Fellini
Fellini
also worked with Rossellini on the anthology film L'Amore (1948), co-writing the screenplay and in one segment titled, "The Miracle", acting opposite Anna Magnani. To play the role of a vagabond rogue mistaken by Magnani for a saint, Fellini
Fellini
had to bleach his black hair blond. Early films (1950–1953)[edit]

Fellini, Masina, Carla del Poggio and Alberto Lattuada, 1952

In 1950 Fellini
Fellini
co-produced and co-directed with Alberto Lattuada Variety Lights
Variety Lights
(Luci del varietà), his first feature film. A backstage comedy set among the world of small-time travelling performers, it featured Giulietta Masina
Giulietta Masina
and Lattuada’s wife, Carla del Poggio. Its release to poor reviews and limited distribution proved disastrous for all concerned. The production company went bankrupt, leaving both Fellini
Fellini
and Lattuada with debts to pay for over a decade.[24] In February 1950, Paisà
Paisà
received an Oscar nomination for the screenplay by Rossellini, Sergio Amidei, and Fellini. After travelling to Paris
Paris
for a script conference with Rossellini on Europa '51, Fellini
Fellini
began production on The White Sheik
The White Sheik
in September 1951, his first solo-directed feature. Starring Alberto Sordi
Alberto Sordi
in the title role, the film is a revised version of a treatment first written by Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
in 1949 and based on the fotoromanzi, the photographed cartoon strip romances popular in Italy at the time. Producer Carlo Ponti
Carlo Ponti
commissioned Fellini
Fellini
and Tullio Pinelli
Tullio Pinelli
to write the script but Antonioni rejected the story they developed. With Ennio Flaiano, they re-worked the material into a light-hearted satire about newlywed couple Ivan and Wanda Cavalli (Leopoldo Trieste, Brunella Bovo) in Rome
Rome
to visit the Pope. Ivan’s prissy mask of respectability is soon demolished by his wife’s obsession with the White Sheik. Highlighting the music of Nino Rota, the film was selected at Cannes (among the films in competition was Orson Welles’s Othello) and then retracted. Screened at the 13th Venice International Film Festival, it was razzed by critics in "the atmosphere of a soccer match”.[25] One reviewer declared that Fellini
Fellini
had “not the slightest aptitude for cinema direction". In 1953, I Vitelloni
I Vitelloni
found favour with the critics and public. Winning the Silver Lion Award in Venice, it secured Fellini
Fellini
his first international distributor. Beyond neorealism (1954–1960)[edit]

Cinecittà
Cinecittà
- Teatro 5, Fellini's favorite studio[26]

Fellini
Fellini
directed La Strada
La Strada
based on a script completed in 1952 with Pinelli and Flaiano. During the last three weeks of shooting, Fellini experienced the first signs of severe clinical depression.[27] Aided by his wife, he undertook a brief period of therapy with Freudian psychoanalyst Emilio Servadio.[27] Fellini
Fellini
cast American actor Broderick Crawford
Broderick Crawford
to interpret the role of an aging swindler in Il Bidone. Based partly on stories told to him by a petty thief during production of La Strada, Fellini
Fellini
developed the script into a con man’s slow descent towards a solitary death. To incarnate the role’s "intense, tragic face", Fellini’s first choice had been Humphrey Bogart[28] but after learning of the actor’s lung cancer, chose Crawford after seeing his face on the theatrical poster of All the King’s Men (1949). The film shoot was wrought with difficulties stemming from Crawford’s alcoholism.[29] Savaged by critics at the 16th Venice International Film Festival, the film did miserable box office and did not receive international distribution until 1964. During the autumn, Fellini
Fellini
researched and developed a treatment based on a film adaptation of Mario Tobino’s novel, The Free Women of Magliano. Located in a mental institution for women, financial backers considered the subject had no potential and the project was abandoned.[citation needed] While preparing Nights of Cabiria
Nights of Cabiria
in spring 1956, Fellini
Fellini
learned of his father’s death by cardiac arrest at the age of sixty-two. Produced by Dino De Laurentiis
Dino De Laurentiis
and starring Giulietta Masina, the film took its inspiration from news reports of a woman’s severed head retrieved in a lake and stories by Wanda, a shantytown prostitute Fellini
Fellini
met on the set of Il Bidone.[30] Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
was hired to translate Flaiano and Pinelli’s dialogue into Roman dialect and to supervise researches in the vice-afflicted suburbs of Rome. The movie won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film at the 30th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
and brought Masina the Best Actress Award at Cannes for her performance.[citation needed] With Pinelli, he developed Journey with Anita for Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
and Gregory Peck. An "invention born out of intimate truth", the script was based on Fellini's return to Rimini
Rimini
with a mistress to attend his father's funeral.[31] Due to Loren’s unavailability, the project was shelved and resurrected twenty-five years later as Lovers and Liars (1981), a comedy directed by Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
with Goldie Hawn
Goldie Hawn
and Giancarlo Giannini. For Eduardo De Filippo, he co-wrote the script of Fortunella, tailoring the lead role to accommodate Masina’s particular sensibility.[citation needed] The Hollywood on the Tiber
Hollywood on the Tiber
phenomenon of 1958 in which American studios profited from the cheap studio labour available in Rome provided the backdrop for photojournalists to steal shots of celebrities on the via Veneto.[32] The scandal provoked by Turkish dancer Haish Nana’s improvised striptease at a nightclub captured Fellini’s imagination: he decided to end his latest script-in-progress, Moraldo in the City, with an all-night "orgy" at a seaside villa. Pierluigi Praturlon’s photos of Anita Ekberg
Anita Ekberg
wading fully dressed in the Trevi Fountain
Trevi Fountain
provided further inspiration for Fellini
Fellini
and his scriptwriters.[citation needed] Changing the title of the screenplay to La Dolce Vita, Fellini
Fellini
soon clashed with his producer on casting: the director insisted on the relatively unknown Mastroianni while De Laurentiis wanted Paul Newman as a hedge on his investment. Reaching an impasse, De Laurentiis sold the rights to publishing mogul Angelo Rizzoli. Shooting began on 16 March 1959 with Anita Ekberg
Anita Ekberg
climbing the stairs to the cupola of Saint Peter’s in a mammoth décor constructed at Cinecittà. The statue of Christ flown by helicopter over Rome
Rome
to Saint Peter's Square was inspired by an actual media event on 1 May 1956, which Fellini
Fellini
had witnessed. The film wrapped August 15 on a deserted beach at Passo Oscuro with a bloated mutant fish designed by Piero Gherardi.[citation needed] La Dolce Vita
La Dolce Vita
broke all box office records. Despite scalpers selling tickets at 1000 lire,[33] crowds queued in line for hours to see an “immoral movie” before the censors banned it. At an exclusive Milan
Milan
screening on 5 February 1960, one outraged patron spat on Fellini
Fellini
while others hurled insults. Denounced in parliament by right-wing conservatives, undersecretary Domenico Magrì of the Christian Democrats demanded tolerance for the film’s controversial themes.[34] The Vatican's official press organ, l'Osservatore Romano, lobbied for censorship while the Board of Roman Parish Priests and the Genealogical Board of Italian Nobility attacked the film. In one documented instance involving favourable reviews written by the Jesuits of San Fedele, defending La Dolce Vita
La Dolce Vita
had severe consequences.[35] In competition at Cannes alongside Antonioni’s L’Avventura, the film won the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
awarded by presiding juror Georges Simenon. The Belgian writer was promptly “hissed at” by the disapproving festival crowd.[36] Art films and dreams (1961–1969)[edit]

Federico Fellini

A major discovery for Fellini
Fellini
after his Italian neorealism
Italian neorealism
period (1950–1959) was the work of Carl Jung. After meeting Jungian psychoanalyst Dr. Ernst Bernhard in early 1960, he read Jung's autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections
Memories, Dreams, Reflections
(1963). Bernhard also recommended that Fellini
Fellini
consult the I Ching
I Ching
and keep a record of his dreams. What Fellini
Fellini
formerly accepted as "his extrasensory perceptions"[37] were now interpreted as psychic manifestations of the unconscious. Bernhard’s focus on Jungian depth psychology proved to be the single greatest influence on Fellini’s mature style and marked the turning point in his work from neorealism to filmmaking that was "primarily oneiric".[38] As a consequence, Jung's seminal ideas on the anima and the animus, the role of archetypes and the collective unconscious directly influenced such films as
(1963), Juliet of the Spirits (1965), Fellini Satyricon
Fellini Satyricon
(1969), Casanova (1976), and City of Women
City of Women
(1980).[39] Other key influences on his work include Luis Buñuel,[40] Charlie Chaplin,[41] Sergei Eisenstein,[42] Buster Keaton,[43] Laurel and Hardy,[43] the Marx Brothers,[43] and Roberto Rossellini.[44] Exploiting La Dolce Vita’s success, financier Angelo Rizzoli set up Federiz in 1960, an independent film company, for Fellini
Fellini
and production manager Clemente Fracassi to discover and produce new talent. Despite the best intentions, their overcautious editorial and business skills forced the company to close down soon after cancelling Pasolini’s project, Accattone
Accattone
(1961).[45] Condemned as a "public sinner"[46] for La Dolce Vita, Fellini responded with The Temptations of Doctor Antonio, a segment in the omnibus Boccaccio '70. His second colour film, it was the sole project green-lighted at Federiz. Infused with the surrealistic satire that characterized the young Fellini’s work at Marc’Aurelio, the film ridiculed a crusader against vice, interpreted by Peppino De Filippo, who goes insane trying to censor a billboard of Anita Ekberg
Anita Ekberg
espousing the virtues of milk.[citation needed] In an October 1960 letter to his colleague Brunello Rondi, Fellini first outlined his film ideas about a man suffering creative block: "Well then - a guy (a writer? any kind of professional man? a theatrical producer?) has to interrupt the usual rhythm of his life for two weeks because of a not-too-serious disease. It’s a warning bell: something is blocking up his system."[47] Unclear about the script, its title, and his protagonist’s profession, he scouted locations throughout Italy “looking for the film”[48] in the hope of resolving his confusion. Flaiano suggested La bella confusione (literally The Beautiful Confusion) as the movie’s title. Under pressure from his producers, Fellini
Fellini
finally settled on 8½, a self-referential title referring principally (but not exclusively)[49] to the number of films he had directed up to that time. Giving the order to start production in spring 1962, Fellini
Fellini
signed deals with his producer Rizzoli, fixed dates, had sets constructed, cast Mastroianni, Anouk Aimée, and Sandra Milo
Sandra Milo
in lead roles, and did screen tests at the Scalera Studios in Rome. He hired cinematographer Gianni Di Venanzo, among key personnel. But apart from naming his hero Guido Anselmi, he still couldn't decide what his character did for a living.[50] The crisis came to a head in April when, sitting in his Cinecittà
Cinecittà
office, he began a letter to Rizzoli confessing he had "lost his film" and had to abandon the project. Interrupted by the chief machinist requesting he celebrate the launch of 8½, Fellini
Fellini
put aside the letter and went on the set. Raising a toast to the crew, he "felt overwhelmed by shame… I was in a no exit situation. I was a director who wanted to make a film he no longer remembers. And lo and behold, at that very moment everything fell into place. I got straight to the heart of the film. I would narrate everything that had been happening to me. I would make a film telling the story of a director who no longer knows what film he wanted to make".[51] Shooting began on 9 May 1962. Perplexed by the seemingly chaotic, incessant improvisation on the set, Deena Boyer, the director’s American press officer at the time, asked for a rationale. Fellini told her that he hoped to convey the three levels "on which our minds live: the past, the present, and the conditional - the realm of fantasy".[52] After shooting wrapped on 14 October, Nino Rota
Nino Rota
composed various circus marches and fanfares that would later become signature tunes of the maestro’s cinema.[53] Nominated for four Oscars, 8½ won awards for best foreign language film and best costume design in black-and-white. In California for the ceremony, Fellini
Fellini
toured Disneyland
Disneyland
with Walt Disney
Walt Disney
the day after. Increasingly attracted to parapsychology, Fellini
Fellini
met the Turin magician Gustavo Rol in 1963. Rol, a former banker, introduced him to the world of Spiritism
Spiritism
and séances. In 1964, Fellini
Fellini
took LSD[54] under the supervision of Emilio Servadio, his psychoanalyst during the 1954 production of La Strada.[55] For years reserved about what actually occurred that Sunday afternoon, he admitted in 1992 that

objects and their functions no longer had any significance. All I perceived was perception itself, the hell of forms and figures devoid of human emotion and detached from the reality of my unreal environment. I was an instrument in a virtual world that constantly renewed its own meaningless image in a living world that was itself perceived outside of nature. And since the appearance of things was no longer definitive but limitless, this paradisiacal awareness freed me from the reality external to my self. The fire and the rose, as it were, became one.[56]

Fellini's hallucinatory insights were given full flower in his first colour feature Juliet of the Spirits (1965), depicting Giulietta Masina as Juliet, a housewife who rightly suspects her husband's infidelity and succumbs to the voices of spirits summoned during a séance at her home. Her sexually voracious next door neighbor Suzy (Sandra Milo) introduces Juliet to a world of uninhibited sensuality but Juliet is haunted by childhood memories of her Catholic guilt and a teenaged friend who committed suicide. Complex and filled with psychological symbolism, the film is set to a jaunty score by Nino Rota. Nostalgia, sexuality, and politics (1970–1980)[edit]

Fellini
Fellini
& Bruno Zanin
Bruno Zanin
on the set of Amarcord
Amarcord
in 1973

To help promote Satyricon in the United States, Fellini
Fellini
flew to Los Angeles in January 1970 for interviews with Dick Cavett
Dick Cavett
and David Frost. He also met with film director Paul Mazursky
Paul Mazursky
who wanted to star him alongside Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
in his new film, Alex in Wonderland.[57] In February, Fellini
Fellini
scouted locations in Paris
Paris
for The Clowns, a docufiction both for cinema and television, based on his childhood memories of the circus and a "coherent theory of clowning."[58] As he saw it, the clown "was always the caricature of a well-established, ordered, peaceful society. But today all is temporary, disordered, grotesque. Who can still laugh at clowns?... All the world plays a clown now."[59] In March 1971, Fellini
Fellini
began production on Roma, a seemingly random collection of episodes informed by the director's memories and impressions of Rome. The "diverse sequences," writes Fellini
Fellini
scholar Peter Bondanella, "are held together only by the fact that they all ultimately originate from the director’s fertile imagination."[60] The film’s opening scene anticipates Amarcord
Amarcord
while its most surreal sequence involves an ecclesiastical fashion show in which nuns and priests roller skate past shipwrecks of cobwebbed skeletons. Over a period of six months between January and June 1973, Fellini shot the Oscar-winning Amarcord. Loosely based on the director’s 1968 autobiographical essay My Rimini,[61] the film depicts the adolescent Titta and his friends working out their sexual frustrations against the religious and Fascist backdrop of a provincial town in Italy during the 1930s. Produced by Franco Cristaldi, the seriocomic movie became Fellini’s second biggest commercial success after La Dolce Vita.[62] Circular in form, Amarcord
Amarcord
avoids plot and linear narrative in a way similar to The Clowns and Roma.[63] The director's overriding concern with developing a poetic form of cinema was first outlined in a 1965 interview he gave to The New Yorker
The New Yorker
journalist Lillian Ross: "I am trying to free my work from certain constrictions – a story with a beginning, a development, an ending. It should be more like a poem with metre and cadence."[64] Late films and projects (1981–1990)[edit]

Italian President Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
receiving a David di Donatello
David di Donatello
Award from Fellini
Fellini
in 1985

Organized by his publisher Diogenes Verlag
Diogenes Verlag
in 1982, the first major exhibition of 63 drawings by Fellini
Fellini
was held in Paris, Brussels, and the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York.[65] A gifted caricaturist, much of the inspiration for his sketches was derived from his own dreams while the films-in-progress both originated from and stimulated drawings for characters, decor, costumes and set designs. Under the title, I disegni di Fellini
Fellini
(Fellini’s Designs), he published 350 drawings executed in pencil, watercolours, and felt pens.[66] On 6 September 1985 Fellini
Fellini
was awarded the Golden Lion
Golden Lion
for lifetime achievement at the 42nd Venice Film Festival. That same year, he became the first non-American to receive the Film Society of Lincoln Center’s annual award for cinematic achievement.[citation needed] Long fascinated by Carlos Castaneda’s The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, Fellini
Fellini
accompanied the Peruvian author on a journey to the Yucatán to assess the feasibility of a film. After first meeting Castaneda in Rome
Rome
in October 1984, Fellini
Fellini
drafted a treatment with Pinelli titled Viaggio a Tulun. Producer Alberto Grimaldi, prepared to buy film rights to all of Castaneda’s work, then paid for pre-production research taking Fellini
Fellini
and his entourage from Rome
Rome
to Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and the jungles of Mexico
Mexico
in October 1985.[67] When Castaneda inexplicably disappeared and the project fell through, Fellini’s mystico-shamanic adventures were scripted with Pinelli and serialized in Corriere della Sera
Corriere della Sera
in May 1986. A barely veiled satirical interpretation of Castaneda's work,[68] Viaggio a Tulun was published in 1989 as a graphic novel with artwork by Milo Manara and as Trip to Tulum in America in 1990. For Intervista, produced by Ibrahim Moussa and RAI
RAI
Television, Fellini intercut memories of the first time he visited Cinecittà
Cinecittà
in 1939 with present-day footage of himself at work on a screen adaptation of Franz Kafka’s Amerika. A meditation on the nature of memory and film production, it won the special 40th Anniversary Prize at Cannes and the 15th Moscow International Film Festival Golden Prize. In Brussels later that year, a panel of thirty professionals from eighteen European countries named Fellini
Fellini
the world’s best director and 8½ the best European film of all time.[69] In early 1989 Fellini
Fellini
began production on The Voice of the Moon, based on Ermanno Cavazzoni’s novel, Il poema dei lunatici (The Lunatics' Poem). A small town was built at Empire Studios on the via Pontina outside Rome. Starring Roberto Benigni
Roberto Benigni
as Ivo Salvini, a madcap poetic figure newly released from a mental institution, the character is a combination of La Strada's Gelsomina, Pinocchio, and Italian poet Giacomo Leopardi.[70] Fellini
Fellini
improvised as he filmed, using as a guide a rough treatment written with Pinelli.[71] Despite its modest critical and commercial success in Italy, and its warm reception by French critics, it failed to interest North American distributors.[citation needed] Fellini
Fellini
won the Praemium Imperiale, the equivalent of the Nobel Prize in the visual arts, awarded by the Japan Art Association in 1990.[72] Final years (1991–1993)[edit] In July 1991 and April 1992, Fellini
Fellini
worked in close collaboration with Canadian filmmaker Damian Pettigrew
Damian Pettigrew
to establish "the longest and most detailed conversations ever recorded on film".[73] Described as the "Maestro's spiritual testament” by his biographer Tullio Kezich,[74] excerpts culled from the conversations later served as the basis of their feature documentary, Fellini: I'm a Born Liar
I'm a Born Liar
(2002) and the book, I'm a Born Liar: A Fellini
Fellini
Lexicon. Finding it increasingly difficult to secure financing for feature films, Fellini developed a suite of television projects whose titles reflect their subjects: Attore, Napoli, L’Inferno, L'opera lirica, and L’America.[citation needed] In April 1993 Fellini
Fellini
received his fifth Oscar, for lifetime achievement, "in recognition of his cinematic accomplishments that have thrilled and entertained audiences worldwide". On 16 June, he entered the Cantonal Hospital in Zurich
Zurich
for an angioplasty on his femoral artery[75] but suffered a stroke at the Grand Hotel in Rimini two months later. Partially paralyzed, he was first transferred to Ferrara
Ferrara
for rehabilitation and then to the Policlinico Umberto I in Rome
Rome
to be near his wife, also hospitalized. He suffered a second stroke and fell into an irreversible coma.[76] Death[edit] Fellini
Fellini
died in Rome
Rome
on 31 October 1993 at the age of 73 after a heart attack he suffered a few weeks earlier,[77] a day after his fiftieth wedding anniversary. The memorial service was held in Studio 5 at Cinecittà
Cinecittà
attended by an estimated 70,000 people.[78] At the request of Giulietta Masina, trumpeter Mauro Maur
Mauro Maur
played the "Improvviso dell'Angelo" by Nino Rota
Nino Rota
during the funeral ceremony.[79] Five months later, on 23 March 1994, Fellini's widow, actress Giulietta Masina
Giulietta Masina
died of lung cancer. Fellini, Masina and their son, Pierfederico, are buried in a bronze sepulchre sculpted by Arnaldo Pomodoro. Designed as a ship's prow, the tomb is located at the main entrance to the Cemetery of Rimini. The Federico Fellini
Fellini
Airport in Rimini
Rimini
is named in his honour.[citation needed] Religious views[edit] Fellini
Fellini
was raised in a Roman Catholic family, and considered himself a Catholic, although, as an adult, he avoided formal activity in the Catholic Church. Films by Fellini
Fellini
included Catholic themes: some celebrated Catholic teachings; whereas others were critical or ridiculed church dogma.[80] Political views[edit] While Fellini
Fellini
was for the most part indifferent to politics,[81] he had a general dislike of authoritarian institutions, and is interpreted by Bondanella as believing in "the dignity and even the nobility of the individual human being".[82] In a 1966 interview, he stated, "I make it a point to see if certain ideologies or political attitudes threaten the private freedom of the individual. But for the rest, I am not prepared nor do I plan to become interested in politics."[83] Despite various famous Italian actors favouring the Communists, Fellini
Fellini
was not left-wing as it is rumored that he supported Christian Democracy (DC).[84] Although Bondanella reports that the Christian Democratic party "was far too aligned with an extremely conservative and even reactionary pre-Vatican II church to suit Fellini's tastes."[82] The director still opposed the '68 Movement, and befriended Giulio Andreotti.[85] Apart from satirizing Silvio Berlusconi
Silvio Berlusconi
and mainstream television in Ginger and Fred,[86] Fellini
Fellini
rarely expressed his political views in public and never directed an overtly political film. He directed two electoral television spots during the 1990s: one for DC and another for the Italian Republican Party
Italian Republican Party
or PRI.[87] His slogan, "Non si interrompe un'emozione" (Don't interrupt an emotion), was directed against the excessive use of advertisements in TV. The slogan was also used by the Democratic Party of the Left
Democratic Party of the Left
in the referendums of 1995.[citation needed] Influence and legacy[edit]

Dedicatory plaque to Fellini
Fellini
on Via Veneto, Rome: To Federico Fellini, who made Via Veneto
Via Veneto
the stage for the "Sweet Life" - SPQR
SPQR
- January 20, 1995

Personal and highly idiosyncratic visions of society, Fellini's films are a unique combination of memory, dreams, fantasy and desire. The adjectives "Fellinian" and "Felliniesque" are "synonymous with any kind of extravagant, fanciful, even baroque image in the cinema and in art in general".[6] La Dolce Vita
La Dolce Vita
contributed the term paparazzi to the English language, derived from Paparazzo, the photographer friend of journalist Marcello Rubini (Marcello Mastroianni).[88] Contemporary filmmakers such as Tim Burton,[89] Terry Gilliam,[90] Emir Kusturica,[91] and David Lynch,[92] have cited Fellini's influence on their work. Polish director Wojciech Has, whose two best-received films, The Saragossa Manuscript (1965) and The Hour-Glass Sanatorium
The Hour-Glass Sanatorium
(1973), are examples of modernist fantasies, has been compared to Fellini
Fellini
for the sheer "luxuriance of his images".[93] I Vitelloni
I Vitelloni
inspired European directors Juan Antonio Bardem, Marco Ferreri, and Lina Wertmüller
Lina Wertmüller
and had an influence on Martin Scorsese's Mean Streets
Mean Streets
(1973), George Lucas's American Graffiti (1974), Joel Schumacher's St. Elmo's Fire (1985), and Barry Levinson's Diner
Diner
(1987), among many others.[94] When the American magazine Cinema asked Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
in 1963 to name his favorite films, the film director listed I Vitelloni
I Vitelloni
as number one in his Top 10 list.[95] Nights of Cabiria
Nights of Cabiria
was adapted as the Broadway musical Sweet Charity and the movie Sweet Charity
Sweet Charity
(1969) by Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
starring Shirley MacLaine. City of Women
City of Women
was adapted for the Berlin stage by Frank Castorf in 1992.[citation needed]
inspired among others: Mickey One
Mickey One
(Arthur Penn, 1965), Alex in Wonderland (Paul Mazursky, 1970), Beware of a Holy Whore (Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 1971), Day for Night
Day for Night
(François Truffaut, 1973), All That Jazz (Bob Fosse, 1979), Stardust Memories
Stardust Memories
(Woody Allen, 1980), Sogni d'oro (Nanni Moretti, 1981), Parad Planet (Vadim Abdrashitov, 1984), La Pelicula del rey (Carlos Sorin, 1986), Living in Oblivion (Tom DiCillo, 1995),
Women (Peter Greenaway, 1999), Falling Down
Falling Down
(Joel Schumacher, 1993), along with the successful Broadway musical, Nine ( Maury Yeston and Arthur Kopit, 1982).[96] Yo-Yo Boing! (1998), a Spanish novel by Puerto Rican writer Giannina Braschi, features a dream sequence with Fellini
Fellini
that was inspired by 8½.[97] Fellini’s work is referenced on the albums Fellini
Fellini
Days (2001) by Fish, Another Side of Bob Dylan
Another Side of Bob Dylan
(1964) by Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
with Motorpsycho Nitemare, Funplex
Funplex
(2008) by the B-52's with the song Juliet of the Spirits, and in the opening traffic jam of the music video Everybody Hurts by R.E.M.[98] American singer Lana Del Rey
Lana Del Rey
has cited Fellini
Fellini
as an influence.[99] It influenced two American TV shows, Northern Exposure and Third Rock from the Sun.[100] Wes Anderson's short film Castello Cavalcanti (2013) is in many places a direct homage to Fellini's work.[101] Various film related material and personal papers of Fellini
Fellini
are contained in the Wesleyan University
Wesleyan University
Cinema Archives to which scholars and media experts from around the world may have full access.[102] In October 2009, the Jeu de Paume
Jeu de Paume
in Paris
Paris
opened an exhibit devoted to Fellini
Fellini
that included ephemera, television interviews, behind-the-scenes photographs, Book of Dreams (based on 30 years of the director's illustrated dreams and notes), along with excerpts from La dolce vita and 8½.[103] In 2014, the Blue Devils Drum and Bugle Corps
Blue Devils Drum and Bugle Corps
of Concord, California performed a show themed around Fellini's works, entitled "Felliniesque", with which the Blue Devils won a record 16th Drum Corps International World Class championship with a record score of 99.650.[104] That same year, the weekly entertainment-trade magazine Variety announced that French director Sylvain Chomet
Sylvain Chomet
was moving forward with the project, The Thousand Miles, based on various works of Fellini
Fellini
including his unpublished drawings and writings.[105] Award and Nominations[edit] Academy Awards[edit]

Year Film Category Result

1946 Rome, Open City Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with Sergio Amidei

1949 Paisan Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with V. Hayes, Sergio Amidei, Marcello Pagliero, and Roberto Rossellini

1956 La strada Best Foreign Language Film Won

1956 La strada Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with Tullio Pinelli

1957 Nights of Cabiria Best Foreign Language Film Won

1957 I Vitelloni Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with Ennio Flaiano
Ennio Flaiano
and Tullio Pinelli

1961 La Dolce Vita Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with Ennio Flaiano, Tullio Pinelli
Tullio Pinelli
and Brunello Rondi

1963 8½ Best Foreign Language Film Won

1963 8½ Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with Ennio Flaiano, Tullio Pinelli
Tullio Pinelli
and Brunello Rondi

1974 Amarcord Best Foreign Language Film Won

1974 Amarcord Best Original Screenplay Nominated Shared with Tonino Guerra

1976 Fellini's Casanova Best Adapted Screenplay Nominated Shared with Bernardino Zapponi

1992 Himself Academy Honorary Award Won

Selected awards and nominations[edit]

Rome, Open City
Rome, Open City
(Dir. Roberto Rossellini, 1945)

Oscar nomination for Best Screenplay (with Sergio Amidei)

Paisà
Paisà
(Dir. Roberto Rossellini, 1946)

Oscar nomination for Best Screenplay (with Sergio Amidei, Alfred Hayes, Marcello Pagliero, and Rossellini)

I Vitelloni
I Vitelloni
(1953)

Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
Silver Lion Oscar nomination for Best Screenplay (with Tullio Pinelli, Ennio Flaiano)

La Strada
La Strada
(1954)

Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
Silver Lion Oscar for the Best Foreign Language Film[106] Oscar nomination for Best Screenplay (with Tullio Pinelli, Ennio Flaiano) New York Film Critics Award for Best Foreign Film Screen Directors Guild
Screen Directors Guild
Award for Best Foreign Film

Nights of Cabiria
Nights of Cabiria
(1957)

Festival de Cannes
Festival de Cannes
Best Actress Award (Giulietta Masina)[107] Oscar for the Best Foreign Language Film[108]

La Dolce Vita
La Dolce Vita
(1960)

Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
at Festival de Cannes Oscar Best Costumes in B&W (Piero Gherardi) Oscar nominations for Best Director, Best Screenplay (with Tullio Pinelli, Ennio Flaiano, Brunello Rondi), Best Art and Set Direction New York Film Critics Award for Best Foreign Language Film National Board of Review
National Board of Review
citation for Best Foreign Language Film


(Otto e Mezzo, 1963)

Moscow International Film Festival Grand Prize[109] Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film[110] Oscar for Best Costumes in B&W (Piero Gherardi) Oscar nomination for Best Director Oscar nomination for Best Art Direction-Set Decoration in B&W (Piero Gherardi) Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists Silver Ribbons for Best Cinematography in B&W (Gianni Di Venanzo), Best Director (Federico Fellini), Best Original Story ( Fellini
Fellini
and Flaiano), Best Producer (Angelo Rizzoli), Best Score (Nino Rota), Best Screenplay (Fellini, Pinelli, Flaiano, Rondi), and Best Supporting Actress (Sandra Milo) Berlin International Film Festival
Berlin International Film Festival
Special
Special
Award BAFTA
BAFTA
Film Award nomination for Best Film from any Source Bodil Award for Best European Film Directors Guild of America
Directors Guild of America
Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures New York Film Critics Award for Best Foreign Film National Board of Review
National Board of Review
Award for Best Foreign Language Picture Grolla d’Oro at Saint Vincent Film Festival for Best Director Kinema Junpo
Kinema Junpo
Award for Best Foreign Language Film & Best Foreign Language Film Director

Juliet of the Spirits (1965)

New York Film Critics Award for Best Foreign Film National Board of Review
National Board of Review
Award for Best Foreign Language Story Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Foreign Language Film

Fellini Satyricon
Fellini Satyricon
(1969)

Oscar nomination for Best Director[111]

I clowns
I clowns
(1970)

National Board of Review
National Board of Review
citation for Best Foreign Language Film

Amarcord
Amarcord
(1974)

Oscar for Best Foreign Film[112] Oscar nomination for Best Director Oscar nomination for Best Writing, Original Screenplay New York Film Critics Award for Best Direction New York Film Critics Award for Best Motion Picture

Fellini's Casanova (1976)

Oscar for Best Costumes (Danilo Donati)

Intervista
Intervista
(1987)

15th Moscow International Film Festival Golden Prize[113] Festival de Cannes
Festival de Cannes
Special
Special
40th Anniversary Prize

The Voice of the Moon
The Voice of the Moon
(1990)

David di Donatello
David di Donatello
Awards for Best Actor, Best Production Design, and Best Editing

Distinctions[edit]

1964

Grande Ufficiale OMRI[114]

1974

27th Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
Lifetime Achievement Award (with French director René Clair)

1985

42nd Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
Golden Lion
Golden Lion
for Lifetime Achievement Film Society of Lincoln Center
Film Society of Lincoln Center
Award for Cinematic Achievement

1987

Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI[115]

1989

Lifetime Achievement Award - European Film Awards

1990

Japan Art Association's Praemium Imperiale
Praemium Imperiale
(equivalent of the Nobel Prize in the visual arts)

1993

Oscar for Lifetime Achievement

Filmography[edit] As writer and director[edit]

Luci del varietà (1950) (co-credited with Alberto Lattuada) Lo sceicco bianco (1952) I vitelloni
I vitelloni
(1953) L'amore in città (1953) (segment Un'agenzia matrimoniale) La strada
La strada
(1954) Il bidone
Il bidone
(1955) Le notti di Cabiria (1957) La Dolce Vita
La Dolce Vita
(1960) Boccaccio '70
Boccaccio '70
(1962) (segment Le tentazioni del Dottor Antonio)
(1963) Giulietta degli spiriti (1965) Histoires extraordinaires
Histoires extraordinaires
(1968) (segment Toby Dammit, based on Edgar Allan Poe's short story "Never Bet the Devil Your Head") Fellini: A Director's Notebook (1969) Fellini Satyricon
Fellini Satyricon
(1969) I clowns
I clowns
(1970) Roma (1972) Amarcord
Amarcord
(1973) Il Casanova di Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1976) Prova d'orchestra
Prova d'orchestra
(1978) La città delle donne
La città delle donne
(1980) E la nave va (1983) Ginger e Fred (1986) Intervista
Intervista
(1987) La voce della luna
La voce della luna
(1990)

Screenplay contributions[edit]

Knights of the Desert (1942) Before the Postman
Before the Postman
(1942) The Peddler and the Lady
The Peddler and the Lady
(1943) L'ultima carrozzella (1943) (dir. Mario Mattoli) Co-scriptwriter Roma, città aperta
Roma, città aperta
(1945) (dir. Roberto Rossellini) Co-scriptwriter Paisà
Paisà
(1946) (dir. Roberto Rossellini). Co-scriptwriter Black Eagle (1946) (dir. Riccardo Freda) Co-scriptwriter Il delitto di Giovanni Episcopo
Il delitto di Giovanni Episcopo
(1947) (dir. Alberto Lattuada) Co-scriptwriter Senza pietà
Senza pietà
(1948) (dir. Alberto Lattuada) Co-scriptwriter Il miracolo (1948) (dir. Roberto Rossellini) Co-scriptwriter Il mulino del Po
Il mulino del Po
(1949) (dir. Alberto Lattuada) Co-scriptwriter Francesco, giullare di Dio
Francesco, giullare di Dio
(1950) (dir. Roberto Rossellini) Co-scriptwriter Il Cammino della speranza (1950) (dir. Pietro Germi) Co-scriptwriter La città si difende (1951) (dir. Pietro Germi) Co-scriptwriter Persiane chiuse
Persiane chiuse
(1951) (dir. Luigi Comencini) Co-scriptwriter Il brigante di Tacca del Lupo (1952) (dir. Pietro Germi) Co-scriptwriter Fortunella (1979) (dir. Eduardo De Filippo) Co-scriptwriter Lovers and Liars
Lovers and Liars
(1979) (dir. Mario Monicelli) Fellini
Fellini
not credited

Television commercials[edit]

TV commercial for Campari Soda (1984) TV commercial for Barilla pasta (1984) Three TV commercials for Banca di Roma (1992)

Documentaries on Fellini[edit]

Ciao Federico (1969). Dir. Gideon Bachmann. (60') Federico Fellini
Fellini
- un autoritratto ritrovato (2000). Dir. Paquito Del Bosco. ( RAI
RAI
TV, 68') Fellini: I'm a Born Liar
I'm a Born Liar
(2002). Dir. Damian Pettigrew. Feature documentary. (ARTE, Eurimages, Scottish Screen, 102') How Strange to Be Named Federico (2013). Dir. Ettore Scola.

See also[edit]

Art film

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "The 25 Most Influential Directors of All Time". MovieMaker Magazine.  ^ "10 Most Influential Directors Of All Time". WhatCulture.com.  ^ Burke and Waller, 12 ^ "Federico Fellini".  ^ Alpert, 16 ^ a b Bondanella, The Films of Federico Fellini, 7 ^ Burke and Waller, 5–13 ^ Fellini
Fellini
interview in Panorama 18 (14 January 1980). Screenwriters Tullio Pinelli
Tullio Pinelli
and Bernardino Zapponi, cinematographer Giuseppe Rotunno and set designer Dante
Dante
Ferretti also reported that Fellini imagined many of his “memories”. Cf. Bernardino Zapponi's memoir, Il mio Fellini
Fellini
and Fellini's own insistence on having created his cinematic autobiography in I'm a Born Liar: A Fellini
Fellini
Lexicon, 32 ^ Kezich, 17 ^ Kezich, 14 ^ Alpert, 33 ^ Kezich, 31 ^ Bondanella, The Films of Federico Fellini, 8 ^ Kezich, 55 ^ Alpert, 42 ^ Kezich, 35 ^ "Giulietta is practical, and likes the fact that she earns a handsome fee for her radio work, whereas theater never pays well. And of course the fame counts for something too. Radio is a booming business and comedy reviews have a broad and devoted public." Kezich, 48 ^ Kezich, 70 ^ Kezich, 71 ^ Kezich, 74 ^ Kezich, 157. Cf. filmed interview with Luigi 'Titta' Benzi in Fellini: I'm a Born Liar
I'm a Born Liar
(2003). ^ Kezich, 78 ^ Kezich, 404 ^ Kezich, 114 ^ Kezich, 128 ^ "Our flexible giant". Cinecittà
Cinecittà
Studios. Retrieved 20 September 2013.  ^ a b Kezich, 158 ^ Kezich, p. 167 ^ Kezich, pp. 168-69 ^ Kezich, p. 177 ^ Kezich, 189 ^ Alpert, 122 ^ Kezich, 208 ^ Kezich, p. 209 ^ Kezich, p. 210 ^ Alpert, p. 145 ^ Kezich, p. 224 ^ Kezich, p. 227 ^ Bondanella, Cinema of Federico Fellini, pp. 151-54 ^ "Buñuel is the auteur I feel closest to in terms of an idea of cinema or the tendency to make particular kinds of films." In Fellini and Pettigrew, I’m a Born Liar: A Fellini
Fellini
Lexicon, 87. ^ “One of Cabiria’s finest moments comes in the movie’s nightclub scene. It begins when the actor’s girlfriend deserts him, and the star picks up Cabiria on the street as a replacement. He whisks her away to the nightclub. Fellini
Fellini
has admitted that this scene owes a debt to Chaplin’s City Lights
City Lights
(1931)." Cited in John C. Stubbs, Federico Fellini
Fellini
as Auteur: Seven Aspects of his Films (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2006), pp. 152-53. Peter Bondanella points out that Gelsomina's costume, makeup, and antics as a clown figure had "clear links to Fellini's past as a cartoonist-imitator of Happy Hooligan
Happy Hooligan
and Charlie Chaplin". Cited in Bondanella, The Cinema of Federico Fellini, 104 ^ In his study of Fellini
Fellini
Satyricon, Italian novelist Alberto Moravia observes that with "the oars of his galleys suspended in the air, Fellini
Fellini
revives for us the lances of the battle in Eisenstein's Alexander Nevsky (film)." Cited in Bondanella (ed), Federico Fellini: Essays in Criticism, 167 ^ a b c Bondanella, The Cinema of Federico Fellini, 8 ^ “ Roberto Rossellini
Roberto Rossellini
walked into my life at a moment when I needed to make a choice, when I needed someone to show me the path to follow. He was the stationmaster, the green light of providence... He taught me how to thrive on chaos by ignoring it and focusing on what was essential: constructing your film day by day.” Cited in Federico Fellini
Fellini
and Damian Pettigrew, pp. 17-18. In Fellini
Fellini
on Fellini, the director explains that his "meeting with Rossellini was a determining factor... he taught me to make a film as if I were going for a picnic with friends." In Fellini
Fellini
on Fellini
Fellini
(London: Eyre Methuen, 1976), 99-100 ^ Kezich, pp. 218-219 ^ Kezich, 212 ^ Affron, 227 ^ Alpert, 159 ^ Kezich, p. 234 and Affron, pp. 3-4 ^ Alpert, p. 160 ^ Fellini, Comments on Film, pp. 161-62 ^ Alpert, 170 ^ Kezich, 245 ^ A synthetic derivative "fashioned to produce the same effects as the hallucinogenic mushrooms used by Mexican tribes". Kezich, 255 ^ Kezich, 255 ^ Fellini
Fellini
and Pettigrew, p. 91 ^ Kezich, 410 ^ Bondanella, The Cinema of Federico Fellini, 192 ^ Alpert, p. 224 ^ Bondanella, The Cinema of Federico Fellini, 193 ^ Alpert, 239 ^ Bondanella, The Cinema of Federico Fellini, p. 265 ^ Alpert, p. 242 ^ Bondanella, Federico Fellini: Essays in Criticism, p. 104 ^ Kezich, 413. Also cf. The Warsaw Voice[permanent dead link] ^ Fellini, I disegni di Fellini
Fellini
(Roma: Editori Laterza), 1993. The drawings are edited and analysed by Pier Marco De Santi. For comparing Fellini's graphic work with those of Sergei Eisenstein, consult S.M. Eisenstein, Dessins secrets (Paris: Seuil), 1999. ^ Kezich, 360-61 ^ Kezich, 362 ^ Burke and Waller, p. xvi ^ Bondanella, Cinema of Federico Fellini, p. 330 ^ Kezich, 383 ^ Kezich, p. 387. The award covers five disciplines: painting, sculpture, architecture, music, and theatre/film. Other winners include Akira Kurosawa, David Hockney, Balthus, Pina Bausch, and Maurice Béjart. ^ Peter Bondanella, Review of Fellini: I'm a Born Liar
I'm a Born Liar
in Cineaste Magazine (22 September 2003), p. 32 ^ Kezich, "Forward" in I'm a Born Liar: A Fellini
Fellini
Lexicon, 5. Also cf. Kezich, p. 388 ^ Kezich, p. 396 ^ "Federico Fellini, Film Visionary, Is Dead at 73". archive.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ [https://www.nytimes.com/1993/11/01/obituaries/federico-fellini-film-visionary-is-dead-at-73.html?pagewanted=all Federico Fellini, Film Visionary, Is Dead at 73 , nytimes.com; accessed 28 August 2017. ^ Kezich, 416 ^ "fellini funerali - Basilica di Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri alle Terme di Diocleziano di Roma". santamariadegliangeliroma.it (in Italian).  ^ Staff (2 September 2005). "The Religious Affiliation of Director Federico Fellini". Adherents.com. Retrieved 28 June 2016.  ^ Kezich, 45 ^ a b Bondanella, The Films of Federico Fellini, p. 119 ^ Cardullo, Bert, ed. (2006). Federico Fellini: Interviews. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 63. ISBN 1578068851.  ^ Franco Bianchini (31 October 2013). "Il Fellini
Fellini
che non vi raccontano: votava Dc, rifiutava il cinema impegnato ed era contro il '68". Secolo d'Italia (in Italian).  ^ Jacopo Iacoboni (28 March 2012). "Caro Andreotti, caro Fellini l'amicizia tra due arcitaliani". La Stampa (in Italian).  ^ Kezich, 367 ^ "Con DC e PRI, Federico Fellini
Fellini
sponsor di due nemicicon DC e PRI, Federico Fellini
Fellini
sponsor di due nemici". il Corriere della Sera
Corriere della Sera
(in Italian). 18 March 1992.  ^ Ennio Flaiano, the film's co-screenwriter and creator of Paparazzo, explained that he took the name from Signor Paparazzo, a character in George Gissing's novel By the Ionian Sea (1901). Bondanella, The Cinema of Federico Fellini, p. 136 ^ Tim Burton
Tim Burton
Collective Archived June 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Gilliam at Senses of Cinema Archived 2010-02-09 at the Wayback Machine.; accessed 17 September 2008. ^ Kusturica Interview at BNET; accessed 17 September 2008. ^ City of Absurdity Quote Collection; accessed 17 September 2008. ^ Gilbert Guez, review of The Saragossa Manuscript in Le Figaro, September 1966, p. 23 ^ Kezich, 137 ^ Ciment, Michel. "Kubrick: Biographical Notes"; accessed 23 December 2009. ^ Numerous sources include Affron, Alpert, Bondanella, Kezich, Miller et al. ^ Introduction to Giannina Braschi's Yo-Yo Boing!, Doris Sommer, Harvard University, Latin American Literary Review Press, 1998. ^ Miller, 7 ^ Sciarretto, Amy (20 January 2015). " Lana Del Rey
Lana Del Rey
Is Working on New Music and Shared Some Hints About It". Artistdirect. Retrieved 16 February 2016.  ^ Burke and Waller, p. xv ^ " Wes Anderson
Wes Anderson
Honors Fellini
Fellini
in a Delightful New Short Film". Slate. 12 November 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2013.  ^ "Cinema Archives - Wesleyan University". wesleyan.edu.  ^ Baker, Tamzin. "Federico Fellini", Modern Painters, November 2009. ^ "2014 DCI Champions", Halftime Magazine, Sept/Oct 2014. ^ " Sylvain Chomet
Sylvain Chomet
Steps Up for The Thousand Miles, Variety.com; accessed 28 August 2017. ^ "The 29th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1957) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2011-10-24.  ^ "Festival de Cannes: Nights of Cabiria". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ "The 30th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1958) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 25 October 2011.  ^ " 3rd Moscow International Film Festival (1963)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2012.  ^ "The 36th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1964) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 3 November 2011.  ^ "The 43rd Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1971) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 26 November 2011.  ^ "The 47th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1975) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 10 December 2011.  ^ " 15th Moscow International Film Festival (1987)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.  ^ web, Segretariato generale della Presidenza della Repubblica-Servizio sistemi informatici- reparto. "Le onorificenze della Repubblica Italiana". quirinale.it. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ "Le onorificenze della Repubblica Italiana". Retrieved 28 August 2017.  first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help)

Bibliography[edit]

Primary sources

Fellini, Federico (1988). Comments on Film. Ed. Giovanni Grazzini. Trans. Joseph Henry. Fresno: The Press of California State University at Fresno. — (1993). I disegni di Fellini. Ed. Pier Marco De Santi. Roma: Editori Laterza. — and Damian Pettigrew
Damian Pettigrew
(2003). I'm a Born Liar: A Fellini
Fellini
Lexicon. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-8478-3135-3 — and Tullio Pinelli. Trip to Tulum. Trans. Stefano Gaudiano and Elizabeth Bell. New York: Catalan Communications. — (2015). Making a Film. Trans. Christopher Burton White. Autobiographical Essay by Italo Calvino. New York: Contra Mundum Press.

Secondary sources

Alpert, Hollis (1988). Fellini: A Life. New York: Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-000-5 Bondanella, Peter (ed.)(1978). Federico Fellini: Essays in Criticism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-502274-2 — (1992). The Cinema of Federico Fellini. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00875-2 — (2002). The Films of Federico Fellini. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.ISBN 9780521575737. Burke, Frank, and M. R. Waller (2003). Federico Fellini: Contemporary Perspectives. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-7647-5 Kezich, Tullio (2006). Federico Fellini: His Life and Work. New York: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-21168-5 Miller, D. A. (2008). 8½. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Further reading[edit] General

Angelucci, Gianfranco (2014). Giulietta Masina, attrice e sposa di Federico Fellini
Fellini
(Ill., 200 pp.). Roma: Edizioni Sabinae - Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia. Arpa, Angelo (2010). La dolce vita di Federico Fellini. Roma: Edizioni Sabinae. Ashough, Jamshid (2016). L'Enigma di un Genio, capire il linguaggio di Federico Fellini
Fellini
(Ill., 464 pp.). Pescara: Edizioni Ass. Cult. Zona Franca Bertozzi, Marco, Giuseppe Ricci, and Simone Casavecchia (eds.)(2002–2004). BiblioFellini. 3 vols. Rimini: Fondazione Federico Fellini. Betti, Liliana (1979). Fellini: An Intimate Portrait. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. Bondanella, Peter (ed.)(1978). Federico Fellini: Essays in Criticism. New York: Oxford University Press. Cianfarani, Carmine (ed.) (1985). Federico Fellini: Leone d'Oro, Venezia 1985. Rome: Anica. Fellini, Federico (2008). The Book of Dreams. New York: Rizzoli. ISBN 0847831353. Merlino, Benito (2007). Fellini. Paris: Gallimard.ISBN 9782070335084. Minuz, Andrea (2015, translation by Marcus Perryman). Political Fellini: Journey to the End of Italy . Berghahn Books. Panicelli, Ida, and Antonella Soldaini (ed.)(1995). Fellini: Costumes and Fashion. Milan: Edizioni Charta. ISBN 88-86158-82-3. Perugini, Simone (2009). Nino Rota
Nino Rota
e le musiche per il Casanova di Federico Fellini. Roma: Edizioni Sabinae. Rohdie, Sam (2002). Fellini
Fellini
Lexicon. London: BFI Publishing. Scolari, Giovanni (2009). L'Italia di Fellini. Roma: Edizioni Sabinae. Tornabuoni, Lietta (1995). Federico Fellini. Preface Martin Scorsese. New York: Rizzoli. Walter, Eugene (2002). Milking the Moon: A Southerner's Story of Life on This Planet. Ed. Katherine Clark. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-609-80965-2.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Federico Fellini.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Federico Fellini

Fellini
Fellini
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Rimini
web site (in Italian) Fondation Fellini
Fellini
pour le cinéma Swiss web site (in French) Federico Fellini
Fellini
on IMDb Federico Fellini
Fellini
at the TCM Movie Database Works by or about Federico Fellini
Fellini
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Federico Fellini
Fellini
biography on Lambiek Comiclopedia

v t e

Federico Fellini

Films

Variety Lights
Variety Lights
(1950) The White Sheik
The White Sheik
(1952) I Vitelloni
I Vitelloni
(1953) Love in the City (1953) La Strada
La Strada
(1954) Il bidone
Il bidone
(1955) Nights of Cabiria
Nights of Cabiria
(1957) La Dolce Vita
La Dolce Vita
(1960)
(1963) Juliet of the Spirits (1965) Spirits of the Dead
Spirits of the Dead
(1968) Fellini: A Director's Notebook (1969) Fellini Satyricon
Fellini Satyricon
(1969) The Clowns (1970) Roma (1972) Amarcord
Amarcord
(1973) Casanova (1976) Orchestra Rehearsal
Orchestra Rehearsal
(1978) City of Women
City of Women
(1980) And the Ship Sails On
And the Ship Sails On
(1983) Ginger and Fred
Ginger and Fred
(1986) Intervista
Intervista
(1987) The Voice of the Moon
The Voice of the Moon
(1990)

Related

Giulietta Masina
Giulietta Masina
(wife) Paparazzi Fellini: I'm a Born Liar
I'm a Born Liar
(2002 documentary 2003 book) How Strange to Be Named Federico (2013 documentary)

Awards for Federico Fellini

v t e

Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Foreign Language Film

1947–1955 (Honorary)

1947: Shoeshine – Vittorio De Sica 1948: Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
– Maurice Cloche 1949: Bicycle Thieves
Bicycle Thieves
– Vittorio De Sica 1950: The Walls of Malapaga – René Clément 1951: Rashomon
Rashomon
– Akira Kurosawa 1952: Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
– René Clément 1953: No Award 1954: Gate of Hell – Teinosuke Kinugasa 1955: Samurai, The Legend of Musashi – Hiroshi Inagaki

1956–1975

1956: La Strada
La Strada
– Federico Fellini 1957: Nights of Cabiria
Nights of Cabiria
– Federico Fellini 1958: My Uncle – Jacques Tati 1959: Black Orpheus
Black Orpheus
– Marcel Camus 1960: The Virgin Spring
The Virgin Spring
– Ingmar Bergman 1961: Through a Glass Darkly – Ingmar Bergman 1962: Sundays and Cybele
Sundays and Cybele
– Serge Bourguignon 1963:
– Federico Fellini 1964: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
– Vittorio De Sica 1965: The Shop on Main Street
The Shop on Main Street
Ján Kadár & Elmar Klos 1966: A Man and a Woman
A Man and a Woman
– Claude Lelouch 1967: Closely Watched Trains
Closely Watched Trains
– Jiří Menzel 1968: War and Peace – Sergei Bondarchuk 1969: Z – Costa-Gavras 1970: Investigation of a Citizen Above Suspicion
Investigation of a Citizen Above Suspicion
– Elio Petri 1971: The Garden of the Finzi Continis – Vittorio De Sica 1972: The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie
Bourgeoisie
– Luis Buñuel 1973: Day for Night
Day for Night
– François Truffaut 1974: Amarcord
Amarcord
– Federico Fellini 1975: Dersu Uzala – Akira Kurosawa

1976–2000

1976: Black and White in Color
Black and White in Color
– Jean-Jacques Annaud 1977: Madame Rosa
Madame Rosa
– Moshé Mizrahi 1978: Get Out Your Handkerchiefs
Get Out Your Handkerchiefs
– Bertrand Blier 1979: The Tin Drum – Volker Schlöndorff 1980: Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears
Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears
– Vladimir Menshov 1981: Mephisto – István Szabó 1982: Volver a Empezar ('To Begin Again') – José Luis Garci 1983: Fanny and Alexander
Fanny and Alexander
– Ingmar Bergman 1984: Dangerous Moves
Dangerous Moves
– Richard Dembo 1985: The Official Story
The Official Story
– Luis Puenzo 1986: The Assault – Fons Rademakers 1987: Babette's Feast – Gabriel Axel 1988: Pelle the Conqueror
Pelle the Conqueror
– Bille August 1989: Cinema Paradiso – Giuseppe Tornatore 1990: Journey of Hope – Xavier Koller 1991: Mediterraneo – Gabriele Salvatores 1992: Indochine – Régis Wargnier 1993: Belle Époque – Fernando Trueba 1994: Burnt by the Sun
Burnt by the Sun
– Nikita Mikhalkov 1995: Antonia's Line
Antonia's Line
– Marleen Gorris 1996: Kolya
Kolya
– Jan Svěrák 1997: Character – Mike van Diem 1998: Life Is Beautiful
Life Is Beautiful
– Roberto Benigni 1999: All About My Mother
All About My Mother
– Pedro Almodóvar 2000: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
– Ang Lee

2001–present

2001: No Man's Land – Danis Tanović 2002: Nowhere in Africa – Caroline Link 2003: The Barbarian Invasions
The Barbarian Invasions
– Denys Arcand 2004: The Sea Inside
The Sea Inside
– Alejandro Amenábar 2005: Tsotsi
Tsotsi
– Gavin Hood 2006: The Lives of Others
The Lives of Others
– Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck 2007: The Counterfeiters – Stefan Ruzowitzky 2008: Departures – Yōjirō Takita 2009: The Secret in Their Eyes
The Secret in Their Eyes
– Juan J. Campanella 2010: In a Better World
In a Better World
– Susanne Bier 2011: A Separation – Asghar Farhadi 2012: Amour – Michael Haneke 2013: The Great Beauty
The Great Beauty
– Paolo Sorrentino 2014: Ida – Paweł Pawlikowski 2015: Son of Saul
Son of Saul
– László Nemes 2016: The Salesman – Asghar Farhadi 2017: A Fantastic Woman
A Fantastic Woman
– Sebastián Lelio

v t e

Academy Honorary Award

1928–1950

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
/ Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1928) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1932) Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1934) D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
(1935) The March of Time
The March of Time
/ W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen
Edgar Bergen
/ W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Film Library / Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
(1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney
Walt Disney
/ Deanna Durbin
Deanna Durbin
and Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
/ Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner
Harry Warner
(1938) Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
/ Judy Garland
Judy Garland
/ William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor Company (1939) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski
and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
/ Noël Coward
Noël Coward
/ Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(1942) George Pal
George Pal
(1943) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Margaret O'Brien
Margaret O'Brien
(1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ Ernst Lubitsch
Ernst Lubitsch
/ Claude Jarman Jr. (1946) James Baskett
James Baskett
/ Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor
/ Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
/ Sid Grauman
Sid Grauman
/ Adolph Zukor
Adolph Zukor
(1948) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
/ Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
/ Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
/ The Bicycle Thief (1949) Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
/ George Murphy
George Murphy
/ The Walls of Malapaga (1950)

1951–1975

Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
/ Rashomon
Rashomon
(1951) Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper
/ Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Harold Lloyd
Harold Lloyd
/ George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
(1952) 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
/ Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley
Jon Whiteley
/ Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
(1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
/ Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1958) Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
/ Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(1959) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
/ Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
/ Hayley Mills
Hayley Mills
(1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1961) William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle
(1964) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1965) Yakima Canutt
Yakima Canutt
/ Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman
(1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(1969) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1970) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson
(1972) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
/ Groucho Marx
Groucho Marx
(1973) Howard Hawks
Howard Hawks
/ Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(1974) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(1975)

1976–2000

Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz
Walter Lantz
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ King Vidor
King Vidor
/ Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
(1982) Hal Roach
Hal Roach
(1983) James Stewart
James Stewart
/ National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts
(1984) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
/ Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
(1986) Eastman Kodak
Kodak
Company / National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
(1988) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1989) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
/ Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
(1990) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1991) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1992) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1993) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1994) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
/ Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
(1995) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1996) Stanley Donen
Stanley Donen
(1997) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1998) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1999) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
/ Ernest Lehman (2000)

2001–present

Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
/ Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2001) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(2002) Blake Edwards
Blake Edwards
(2003) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(2004) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2005) Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
/ Roger Corman
Roger Corman
/ Gordon Willis
Gordon Willis
(2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
/ Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
(2010) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
/ Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
/ Hal Needham
Hal Needham
/ George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr.
(2012) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
/ Steve Martin
Steve Martin
/ Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
/ Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki
/ Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
(2014) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
/ Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(2015) Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
/ Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
/ Agnès Varda (2017)

v t e

European Film Academy Lifetime Achievement Award

  Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1988)   Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
(1988)  Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1989)   Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1990)   Alexandre Trauner (1991)   Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1992)   Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1993)   Robert Bresson (1994)   Marcel Carné
Marcel Carné
(1995)   Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1996)   Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1997)   Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(1999)   Richard Harris
Richard Harris
(2000)   Monty Python
Monty Python
(2001)   Tonino Guerra
Tonino Guerra
(2002)   Claude Chabrol
Claude Chabrol
(2003)   Carlos Saura
Carlos Saura
(2004)   Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(2005)   Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2006)   Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(2007)   Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2008)   Ken Loach
Ken Loach
(2009)   Bruno Ganz
Bruno Ganz
(2010)   Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
(2011)   Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(2012)   Catherine Deneuve
Catherine Deneuve
(2013)   Agnès Varda
Agnès Varda
(2014)   Charlotte Rampling
Charlotte Rampling
(2015)   Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
(2016) Alexander Sokurov
Alexander Sokurov
(2017)

v t e

BAFTA
BAFTA
Fellowship recipients

1971–2000

Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1971) Freddie Young (1972) Grace Wyndham Goldie (1973) David Lean
David Lean
(1974) Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
(1975) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1976) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1976) Denis Forman (1977) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1978) Lew Grade
Lew Grade
(1979) Huw Wheldon
Huw Wheldon
(1979) David Attenborough
David Attenborough
(1980) John Huston
John Huston
(1980) Abel Gance
Abel Gance
(1981) Michael Powell
Michael Powell
& Emeric Pressburger
Emeric Pressburger
(1981) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1982) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1983) Hugh Greene (1984) Sam Spiegel
Sam Spiegel
(1984) Jeremy Isaacs (1985) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1986) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1987) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1988) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1989) Paul Fox (1990) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1991) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1992) David Plowright (1992) Sydney Samuelson (1993) Colin Young (1993) Michael Grade
Michael Grade
(1994) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1995) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1996) Ronald Neame
Ronald Neame
(1996) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1996) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1996) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1997) Steven Bochco
Steven Bochco
(1997) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1997) Oswald Morris (1997) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1997) David Rose (1997) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1998) Bill Cotton
Bill Cotton
(1998) Eric Morecambe
Eric Morecambe
& Ernie Wise
Ernie Wise
(1999) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1999) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(2000) Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
(2000) Peter Bazalgette
Peter Bazalgette
(2000)

2001–present

Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(2001) John Thaw
John Thaw
(2001) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2001) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2002) Merchant Ivory Productions (2002) Andrew Davies (2002) John Mills
John Mills
(2002) Saul Zaentz
Saul Zaentz
(2003) David Jason (2003) John Boorman
John Boorman
(2004) Roger Graef (2004) John Barry (2005) David Frost
David Frost
(2005) David Puttnam
David Puttnam
(2006) Ken Loach
Ken Loach
(2006) Anne V. Coates (2007) Richard Curtis
Richard Curtis
(2007) Will Wright (2007) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(2008) Bruce Forsyth
Bruce Forsyth
(2008) Dawn French
Dawn French
& Jennifer Saunders
Jennifer Saunders
(2009) Terry Gilliam
Terry Gilliam
(2009) Nolan Bushnell
Nolan Bushnell
(2009) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(2010) Shigeru Miyamoto
Shigeru Miyamoto
(2010) Melvyn Bragg
Melvyn Bragg
(2010) Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
(2011) Peter Molyneux
Peter Molyneux
(2011) Trevor McDonald (2011) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2012) Rolf Harris
Rolf Harris
(2012) Alan Parker
Alan Parker
(2013) Gabe Newell
Gabe Newell
(2013) Michael Palin
Michael Palin
(2013) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2014) Rockstar Games
Rockstar Games
(2014) Julie Walters
Julie Walters
(2014) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2015) David Braben (2015) Jon Snow (2015) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(2016) John Carmack
John Carmack
(2016) Ray Galton & Alan Simpson (2016) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2017) Joanna Lumley
Joanna Lumley
(2017) Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
(2018)

v t e

David di Donatello
David di Donatello
Award for Best Director

1956–1980

Gianni Franciolini
Gianni Franciolini
(1956) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1957) Alberto Lattuada
Alberto Lattuada
(1959) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1960) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1961) Ermanno Olmi
Ermanno Olmi
(1962) Vittorio De Sica
Vittorio De Sica
(1963) Pietro Germi (1964) Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
/ Vittorio De Sica
Vittorio De Sica
(1965) Alessandro Blasetti / Pietro Germi (1966) Luigi Comencini
Luigi Comencini
(1967) Carlo Lizzani
Carlo Lizzani
(1968) Franco Zeffirelli
Franco Zeffirelli
(1969) Gillo Pontecorvo
Gillo Pontecorvo
(1970) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1971) Franco Zeffirelli
Franco Zeffirelli
/ Sergio Leone
Sergio Leone
(1972) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1973) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1974) Dino Risi
Dino Risi
(1975) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
/ Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
(1976) Valerio Zurlini / Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1977) Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1978) Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
(1979) Gillo Pontecorvo
Gillo Pontecorvo
/ Marco Bellocchio
Marco Bellocchio
(1980)

1981–2000

Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
(1981) Marco Ferreri
Marco Ferreri
(1982) Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
(1983) Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1984) Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
(1985) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1986) Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1987) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1988) Ermanno Olmi
Ermanno Olmi
(1989) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1990) Marco Risi
Marco Risi
/ Ricky Tognazzi
Ricky Tognazzi
(1991) Gianni Amelio
Gianni Amelio
(1992) Roberto Faenza
Roberto Faenza
/ Ricky Tognazzi
Ricky Tognazzi
(1993) Carlo Verdone
Carlo Verdone
(1994) Mario Martone
Mario Martone
(1995) Giuseppe Tornatore
Giuseppe Tornatore
(1996) Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
(1997) Roberto Benigni
Roberto Benigni
(1998) Giuseppe Tornatore
Giuseppe Tornatore
(1999) Silvio Soldini (2000)

2001–present

Gabriele Muccino (2001) Ermanno Olmi
Ermanno Olmi
(2002) Pupi Avati
Pupi Avati
(2003) Marco Tullio Giordana (2004) Paolo Sorrentino
Paolo Sorrentino
(2005) Nanni Moretti
Nanni Moretti
(2006) Giuseppe Tornatore
Giuseppe Tornatore
(2007) Andrea Molaioli (2008) Matteo Garrone
Matteo Garrone
(2009) Marco Bellocchio
Marco Bellocchio
(2010) Daniele Luchetti (2011) Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
(2012) Giuseppe Tornatore
Giuseppe Tornatore
(2013) Paolo Sorrentino
Paolo Sorrentino
(2014) Francesco Munzi (2015) Matteo Garrone
Matteo Garrone
(2016)

v t e

Film Society of Lincoln Center
Film Society of Lincoln Center
Gala Tribute Honorees

Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1972) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1973) Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1974) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
and Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1975) George Cukor
George Cukor
(1978) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1979) John Huston
John Huston
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1982) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1983) Claudette Colbert
Claudette Colbert
(1984) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1985) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1986) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1987) Yves Montand
Yves Montand
(1988) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1989) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1990) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1991) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1992) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1993) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(1994) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1995) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1996) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1997) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1998) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1999) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(2000) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(2001) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(2002) Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(2003) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(2004) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(2005) Jessica Lange
Jessica Lange
(2006) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(2007) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2008) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(2009) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(2010) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(2011) Catherine Deneuve
Catherine Deneuve
(2012) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(2013) Rob Reiner
Rob Reiner
(2014) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2015) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(2016) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(2017) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2018)

v t e

Nastro d'Argento Award for Best Director

Alessandro Blasetti / Vittorio De Sica
Vittorio De Sica
(1946) Roberto Rossellini
Roberto Rossellini
(1947) Alberto Lattuada
Alberto Lattuada
/ Giuseppe De Santis (1948) Vittorio De Sica
Vittorio De Sica
(1949) Augusto Genina
Augusto Genina
(1950) Alessandro Blasetti (1951) Renato Castellani
Renato Castellani
(1952) Luigi Zampa
Luigi Zampa
(1953) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1954) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1955) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1956) Pietro Germi (1957) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1958) Pietro Germi (1959) Roberto Rossellini
Roberto Rossellini
(1960) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1961) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1962) Nanni Loy
Nanni Loy
/ Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
(1963) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1964) Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini
(1965) Antonio Pietrangeli
Antonio Pietrangeli
(1966) Gillo Pontecorvo
Gillo Pontecorvo
(1967) Elio Petri (1968) Franco Zeffirelli
Franco Zeffirelli
(1969) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1970) Elio Petri (1971) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1972) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1973) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1974) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1975) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1976) Valerio Zurlini (1977) Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
(1978) Ermanno Olmi
Ermanno Olmi
(1979) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1980) Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
(1981) Marco Ferreri
Marco Ferreri
(1982) Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
(1983) Pupi Avati
Pupi Avati
/ Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1984) Sergio Leone
Sergio Leone
(1985) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1986) Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1987) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1988) Ermanno Olmi
Ermanno Olmi
(1989) Pupi Avati
Pupi Avati
(1990) Gianni Amelio
Gianni Amelio
(1991) Gabriele Salvatores
Gabriele Salvatores
(1992) Gianni Amelio
Gianni Amelio
(1993) Nanni Moretti
Nanni Moretti
(1994) Gianni Amelio
Gianni Amelio
(1995) Giuseppe Tornatore
Giuseppe Tornatore
(1996) Maurizio Nichetti (1997) Roberto Benigni
Roberto Benigni
(1998) Giuseppe Tornatore
Giuseppe Tornatore
(1999) Silvio Soldini (2000) Nanni Moretti
Nanni Moretti
(2001) Marco Bellocchio
Marco Bellocchio
(2002) Gabriele Salvatores
Gabriele Salvatores
(2003) Marco Tullio Giordana (2004) Gianni Amelio
Gianni Amelio
(2005) Michele Placido
Michele Placido
(2006) Giuseppe Tornatore
Giuseppe Tornatore
(2007) Paolo Virzì
Paolo Virzì
(2008) Paolo Sorrentino
Paolo Sorrentino
(2009) Paolo Virzì
Paolo Virzì
(2010) Nanni Moretti
Nanni Moretti
(2011) Paolo Sorrentino
Paolo Sorrentino
(2012) Giuseppe Tornatore
Giuseppe Tornatore
(2013) Paolo Virzì
Paolo Virzì
(2014) Paolo Sorrentino
Paolo Sorrentino
(2015) Paolo Virzì
Paolo Virzì
(2016)

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 76315386 LCCN: n79056202 ISNI: 0000 0001 2282 0040 GND: 118532421 SELIBR: 186745 SUDOC: 027291537 BNF: cb11902511c (data) BIBSYS: 90059208 ULAN: 500081169 NLA: 35080071 NDL: 00439366 NKC: jn19990002219 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV00288 BNE: XX855667 RKD: 276

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