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The Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
(Malay: Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; Jawi: ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو) was a federation of 11 states (nine Malay states
Malay states
and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca)[2] that existed from 1 February 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957,[3] and in 1963 Malaysia
Malaysia
was formed with the Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak Crown Colonies.[4] The combination of states that formerly made up the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
is currently known as Peninsular Malaysia.

Contents

1 History 2 List of member states 3 System of government

3.1 Conditions of citizenship 3.2 Separation of powers of the federal and state governments

4 Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Legislative Council 5 Registration of PKMM rejected

5.1 Judiciary

6 Demographics 7 Evolution of the Federation of Malaya 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] From 1946 to 1948, the 11 states formed a single British crown colony known as the Malayan Union.[5] Due to opposition from Malay nationalists, the Union was disbanded and replaced by the Federation of Malaya, which restored the symbolic positions of the rulers of the Malay states. Within the Federation, while the Malay states
Malay states
were protectorates of the United Kingdom, Penang
Penang
and Malacca
Malacca
remained British colonial territories. Like the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
before it, the Federation did not include Singapore, despite its traditional connections with Malaya. The Federation achieved independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on 31 August 1957.[2] In 1963, the Federation was reconstituted as "Malaysia" when it federated with the British territories of Singapore, Sarawak, and North Borneo; a claim to the latter territory was maintained by the Philippines.[6][7] Singapore separated from Malaysia
Malaysia
to become an independent republic on 9 August 1965.[8] The Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Agreement was formulated by the British–Malay Pleno Conference between June and December 1946. At the end of the meeting, the Pleno Conference produced a 100-page "Blue Book."[9] The Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Agreement was signed on 21 January 1948 at King House by the Malay rulers, and by Sir Edward Gent
Edward Gent
as the representative of the British government.[10] The Agreement superseded the Agreement creating the Malayan Union, and prepared for the establishment of the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
on 1 February 1948. The position of the Malay rulers was also restored. List of member states[edit]

 Johor  Kedah  Kelantan  Malacca[11]  Negeri Sembilan  Pahang  Penang[11]  Perak  Perlis  Selangor  Terengganu

System of government[edit] The government of the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
was headed by a British High Commissioner with executive powers, assisted and advised by the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Executive Council and the Federation of Malaya Legislative Council.

The Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Executive Council comprised 7 official and 7 unofficial members. The Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Legislative Council comprised the High Commissioner as the Council President, 14 official and 50 unofficial members representing the Straits Settlements, business groups and all races. Additionally, 9 State Council Yang Di Pertua (heads of state), Chief Ministers and 2 representatives from the Straits Settlements became unofficial members. The Malay Conference of Rulers
Conference of Rulers
would advise the High Commissioner on immigration issues. The British Resident was replaced with a Chief Minister in each state of the federation.

Conditions of citizenship[edit] The conditions of citizenship of the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
were further tightened using law enforcement and naturalisation by application. Under the laws, the following were automatically granted citizenship:

Citizens of the Sultan of any state British subjects born in Penang
Penang
or Malacca
Malacca
who have lived continuously for 15 years in the federation British subjects born in the federation whose fathers were born or lived continuously for 15 years in the federation Anyone born in the federation, conversant in the Malay language
Malay language
and following Malay traditions in his or her daily life Anyone born in the federation whose parents were born and lived continuously for 15 years in the federation

Via naturalisation (by application), one could achieve citizenship, given these criteria:

Born and lived for at least 8 of 12 years in the Federation of Malaya before the application was made Lived in the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
for at least 15 of 20 years before the application was made

In both cases (via naturalisation), applications must be well-behaved, swear allegiance and clarify their reasons for living in the federation, and are fluent in either the Malay or the English language. The Federation of Malaya, through its constitution, guarantees the rights and special position of the Malay people
Malay people
as well as rights, powers and sovereignty of the Malay rulers in their respective states.[12] Separation of powers of the federal and state governments[edit] The federation agreement (Perjanjian Persekutuan) set the powers of the federal and state governments. Financial matters must be handled by the respective states. The Sultan was given full power on religious issues and Malay customs. Foreign policy and defence continued to be administered by the British government. The federation agreement was made the Constitution of the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
and officially declared on 1 February 1948.[13] Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Legislative Council[edit]

Dato' Onn bin Jaafar Mentri Besar of Johor, and President of the United Malays National Organisation, unpacking the State and Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Agreements with Dr. W. Linehan, C.M.G. Adviser on Constitutional Affairs, for the signatures of His Highness the Sultan of Johor, 1948.

The Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Legislative Council held its first meeting in the Tuanku Abdul Rahman
Tuanku Abdul Rahman
Hall, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
in 1948. It was opened by the British High Commissioner
British High Commissioner
Sir Edward Gent. Attendees included the British Minister of State for Colonial Affairs, Lord Listowel. The membership of the Council was structured to include:

the British High Commissioner
British High Commissioner
(as President); 3 ex officio members (namely the Chief Secretary, the Financial Secretary, and the Attorney General); 11 "State and Settlement Members" (the President of the Council of State of each Malay state, and a member elected by each of the Settlement Councils) 11 official members; and 34 appointed "unofficial" members.

The unofficial members were required to be either Federation citizens or British subjects. In 1948 the ethnic composition of the Council was made up as follows:

28 Malay representatives, including all the Chief Ministers, 14 Chinese representatives, 6 Indian representatives, and 14 Europeans (the ex officio and official members).

Dato' Onn Jaafar
Onn Jaafar
stressed at the first meeting that the citizens of the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
did not want the interference of external powers in the affairs of the Federation; the Chinese representative Dr Ong Chong Keng asserted that the Chinese people would be loyal to the Federation of Malaya. At this first Council meeting, several minor committees were formed:

the Standing Committee on Finance; the Election Committee; and the Committee of Privileges.

The first session passed the Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
City Bill, the Transfer of Power Bill, and the Loan and Debt Bill.[14] Registration of PKMM rejected[edit] In 1950, the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Government rejected the registration of the Malay Nationalist Party of Malaya (Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya, PKMM) as a legitimate political party. PKMM had two wings, namely Angkatan Pemuda Insaf and Angkatan Wanita Sedar. Initially, PKMM did not have communist leanings. After Mokhtaruddin Lasso
Mokhtaruddin Lasso
was elected as the first PKMM president in October 1946, this party was influenced with communism. The Young Malays Union (Kesatuan Melayu Muda, KMM) merged with PKMM, and Dr Burhanuddin al-Helmy became the second PKMM president. Dr Burhanuddin led PKMM toward the formation of Melayu Raya, a merger of Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaya. In December 1947, Ishak Haji Mohamed became the third PKMM president and PKMM switched from communism to nationalism. PKMM tended against UMNO
UMNO
and colonisation. PKKM established the Pusat Tenaga Rakyat (PUTERA), a conglomeration of radical Malay Political Parties and then merged with the All-Malaya Council of Joint Action (AMCJA) which thoroughly opposed the 1948 Federation Agreement for the foundation of the Federation of Malaya. PKMM accused officials selected in the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
of being "puppets" of the "Colonial Office". For PKMM, there was no basis in "preparing Malaya as a democratic government".[15] Judiciary[edit] The judicial system was a typical hierarchical structure consisting of lower courts, a High Court and a Court of Appeal. Successive Chief Justices were Sir Stafford Foster-Sutton (1952–1953) (afterwards Chief Justice of Nigeria, 1955), Sir Charles Mathew (1953–1956) and Sir James Beveridge Thomson (1957–1963). Demographics[edit]

Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Population[16]

Ethnic Group 1948 1951

Malay 2,457,014 2457014  

2,631,154 2631154  

Chinese 1,928,965 1928965  

2,043,971 2043971  

Indian 536,646 536646  

566,371 566371  

Other 64,802 64802  

75,726 75726  

Evolution of the Federation of Malaya[edit]

See also[edit]

Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Independence Act 1957 Federal Legislative Council Peninsular Malaysia Malayan Emergency Reid Commission

References[edit]

^ " Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
is inaugurated". http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg.  External link in journal= (help) ^ a b See: Cabinet Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies. 21 February 1956 Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Agreement ^ The UK Statute Law Database: Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Independence Act 1957 (c. 60)[permanent dead link] ^ "No.10760: Agreement relating to Malaysia" (PDF). United Nations Treaty Collection. United Nations. July 1963. Archived from the original (pdf) on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 2010-07-29.  ^ "Multinational federation". https://books.google.ch.  External link in journal= (help) ^ United Nations Treaty No. 8029, Manila Accord between Philippines, Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
and Indonesia
Indonesia
(31 July 1963) ^ Exchange of notes constituting an agreement relating to the implementation of the Manila Accord of 31 July 1963 ^ See: the Independence of Singapore
Singapore
Agreement 1965 and the Proclamation of Singapore. ^ Perlembagaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu Diumumkan[permanent dead link] ^ "Massacre in Malaya: Exposing Britain's My Lai". https://books.google.ch.  External link in journal= (help) ^ a b See: The UK Statute Law Database: Formation of the Malay States and of the Settlements of Penang
Penang
and Malacca
Malacca
into a new independent Federation of States under Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Constitution ^ Persekutuan Tanah Melayu Ditubuhkan[permanent dead link] ^ [Perlembagaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu Diumumkan] ^ The First Conference of the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Legislative Council[permanent dead link] ^ Rejection of the registration of the Malay Nationalist Party of Malaya[permanent dead link] ^ Annual Report on the Federation of Malaya: 1951 in C.C. Chin and Karl Hack, Dialogues with Chin Peng pp. 380, 81.

External links[edit]

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Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Agreement

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Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Independence Act 1957

Colonial administration records (migrated archives): Malaya at The National Archives (Pg. 52) The UK Statute Law Database: Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
Independence Act 1957 (c. 60)[permanent dead link] United Nations Treaty Collection: No.10760: Agreement relating to Malaysia Media related to Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Federation of Malaya

States of the Federation of Malaya

British Malayan states

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Straits Settlements

Malacca Penang

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v t e

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Malaya

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Unfederated Malay States
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Crown Colony of Malacca
(1946–1957) Crown Colony of Penang
Crown Colony of Penang
(1946–1957)

Borneo

Kingdom of Sarawak
Kingdom of Sarawak
(1841–1946) Crown Colony of Sarawak
Crown Colony of Sarawak
(1946–1963) Crown Colony of Labuan
Crown Colony of Labuan
(1848–1946) North Borneo
North Borneo
(1882–1946) Crown Colony of North Borneo
North Borneo
(1946–1963)

Links to related articles

v t e

Protests
Protests
in Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur

1946–47 anti- Malayan Union
Malayan Union
protests 1947 All-Malaya Hartal 1967 Keranda 152 rally 1969 Malaysian students pre-election demonstrations 13 May 1969 riots 1969 PMUM Anti-Tunku demonstrations 1970 PMUM vs PBMUM Papan Tanda demonstrations 1971 Malaysian constitutional crisis 1983 Malaysian constitutional crisis 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis 1993 Malaysian constitutional crisis 1998–2000s Reformasi demonstrations 2001 Kampung Medan riots 2007 BERSIH 1.0 rally 2007 HINDRAF rally 2008 Black 14 rally 2008 Malaysian fuel hike protests 2009 Keranda 152 rally 2009 anti-ISA rally 2009 anti-Menteri Besar Terengganu
Terengganu
rally 2011 anti-Peaceful Assembly Act rally 2011 BERSIH 2.0 rally Occupy Dataran 2012 Free Anwar 901 rally 2012 BERSIH 3.0 rally 2012 anti-Lynas rally 2013 anti-Jamalul Kiram III infiltration protests 2013 KL 112, People’s Uprising rally 2013 Blackout 505 rallies 2013 Ops Turun, anti-price hike rally 2014 Red Pencil protest 2014 May Day anti-GST rally 2015 Rakyat Hakim Negara rally 2015 Kita Lawan, May Day anti-GST rally 2015 #TangkapNajib rally 2015 Low Yat Plaza riot 2015 BERSIH 4.0 rally 2015 United People's rally 2015 Shutdown Sungai Besi rally 2016 anti-TPPA rally 2016 Keranda 152 rally 2016 Muafakat Selamatkan Malaysia
Malaysia
rally 2016 Hancur GST, Undur Najib, Undur Rosmah, Bebas Anwar, Hidup Rakyat rally 2016 BERSIH 5.0 rally

Other

1946–50 anti-cession movement of Sarawak 1963 anti- Indonesia
Indonesia
infiltration demonstrations 1964 race riots in Singapore 1966 Sarawak constitutional crisis 1967 Teluk Gong demonstrations 1967 Penang
Penang
Hartal riot 1974 Baling demonstrations 1974 Tasek Utara, Johor
Johor
demonstrations 1977 Kelantan
Kelantan
riots 1985 Memali riots 1986 Sabah riots 1993 Sultan of Kelantan
Kelantan
demonstrations 1998 Kampung Rawa riots 2009 Perak
Perak
constitutional crisis 2009 1BLACK Malaysia
Malaysia
protests 2009 cow's head protests 2009 anti-PPSMI rally 2010 Water for People rally 2011 Gathering of a Million Faithful 2012 Orange rally 2012 Green Rally to Putrajaya 2012 People's Lands rally 2015 Taman Medan anti-cross protest 2015 Sarawak for Sarawakians rally 2015 Penang
Penang
villagers protests

Student activism in Malaysia The Big Durian (2003 film) Sepuluh Tahun Sebelum Merdeka (2007 film) Malaysian Gods (2009 film) Tanda Putera
Tanda Putera
(2013 film)

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North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

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Dominion
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Saint Kitts
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1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

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1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

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1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

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Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
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14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
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(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

Authority control

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