The Federal National Council (FNC) (Arabic: المجلس الوطني الإتحادي, al-Majlis al-Watani al-Ittihadi) is the federal authority of the United Arab Emirates formed to represent the general Emirati people. The FNC consist of 40 members with advisory tasks in the house of legislative council. Twenty members are elected by the citizens of the UAE through an electoral college, while the remaining twenty are appointed by the rulers of each emirate. The FNC assembly hall is located in the Abu Dhabi, the capital of UAE.
The National Election Committee (NEC) conducts the election and is authorized to nominate the electoral college members. Any citizen can be selected as a member. The NEC was established in February 2011 by a consensus of the UAE Supreme Council and chaired by the Minister of State for Federal National Council Affairs. The NEC have the authority to look after the election of representatives from all the emirates of the UAE to the Federal National Council (FNC).
The Federal National Council (FNC) was formed under the Provisional Constitution of the United Arab Emirates in 1971 as a permanent component of the country's governing structure, which also includes the Supreme Council, President, Cabinet and Judiciary. Before 2006, all members of the FNC were picked by the Rulers of the emirates.
Over the last 43 years, the FNC has discussed hundreds of issues and drafted laws concerning the people and economy of the country. According to the Constitution, federal draft laws first have to pass through the FNC for review and recommendations. Draft laws and amendments formed with help of specialized house committees are presented to the Council for discussion and later sent back to the Cabinet for consideration and approval. Throughout its history, the Council has influenced the Federal Government to draft laws. Original draft laws from the Cabinet are amended by the Council to suit the needs of the citizens which they represent.
The FNC is responsible under the Constitution for examining, and, if it wishes, amending, all proposed federal legislation, and is empowered to summon and to question any Federal Minister regarding Ministry performance. One of the main duties of the FNC is to discuss the annual budget. Specialized sub-committees and a Research and Studies Unit have been formed to assist FNC members to cope with the increasing demands of modern government.
|Emirate||Number of Senators|
|Ras Al Khaimah||6|
|Umm Al Quwain||4|
Not all UAE nationals are allowed to vote or run for office. 6,689 out of some 800,000 Emirati citizens in the country were eligible to take part in 2006 election. Those eligible were chosen by the rulers of the emirates.
Women are allowed to vote and run for office but there is no quota to ensure a set number of women are elected as there is in some other Arab countries. Over 14 percent of candidates are women. By the end of 2003, all forty members of the FNC were male.
Election officials billed the polls as a trial run they hoped will pave the way for universal suffrage in the coming years. Even then, however, only half of the FNC will be elected.
|Appointed by the rulers of the constituent emirates||20|
In 2011, parliamentary elections had an expanded electoral college with 129,274 members, nearly 20 times more than in 2006. The new Electoral College includes about 12 per cent of UAE nationals. Approximately 35 per cent of the members were under 30 years of age and 46 per cent were women.
In all, 468 candidates, including 85 women, stood for the elections. Many candidates pledged to provide better education and health care and more housing for young UAE nationals. They also promised to strengthen the UAE identity and culture. Several candidates used social media networks such as Facebook to present their plans.
The size of the electoral college increased from 129,274 in 2011 to 224,279 in 2015. All candidates ran as independents. During election campaigning, many candidates focused on social issues, promising to provide better housing and more health services. Others focused on job creation and better educational services. Turnout increased from 27.25% to 35.29%. As in the 2011 elections, one woman was among the 20 winners. On 18 November, the newly elected members were sworn in alongside the 20 appointed members, including eight women.
The 2015 elections used a single-vote system (meaning each voter voted for only one candidate in his/her emirate). Previously, voters were allowed to vote for as many as half the number of seats from their respective emirates. Eligible voters outside the country were allowed to vote for the first time in 2015.