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Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the United States federal government
United States federal government
for use in computer systems by non-military government agencies and government contractors.[1] FIPS standards are issued to establish requirements for various purposes such as ensuring computer security and interoperability, and are intended for cases in which suitable industry standards do not already exist.[1] Many FIPS specifications are modified versions of standards used in the technical communities, such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO).

Contents

1 Specific areas of FIPS standardization 2 Data security standards 3 Withdrawal of geographic codes 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Specific areas of FIPS standardization[edit] The U.S. government has developed various FIPS specifications to standardize a number of topics including:

Codes: for instance, standards for encoding data (such as FIPS county codes or codes to indicate weather conditions or emergency indications). In 1994 NOAA
NOAA
began broadcasting coded signals called FIPS codes along with their standard weather broadcasts from local stations. These codes identify the type of emergency and the specific geographic area, such as a county, affected by the emergency. Encryption standards, such as the Data Encryption Standard
Data Encryption Standard
(FIPS 46-3[2]) and the Advanced Encryption Standard
Advanced Encryption Standard
(FIPS 197[3])

Data security standards[edit] Some FIPS standards have related to the security of data processing systems.[4] Some of these included the use of key escrow systems.[5][6] Withdrawal of geographic codes[edit] Some examples of FIPS Codes for geographical areas include FIPS 10-4 for country codes or region codes and FIPS 5-2 for state codes. These codes were similar to or comparable with, but not the same as, ISO 3166, or the NUTS standard of the European Union. In 2002, the National Institute of Standards and Technology
National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) withdrew several geographic FIPS code standards, including those for countries (FIPS 10-4), U.S. states (FIPS 5-2), and counties (FIPS 6-4).[7][8] These are to be replaced by ISO 3166 and INCITS standards 38 and 31, respectively.[9] Some of the codes maintain the previous numerical system, particularly for states.[10] In 2008, NIST withdrew the FIPS 55-3 database.[7] This database included 5-digit numeric place codes for cities, towns, and villages, or other centers of population in the United States. The codes were assigned alphabetically to places within each state, and as a result changed frequently in order to maintain the alphabetical sorting. NIST replaced these codes with the more permanent GNIS Feature ID, maintained by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names. The GNIS database is the official geographic names repository database for the United States, and is designated the only source of geographic names and locative attributes for use by the agencies of the Federal Government.[11] FIPS 8-6 "Metropolitan Areas" and 9-1 "Congressional Districts of the U.S." were also withdrawn in 2008, to be replaced with INCITS standards 454 and 455, respectively.[9] The U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
used FIPS place codes database to identify legal and statistical entities for county subdivisions, places, and American Indian areas, Alaska Native
Alaska Native
areas, or Hawaiian home lands when they needed to present census data for these areas.[12] In response to the NIST decision, the Census Bureau is in the process of transitioning over to the GNIS Feature ID, which will be completed after the 2010 Census. Until then, previously issued FIPS place codes, renamed "Census Code," will continue to be used, with the Census bureau assigning new codes as needed for their internal use during the transition.[10][13] See also[edit]

Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002
Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002
(FISMA) FIPS 140 Security requirements for cryptography modules FIPS 153 (3D graphics) FIPS 197
FIPS 197
( Rijndael
Rijndael
/ AES cipher) FIPS 199 Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems FIPS 201 Personal Identity Verification for Federal Employees and Contractors List of FIPS region codes List of FIPS state codes

References[edit]

^ a b "FIPS General Information". 2013-09-09. Retrieved 2015-04-01.  ^ FIPS 46-3 ^ FIPS 197 ^ "Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems" (PDF). 2007-03-01. Retrieved 2015-04-01.  ^ "87-20-20 Key Escrow Encryption Policies and Technologies" (PDF). 1998-06-01. Retrieved 2015-02-14.  ^ "FIPS-185 Escrowed Encryption Standard" (PDF). 1994-02-01. Retrieved 2015-04-01.  ^ a b National Institute of Standards and Technology
National Institute of Standards and Technology
(2012-10-22). "Withdrawn FIPS Listed by Number" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2013-03-06.  ^ Turner, James M. (2008-09-02). "Announcing Approval of the Withdrawal of Ten Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)". NIST. Federal Register. 73: 51276. Retrieved 2017-11-02.  ^ a b "FIPS Code Replacement Chart 2012" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2012-06-28. Retrieved 2013-03-06.  ^ a b " American National Standards Institute
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) Codes". United States Census Bureau. February 24, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-03.  ^ "FIPS 55 Change Notice" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. January 1, 2006. Retrieved 2010-08-03.  ^ "Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS)". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2014-02-07. Retrieved 2010-08-03.  ^ "2009 TIGER/Line Shapefiles Technical Documentation" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 

External links[edit]

FIPS homepage at NIST Computer Security Division NIST

v t e

Geocoding systems

Administrative codes

HASC NUTS (EU) ONS MARC country codes SGC codes (Canada) UN M.49 (UN)

Airport codes

IATA airport code ICAO airport code

Country codes

IANA country code ISO 3166-1

alpha-2 alpha-3 numeric

IOC country code FIFA country code

Geodesic place codes

Global

Geohash Geohash-36 GEOREF Geotude SALB Marsden square Military Grid Reference System Munich Orientation Convention Natural Area Code Open Location Code QDGC UN/LOCODE UTM what3words WMO squares

North America

FIPS country code (FIPS 10-4) FIPS place code (FIPS 55) FIPS county code (FIPS 6-4) FIPS state code (FIPS 5-2) SGC codes

Postal codes

Natural Area Code Postal Index Number
Postal Index Number
(India) ZIP Code
ZIP Code
(United States)

Telephony

ITU-R country codes ITU-T country calling codes ITU-T mobile calling codes

Radio broadcasting

Maidenhead Locator System Historical : QRA locator

Sport

IOC country codes FIFA c

.