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The Federal Highway
Highway
Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. The agency's major activities are grouped into two "programs," the Federal-aid Highway
Highway
Program and the Federal Lands Highway
Highway
Program. Its role had previously been performed by the Office of Road Inquiry, Office of Public Roads and the Bureau of Public Roads.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 Creation

2 Functions 3 Organization 4 Long-Term Pavement Performance Program 5 Administrators 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] Background[edit] The organization has several predecessor organizations and a complicated history. The Office of Road Inquiry (ORI) was founded in 1893. In 1905 that organization's name was changed to the Office of Public Roads (OPR) which became a division of the United States Department of Agriculture. The name was changed again to the Bureau of Public Roads in 1915 and to the Public Roads Administration (PRA) in 1939. It was then shifted to the Federal Works Agency
Federal Works Agency
which was abolished in 1949 when its name reverted to Bureau of Public Roads
Bureau of Public Roads
under the Department of Commerce.[citation needed] With the coming of the bicycle in the 1890s, interest grew regarding the improvement of streets and roads in America. The traditional method of putting the burden on maintaining roads on local landowners was increasingly inadequate. New York State took the lead in 1898, and by 1916 the old system had been discarded everywhere area. Demands grew for local and state government to take charge. With the coming of the automobile after 1910, urgent efforts were made to upgrade and modernize dirt roads designed for horse-drawn wagon traffic. The American Association for Highway
Highway
Improvement was organized in 1910. Funding came from automobile registration, and taxes on motor fuels, as well as state aid. In 1916, federal-aid was first made available to improve post-roads, and promote general commerce. Congress appropriated $75 million over a five-year period, with the Secretary of Agriculture in charge through the Bureau of Public Roads, in cooperation with the state highway departments. There were 2.4 million miles of rural dirt rural roads in 1914; 100,000 miles had been improved with grading and gravel, and 3000 miles were given high quality surfacing. The rapidly increasing speed of automobiles, and especially trucks, made maintenance and repair high-priority item. Concrete was first used in 1893, and expanded until it became the dominant surfacing material in the 1930s.[1][2] Federal aid began in 1917. From 1917 through 1941, 261,000 miles of highways were built with federal aid, and cost $5.31 billion. Federal funds totaled $3.17 billion, and state-local funds were $2.14 billion.[3] Creation[edit] The FHWA
FHWA
was created on October 15, 1966. In 1967 the functions of the Bureau of Public Roads
Bureau of Public Roads
were transferred to the new organization. It was one of three original bureaus along with the 'Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety' and the 'National Highway
Highway
Safety Bureau' (now known as National Highway
Highway
Traffic Safety Administration).[4] Functions[edit] The FHWA’s role in the Federal-aid Highway
Highway
Program is to oversee federal funds used for constructing and maintaining the National Highway
Highway
System (primarily Interstate Highways, U.S. Routes and most State Routes). This funding mostly comes from the federal gasoline tax and mostly goes to state departments of transportation.[citation needed] FHWA
FHWA
oversees projects using these funds to ensure that federal requirements for project eligibility, contract administration and construction standards are adhered to. Under the Federal Lands Highway
Highway
Program (sometimes called "direct fed"), the FHWA
FHWA
provides highway design and construction services for various federal land-management agencies, such as the Forest Service and the National Park Service. In addition to these programs, the FHWA
FHWA
performs and sponsors research in the areas of roadway safety, congestion, highway materials and construction methods, and provides funding to local technical assistance program centers to disseminate research results to local highway agencies. The FHWA
FHWA
also publishes the “Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices” (MUTCD), which is used by most highway agencies in the United States. The MUTCD specifies such things as the size, color and height of traffic signs, traffic signals and road surface markings. Organization[edit] The Federal Highway
Highway
Administration is overseen by an Administrator appointed by the President of the United States
President of the United States
by and with the consent of the United States Senate. The Administrator works under the direction of the Secretary of Transportation and Deputy Secretary of Transportation. The internal organization of the FHWA
FHWA
is as follows:[5]

Administrator

Executive Director

Office of Infrastructure Office of Research, Development, and Technology Office of Planning, Environment, and Realty Office of Policy and Government Affairs Office of the Chief Financial Officer Office of Administration Office of Operations Office of Safety Office of Federal Lands Highway Office of Chief Counsel Office of Civil Rights Office of Public Affairs

Long-Term Pavement Performance Program[edit] Main article: Long-Term Pavement Performance Program Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) is a program supported by FHWA to collect and analyse road data. The LTPP program was initiated by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Research Council (NRC) in the early 1980s. Federal Highway
Highway
Administration (FHWA) with the cooperation of the American Association of State Highway
Highway
and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) sponsored the program. As a result of this program, FHWA
FHWA
has collected a huge database of road performance. FHWA
FHWA
and ASCE hold an annual contest known as LTPP International Data Analysis Contest, which is based on challenging researchers to answer a question based on the LTPP data. [6] Administrators[edit]

Roy Stone
Roy Stone
1893-1899 Martin Dodge, 1899–1905 Logan Waller Page, 1905–1918 Thomas Harris MacDonald, 1919–1953 Francis Victor DuPont, 1953–1955 Charles Dwight Curtiss, 1955–1957 John A. Volpe, 1956–57 Bertram Dalley Tallamy, 1957–1961 Rex Marion Whitton, 1961–1966 Lowell K. Bridwell, 1967–1969 Francis Cutler Turner, 1969–1972 Norbert T. Tiemann, 1973–1977 William M. Cox, 1977–1978

Karl S. Bowers, 1978–1980 John S. Hassell, Jr., 1980–1981 Raymond A. Barnhart, 1981–1987 Robert E. Farris, 1988–1989 Thomas D. Larson, 1989–1993 Rodney E. Slater, 1993–1997 General Kenneth R. Wykle, 1997–2001 Mary E. Peters, 2001–2005 J. Richard Capka, 2006–2008 Thomas J. Madison Jr., 2008–2009 Victor Mendez, 2009-2014 Gregory G. Nadeau, 2014-2017

Current:

Administrator: Brandye Hendrickson Deputy Administrator: David S. Kim Executive Director: Walter C. "Butch" Waidelich, Jr.

See also[edit]

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Highway
Highway
Gothic Title 23 of the Code of Federal Regulations Intelligent Transportation Systems Intelligent Transportation Systems
Intelligent Transportation Systems
Institute National Transportation Communications for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol (NTCIP) U.S. Department of Transportation American Association of State Highway
Highway
and Transportation Officials

References[edit]

^ Harold U. Faulkner, The Decline of Laissez Faire, 1897-1917 (1951) pp 233-36. ^ Charles Lee Dearing, American highway policy (1942). ^ The total GNP at current prices, 1917 through 1941 = $2,227.2 billion, so these roads = 5.32/2.227.2 = 1/4 of 1% of GNP. US Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States (1976) pp 224, 711, series F1, Q 64-Q68 ^ "Public Roads - Highway
Highway
Existence: 100 Years and Beyond, Autumn 1993". fhwa.dot.gov.  ^ " FHWA
FHWA
Organization - Federal Highway
Highway
Administration". www.fhwa.dot.gov. Retrieved 15 March 2018.  ^ "Transportation & Development Institute (T&DI) Of The American Society Of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) International Data Analysis Contest". fhwa.dot.gov. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Federal Highway
Highway
Administration.

Official website Records of the Federal Highway
Highway
Administration in the National Archives (Record Group 406) Federal Highway
Highway
Administration in the Federal Register

v t e

Agencies under the United States Department of Transportation

Headquarters: 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE (Transportation Department Building)

Elaine Chao, Secretary of Transportation Jeffrey A. Rosen, Deputy Secretary of Transportation

Deputy Secretary of Transportation

Federal Aviation Administration Federal Highway
Highway
Administration Federal Railroad Administration Federal Transit Administration Inspector General U.S. Maritime Administration Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration National Highway
Highway
Traffic Safety Administration Research and Innovative Technology Administration Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation Surface Transportation Board Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance

Under Secretary of Transportation for Policy

Office of Aviation and International Affairs Office of Tra

.