A federal monarchy is a federation of states with a single monarch as over-all head of the federation, but retaining different monarchs, or a non-monarchical system of government, in the various states joined to the federation.
The term was introduced into English political and historical discourse by Edward Augustus Freeman, in his History of Federal Government (1863). Freeman himself thought a federal monarchy only possible in the abstract.
Historically, the most prominent example of a federal monarchy in the Western world was the German Empire (1871–1918) and, to a lesser extent, its predecessors (North German Confederation and German Confederation). The head of state of the federation was a monarch, the German Emperor, who was also head of state of the largest constituent part to the federation as King of Prussia, while other constituent kingdoms, such as the Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Saxony or Kingdom of Württemberg, retained their own monarchs and armies. Besides the 23 monarchies (22 constituent monarchies and the German emperor) federated into a single federal empire, there were also three republican city-states, namely Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, and Alsace-Lorraine, a semi-autonomous republic since 1912.
The concept played a role in political debates in Italy and Austria-Hungary in the nineteenth century and in Yugoslavia in the twentieth century, but it was not put into effect in any of the cases. For example, modern Italy had not unified until Risorgimento of the late 19th century, with its land still being dived into several smaller kingdoms, duchies, republics, etc. each headed by a different dynasty or ruling class.
Currently, the term can be applied in the fullest sense to the United Arab Emirates and Malaysia; in both the head of state of the entire federation is selected from among the heads of states (Emir, Sultan or Raja, respectively) who rule the constituent states of the federation.
While not officially declared as such, Spain has been referred to as a federal monarchy, due to having many autonomous communities helmed by presidents who all answer to the Spanish crown. Commonwealth realms are also sometimes referred to as federal monarchies in a way, as they all share the same individual as their respective sovereign while maintaining separate governments.
|Nation||Official name||Subdivisions||Head of state|
|Australia||Commonwealth of Australia||States and territories||Queen or king|
|Belgium||Kingdom of Belgium||Communities and Regions||King or queen|
|Canada||Canada||Provinces and territories||Queen or king|
|Malaysia||Malaysia||States and federal territories||King|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis||Parish||Queen or king|
|United Arab Emirates||United Arab Emirates||Emirates||President|