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FAUNA is all of the animal life of any particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is _flora _. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota . Zoologists and paleontologists use _fauna_ to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the " Sonoran Desert fauna" or the " Burgess Shale fauna". Paleontologists sometimes refer to a sequence of faunal stages , which is a series of rocks all containing similar fossils.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Subdivisions

* 2.1 Cryofauna * 2.2 Cryptofauna * 2.3 Infauna * 2.4 Epifauna * 2.5 Macrofauna * 2.6 Megafauna * 2.7 Meiofauna * 2.8 Mesofauna * 2.9 Microfauna * 2.10 Other

* 3 Treatises

* 3.1 Classic faunas

* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

ETYMOLOGY

_Fauna_ comes from the Greek names Fauna , a Roman goddess of earth and fertility, the Roman god Faunus , and the related forest spirits called Fauns . All three words are cognates of the name of the Greek god Pan , and _panis_ is the Greek equivalent of fauna. _Fauna_ is also the word for a book that catalogues the animals in such a manner. The term was first used by Carl Linnaeus from Sweden in the title of his 1745 work _ Fauna Suecica_.

SUBDIVISIONS

Australian and New Zealand fauna . This image was likely first published in the first edition (1876–1899) of the Nordisk familjebok .

CRYOFAUNA

_Cryofauna_ are animals that live in, or very close to, ice .

CRYPTOFAUNA

_Cryptofauna_ are the fauna that exist in protected or concealed microhabitats .

INFAUNA

_ Infauna _ are benthic organisms that live within the bottom substratum of a body of water, especially within the bottom-most oceanic sediments, rather than on its surface. Bacteria and microalgae may also live in the interstices of bottom sediments. In general, infaunal animals become progressively smaller and less abundant with increasing water depth and distance from shore, whereas bacteria show more constancy in abundance, tending toward one million cells per milliliter of interstitial seawater.

EPIFAUNA

Epifauna, also called _epibenthos_, are aquatic animals that live on the bottom substratum as opposed to within it, that is, the benthic fauna that live on top of the sediment surface at the seafloor...

MACROFAUNA

_Macrofauna_ are benthic or soil organisms which are retained on a 0.5 mm sieve. Studies in the deep sea define macrofauna as animals retained on a 0.3 mm sieve to account for the small size of many of the taxa.

MEGAFAUNA

Main article: Megafauna

_Megafauna_ are large animals of any particular region or time. For example, Australian megafauna .

MEIOFAUNA

Main article: Meiobenthos

_Meiofauna_ are small benthic invertebrates that live in both marine and fresh water environments . The term _Meiofauna_ loosely defines a group of organisms by their size, larger than microfauna but smaller than macrofauna, rather than a taxonomic grouping. One environment for meiofauna is between grains of damp sand (see Mystacocarida ).

In practice these are metazoan animals that can pass unharmed through a 0.5 – 1 mm mesh but will be retained by a 30–45 μm mesh, but the exact dimensions will vary from researcher to researcher. Whether an organism passes through a 1 mm mesh also depends upon whether it is alive or dead at the time of sorting.

MESOFAUNA

Main article: Soil mesofauna

_Mesofauna_ are macroscopic soil animals such as arthropods or nematodes . Mesofauna are extremely diverse; considering just the springtails ( Collembola ), as of 1998, approximately 6,500 species had been identified.

MICROFAUNA

Main article: Microfauna

_Microfauna_ are microscopic or very small animals (usually including protozoans and very small animals such as rotifers ).

OTHER

Examples of fauna in Olleros de Tera ( Spain )

Other terms include _avifauna _, which means "bird fauna" and _piscifauna_ (or _ichthyofauna _), which means "fish fauna".

TREATISES

CLASSIC FAUNAS

* Linnaeus, Carolus . _ Fauna Suecica_. 1746

SEE ALSO

* Environment portal * Ecology portal * Earth sciences portal

* Biodiversity * Biome * Ecology * Ecosystem * Environmental movement * Fauna and Flora Preservation Society * Gene pool * Genetic erosion * Genetic pollution * Natural environment * Soil zoology

REFERENCES

* ^ Wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Linnaeus * ^ NCRI * ^ Fauna of Sandy Beaches * ^ Josef Rusek (1998). " Biodiversity of Collembola and their functional role in the ecosystem". _ Biodiversity and Conservation_. 7 (9): 1207–1219. doi :10.1023/A:1008887817883 .

EXTERNAL

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