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Fauna
Fauna
is all of the animal life of any particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the " Sonoran Desert
Sonoran Desert
fauna" or the " Burgess Shale
Burgess Shale
fauna". Paleontologists sometimes refer to a sequence of faunal stages, which is a series of rocks all containing similar fossils. The study of animals of a particular region is called faunistics.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Subdivisions

2.1 Cryofauna 2.2 Cryptofauna 2.3 Infauna 2.4 Epifauna 2.5 Macrofauna 2.6 Megafauna 2.7 Meiofauna 2.8 Mesofauna 2.9 Microfauna 2.10 Other

3 Treatises

3.1 Classic faunas

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Etymology[edit] Fauna
Fauna
comes from the name Fauna, a Roman goddess of earth and fertility, the Roman god Faunus, and the related forest spirits called Fauns. All three words are cognates of the name of the Greek god Pan, and panis is the Greek equivalent of fauna. Fauna
Fauna
is also the word for a book that catalogues the animals in such a manner. The term was first used by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
from Sweden in the title of his 1745[1] work Fauna
Fauna
Suecica. Subdivisions[edit]

Australian and New Zealand fauna. This image was likely first published in the first edition (1876–1899) of the Nordisk familjebok.

Cryofauna[edit] Cryofauna are animals that live in, or very close to, ice. Cryptofauna[edit] Cryptofauna are the fauna that exist in protected or concealed microhabitats.[2] Infauna[edit] Infauna are benthic organisms that live within the bottom substratum of a body of water, especially within the bottom-most oceanic sediments, rather than on its surface. Bacteria
Bacteria
and microalgae may also live in the interstices of bottom sediments. In general, infaunal animals become progressively smaller and less abundant with increasing water depth and distance from shore, whereas bacteria show more constancy in abundance, tending toward one million cells per milliliter of interstitial seawater. Epifauna[edit] Epifauna, also called epibenthos, are aquatic animals that live on the bottom substratum as opposed to within it, that is, the benthic fauna that live on top of the sediment surface at the seafloor... Macrofauna[edit] Macrofauna are benthic or soil organisms which are retained on a 0.5 mm sieve. Studies in the deep sea define macrofauna as animals retained on a 0.3 mm sieve to account for the small size of many of the taxa. Megafauna[edit] Main article: Megafauna Megafauna
Megafauna
are large animals of any particular region or time. For example, Australian megafauna. Meiofauna[edit] Main article: Meiobenthos Meiofauna are small benthic invertebrates that live in both marine and fresh water environments. The term Meiofauna loosely defines a group of organisms by their size, larger than microfauna but smaller than macrofauna, rather than a taxonomic grouping. One environment for meiofauna is between grains of damp sand (see Mystacocarida). In practice these are metazoan animals that can pass unharmed through a 0.5 – 1 mm mesh but will be retained by a 30–45 μm mesh,[3] but the exact dimensions will vary from researcher to researcher. Whether an organism passes through a 1 mm mesh also depends upon whether it is alive or dead at the time of sorting. Mesofauna[edit] Main article: Soil mesofauna Mesofauna are macroscopic soil animals such as arthropods or nematodes. Mesofauna are extremely diverse; considering just the springtails (Collembola), as of 1998, approximately 6,500 species had been identified.[4] Microfauna[edit] Main article: Microfauna Microfauna
Microfauna
are microscopic or very small animals (usually including protozoans and very small animals such as rotifers). Other[edit]

Examples of fauna in Olleros de Tera (Spain)

Other terms include avifauna, which means "bird fauna" and piscifauna (or ichthyofauna), which means "fish fauna". Treatises[edit] Classic faunas[edit]

Linnaeus, Carolus. Fauna
Fauna
Suecica. 1746

See also[edit]

Environment portal Ecology
Ecology
portal Earth
Earth
sciences portal

Biodiversity Biome Ecology Ecosystem Environmental movement Fauna
Fauna
and Flora
Flora
Preservation Society Gene pool Genetic erosion Genetic pollution Natural environment Soil zoology

References[edit]

^ Wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Linnaeus ^ NCRI ^ Fauna
Fauna
of Sandy Beaches ^ Josef Rusek (1998). " Biodiversity
Biodiversity
of Collembola
Collembola
and their functional role in the ecosystem". Biodiversity
Biodiversity
and Conservation. 7 (9): 1207–1219. doi:10.1023/A:1008887817883. 

External links[edit]

Look up fauna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fauna.

" Biodiversity
Biodiversity
of Collembola
Collembola
and their functional role in the ecosystem"

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Fauna
Fauna
of Africa

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Fauna
Fauna
of Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus East Timor (Timor-Leste) Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

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Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus Palestine South Ossetia Taiwan

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Fauna
Fauna
of Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland

Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

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Abkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria

Dependencies and other entities

Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard

v t e

Fauna
Fauna
of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

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Fauna
Fauna
of North America

Sovereign states

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States

Dependencies and other territories

Anguilla Aruba Bermuda Bonaire British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Curaçao Greenland Guadeloupe Martinique Montserrat Puerto Rico Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saba Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten Turks and Caicos Islands United States Virgin Islands

v t e

Fauna
Fauna
of South America

Sovereign states

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela

Dependencies and other territories

Falkland Islands French Guiana South Georgia and the Sout

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