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The Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: الفاطميون‎, al-Fāṭimīyūn) was an Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the west. The dynasty of Arab origin[4][5] ruled across the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt
Egypt
the centre of the caliphate. At its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt
Egypt
varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz. The Fatimids
Fatimids
claimed descent from Fatimah, the daughter of Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Fatimid
Fatimid
state took shape among the Kutama Berbers, in the West of the North African littoral, in Algeria, in 909 conquering Raqqada, the Aghlabid
Aghlabid
capital. In 921 the Fatimids established the Tunisian city of Mahdia
Mahdia
as their new capital. In 948 they shifted their capital to Al-Mansuriya, near Kairouan
Kairouan
in Tunisia. In 969 they conquered Egypt
Egypt
and established Cairo
Cairo
as the capital of their caliphate; Egypt
Egypt
became the political, cultural, and religious centre of their empire. The Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphate was distinguished by the central role of Berbers
Berbers
in its initial establishment and in helping its development, especially on the military and political levels.[citation needed] The ruling class belonged to the Ismaili
Ismaili
branch of Shi'ism, as did the leaders of the dynasty. The existence of the caliphate marked the only time the descendants of Ali
Ali
and Fatimah
Fatimah
were united to any degree (except for the final period of the Rashidun Caliphate
Caliphate
under Ali himself from 656 to 661) and the name "Fatimid" refers to Fatimah. The different term Fatimite is sometimes used to refer to the caliphate's subjects. After the initial conquests, the caliphate often allowed a degree of religious tolerance towards non- Ismaili
Ismaili
sects of Islam, as well as to Jews, Maltese Christians, and Egyptian Coptic Christians.[6] However, its leaders made little headway in persuading the Egyptian population to adopt its religious beliefs.[7] During the late eleventh and twelfth centuries the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphate declined rapidly, and in 1171 Saladin
Saladin
invaded its territory. He founded the Ayyubid dynasty
Ayyubid dynasty
and incorporated the Fatimid
Fatimid
state into the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate.[8]

Contents

1 Rise of the Fatimids

1.1 Origins 1.2 Expansion 1.3 Capitals 1.4 Administration and culture

2 Military system 3 Civil war and decline 4 Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphs / imams

4.1 Burial places

5 Decay and fall 6 Fatimid
Fatimid
heritage 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 Notes 11 External links

Rise of the Fatimids[edit]

Part of a series on Shīa Islam Isma‘ilism

Concepts

Qur'an Ẓāhir Bātin Nūr Pīr Ginans 'Aql ʿIlm Hujja Dā'ī Dawah Taqiya Numerology Panentheism Reincarnation

Seven Pillars

Love of Mohammad and Ahl_al-Bayt Purity Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage StrivingStruggle

Mustā‘lī & Nizari
Nizari
History

Shuʿayb Nabi Shu'ayb Seveners Qarmatians Abū Saʿīd al-Jannābī Abū Tāhir al-Jannābī Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate Nizari
Nizari
Ismaili
Ismaili
state Baghdad Manifesto Qāżi Noʿmān Nasir Khusraw al-Sulayhi Zoeb bin Moosa Nizari Mustā‘lī Hafizi Batiniyya Hassan-i Sabbah Assassins Alamut Lambsar Castle Alamut
Alamut
Castle Masyaf Castle Rashid ad-Din Sinan Satpanth Pir Sadardin Böszörmény Aga Khan Jama'at Khana Du'a

Early Imāms

Ali Hasan Husayn as-Sajjad al-Baqir Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq Ismāʿīl ibn Jaʿfar al-Mubārak Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismāʿīl ash-Shākir ʿAbadu l-Lāh (al-Wāfī Ahmad) Ahmad (al-Taqī Muhammad) Ḥusayn (ar-Raḍī ʿAbdillāh) ʿAbdu l-Lāh al-Mahdī bi l-Lāh al-Qāʾim al-Manṣūr al-Muʿizz al-ʿAzīz al-Ḥākim al-Ẓāhir al-Mustanṣir bi l-Lāh Nizār al-Muṣṭafā li-Dīn’il-Lāh / Aḥmadu l-Mustāʿlī bi l-Lāh Manṣūr al-Āmir bi-Aḥkām’il-Lāh Abu l-Qāsim al-Tayyib

Nizari
Nizari
Ismaili
Ismaili
& Taiyabi
Taiyabi
Da'is 

Nizārī Ismā'īlī Aga Khan
Aga Khan
IV

Taiyabi-Musta’li Ismailis

Dawoodi Bohra Mufaddal Saifuddin

Sulaymani Al-Fakhri Abdullah

Alavi Bohra Haatim Zakiyuddin

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Origins[edit] The Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate's religious ideology originated in an Ismaili Shia
Shia
movement launched in the 9th century in Salamiyah, Syria
Syria
by the eighth Ismaili
Ismaili
Imam, Abd Allah al-Akbar[9] (766-828). He claimed descent through Ismail, the seventh Ismaili
Ismaili
Imam, from Fatimah
Fatimah
and her husband ʻAlī ibn-Abī-Tālib, the first Shīʻa Imām, whence his name al-Fātimī "the Fatimid".[10] The eighth to tenth Ismaili
Ismaili
Imams, (Abadullah, Ahmed (c. 813-c. 840) and Husain (died 881)), remained hidden and worked for the movement against the rulers of the period. Together with his son, the 11th Imam
Imam
Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah
Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah
(lived 873-934), in the guise of a merchant, made his way to Sijilmasa,[9] in present-day Morocco, fleeing persecution by the Abbasids, who found their Isma'ili
Isma'ili
Shi'ite
Shi'ite
beliefs not only unorthodox, but also threatening to the status quo of their caliphate. According to legend, 'Abdullah and his son were fulfilling a prophecy that the mahdi would come from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
to Sijilmasa. They hid among the population of Sijilmasa, then an independent emirate, ruled by Prince Yasa' ibn Midrar (r. 884-909).[9] The dedicated Shi'ite
Shi'ite
Abu Abdallah al-Shi'i supported Al-Mahdi. Al-Shi'i started his preaching after he encountered a group of Muslim North African during his hajj. These men bragged about the country of the Kutama in western Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(today part of Algeria), and the hostility of the Kutama towards, and their complete independence from, the Aghlabid
Aghlabid
rulers. This triggered al-Shi'i to travel to the region, where he started to preach the Ismaili
Ismaili
doctrine. The Berber peasants, oppressed for decades under the corrupt Aghlabid
Aghlabid
rule, would prove themselves to be a perfect basis for sedition. Rapidly, al-Shi'i began conquering cities in the region: first Mila, then Sétif, Kairouan, and eventually Raqqada, the Aghlabid
Aghlabid
capital. In 909 Al-Shi'i sent a large expedition force to rescue the Mahdi, conquering the Khariji state of Tahert
Tahert
on its way there. After gaining his freedom, Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah became the leader of the growing state and assumed the position of imam and caliph.[clarification needed] Expansion[edit] Abdullāh al-Mahdi's control soon extended over all of the Maghreb, an area consisting of the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya,[11] which he ruled from Mahdia. The newly built city of Al-Mansuriya,[a] or Mansuriyya (Arabic: المنصوريه‎), near Kairouan, Tunisia, was the capital of the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate
Caliphate
during the rule of the Imams Al-Mansur Billah
Al-Mansur Billah
(r. 946–953) and Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah (r. 953–975). The Fatimid
Fatimid
general Jawhar conquered Egypt
Egypt
in 969, where he built a new palace city, near Fusṭāt, which he also called al-Manṣūriyya. Under Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah, the Fatimids
Fatimids
conquered the Ikhshidid Wilayah
Ikhshidid Wilayah
(see Fatimid
Fatimid
Egypt), founding a new capital at al-Qāhira (Cairo) in 969.[13] The name was a reference to the planet Mars, "The Subduer",[10] which was prominent in the sky at the moment that city construction started. Cairo
Cairo
was intended as a royal enclosure for the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliph and his army, though the actual administrative and economic capital of Egypt
Egypt
was in cities such as Fustat
Fustat
until 1169. After Egypt, the Fatimids
Fatimids
continued to conquer the surrounding areas until they ruled from Tunisia
Tunisia
to Syria, as well as Sicily. Under the Fatimids, Egypt
Egypt
became the centre of an empire that included at its peak parts of North Africa, Sicily, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast of Africa, Tihamah, Hejaz, and Yemen.[citation needed] Egypt
Egypt
flourished, and the Fatimids
Fatimids
developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the Indian Ocean. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China and its Song Dynasty, which eventually determined the economic course of Egypt
Egypt
during the High Middle Ages. The Fatimid
Fatimid
focus on long-distance trade was accompanied by a lack of interest in agriculture and a neglect of the Nile irrigation system.[10] Capitals[edit] Al-Mahdiyya, the first capital of the Fatimid
Fatimid
dynasty, was established by the first caliph of the Fatimid
Fatimid
dynasty, ʿAbdullāh al-Mahdī (297–322/909–934) in 300/912–913. The caliph had been residing in nearby Raqqada
Raqqada
but chose a new and more strategic location to establish his dynasty. The city of al-Mahdiyya is located on a narrow peninsula along the coast of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, east of Ḳayrawān and just south of the Gulf of Hammamet in modern-day Tunisia. The primary concern in the city’s construction and locale was defense. With its peninsular topography and the construction of a wall 8.3 m thick, the city became impenetrable by land. This strategic location together with a navy that the Fatimids
Fatimids
had inherited from the conquered Aghlabids, the city of Al-Mahdiyya became a strong military base where ʿAbdullāh al-Mahdī consolidated power and established the roots of the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphate for two generations. The city included two royal palaces — one for the caliph ‘Abdullāh al-Mahdī and one for his son and successor the caliph al-Ḳāʾim — a mosque, many administrative buildings, and an arsenal.[14] Al-Manṣūriyya was established between 334 and 336/945-8 by the third Fatimid
Fatimid
caliph al-Manṣūr (334-41/946-53) in a settlement known as Ṣabra, located on the outskirts of Ḳayrawān in modern-day Tunisia. The new capital was established in commemoration of the victory of al-Manṣūr over the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite rebel Abū Yazīd at Ṣabra. Like Baghdad, the plan of the city of Al-Manṣūriyya is round, with the caliphal palace at its center. Due to a plentiful water source, the city grew and expanded a great deal under al-Manṣūr. Recent archaeological evidence suggests that there were more than 300 ḥammāms built during this period in the city as well as numerous palaces. When al-Manṣūr’s successor, al-Muʿizz moved the caliphate to al-Ḳāhira, his deputy stayed behind as regent of al-Manṣūriyya and usurped power for himself, marking the end of the Fatimid
Fatimid
reign in al-Manṣūriyya and the beginning of the city’s ruin (spurred on by a violent revolt). The city remained downtrodden and more or less uninhabited for centuries afterward.[15] Al-Ḳāhira (Cairo) was established by the fourth Fatimid
Fatimid
caliph al-Muʿizz in 359/970 and remained the capital of the Fatimid caliphate for the duration of the dynasty. Al-Ḳāhira (Cairo) can thus be considered the capital of Fatimid
Fatimid
cultural production. Though the original Fatimid
Fatimid
palace complex, including administrative buildings and royal residents no longer exist, modern scholars can glean a good idea of the original structure based on the Mamluk-era account of al-Maḳrīzī. Perhaps the most important of Fatimid monuments outside the palace complex is the mosque of al-Azhar (359-61/970-2) which still stands today, though little of the building is original to its first Fatimid
Fatimid
construction. Likewise the important Fatimid
Fatimid
mosque of al-Ḥākim, built from 380-403/990-1012 under two Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphs, has been rebuilt under subsequent dynasties. Al-Ḳāhira (Cairo) remained the capital for, including al-Muʿizz, eleven generations of caliphs, after which the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate finally fell to Ayyubid forces in 567/1171.[16] Administration and culture[edit]

The Al-Hakim Mosque
Al-Hakim Mosque
in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra

Fragment of a bowl depicting a mounted warrior, 11th century. Fatimid dynasty, found in Fustat, Egypt. Brooklyn Museum

Unlike western European governments in the era, advancement in Fatimid state offices was more meritocratic than based on heredity. Members of other branches of Islam, like the Sunnis, were just as likely to be appointed to government posts as Shiites. Tolerance was extended to non-Muslims such as Christians and Jews,[10] who occupied high levels in government based on ability, and tolerance was set into place to ensure the flow of money from all those who were non-Muslims in order to finance the Caliphs' large army of Mamluks
Mamluks
brought in from Circassia by Genoese merchants.[citation needed] There were exceptions to this general attitude of tolerance, however, most notably by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, though this has been highly debated, with Al-Hakim's reputation among medieval Muslim
Muslim
historians conflated with his role in the Druze
Druze
faith.[10] The Fatimids
Fatimids
were also known for their exquisite arts. A type of ceramic, lustreware, was prevalent during the Fatimid
Fatimid
period. Glassware and metalworking was also popular. Many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in Cairo
Cairo
today; the most defining examples include the Al-Azhar University
Al-Azhar University
and the Al-Hakim Mosque. The madrasa is one of the relics of the Fatimid
Fatimid
dynasty era of Egypt, descended from Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad. Fatimah
Fatimah
was called Az-Zahra (the brilliant), and the madrasa was named in her honour.[17] It was founded as a mosque by the Fatimid
Fatimid
commander Jawhar at the orders of the Caliph
Caliph
Al-Muizz when he founded the city of Cairo. It was (probably on Saturday) in Jamadi al-Awwal in the year 359 A.H. Its building was completed on the 9th of Ramadan in the year 361 A.H. Both Al-'Aziz Billah and Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
added to its premises. It was further repaired, renovated, and extended by Al-Mustansir Billah and Al-Hafiz
Al-Hafiz
Li-Din-illah. Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphs always encouraged scholars and jurists to have their study-circles and gatherings in this mosque, and thus it was turned into a university that has the claim to be considered as the oldest still-functioning University.[18] Intellectual life in Egypt
Egypt
during the Fatimid
Fatimid
period achieved great progress and activity, due to many scholars who lived in or came to Egypt, as well as the number of books available. Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphs gave prominent positions to scholars in their courts, encouraged students, and established libraries in their palaces, so that scholars might expand their knowledge and reap benefits from the work of their predecessors.[18] Perhaps the most significant feature of Fatimid
Fatimid
rule, was the freedom of thought and reason extended to the people, who could believe in whatever they liked, provided they did not infringe on the rights of others. Fatimids
Fatimids
reserved separate pulpits for different Islamic sects, where the scholars expressed their ideas in whatever manner they liked. Fatimids
Fatimids
gave patronage to scholars and invited them from every place, spending money on them even when their beliefs conflicted with those of the Fatimids.[18][tone] The Fatimid
Fatimid
palace in Cairo
Cairo
had two parts. It stood in the Khan el-Khalili area at Bayn El-Qasryn street.[19] Military system[edit] Further information: Fatimid
Fatimid
navy The Fatimid
Fatimid
military was based largely on the Kutama Berber tribesmen brought along on the march to Egypt, and they remained an important part of the military even after Tunisia
Tunisia
began to break away.[20] After their successful establishment in Egypt, local Egyptian forces were also incorporated into the army, so the Fatimid
Fatimid
Army were reinforced by North African soldiers from Algeria
Algeria
to Egypt
Egypt
in the Eastern North. (and of succeeding dynasties as well).[citation needed] A fundamental change occurred when the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliph
Caliph
attempted to push into Syria
Syria
in the later half of the 10th century. The Fatimids were faced with the now Turkish-dominated forces of the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph and began to realize the limits of their current military. Thus during the reign of Abu Mansur Nizar al-Aziz Billah
Abu Mansur Nizar al-Aziz Billah
and Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the Caliph
Caliph
began incorporating armies of Turks and later black Africans (even later, other groups such as Armenians were also used).[21] The army units were generally separated along ethnic lines, thus the Berbers
Berbers
were usually the light cavalry and foot skirmishers, while the Turks were the horse archers or heavy cavalry (known as Mamluks). The black Africans, Syrians, and Arabs
Arabs
generally acted as the heavy infantry and foot archers. This ethnic-based army system, along with the partial slave status of many of the imported ethnic fighters, would remain fundamentally unchanged in Egypt
Egypt
for many centuries after the fall of the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliph.[citation needed] The Fatimids
Fatimids
put all their military power toward the defence of the empire whenever it was menaced by dangers and threats, which they were able to repel, especially during the rule of Al-Muizz Lideenillah. During his reign, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was ruled by Nikephoros II Phokas, who had destroyed the Muslim
Muslim
Emirate
Emirate
of Chandax in 961 and conquered Tartus, Al-Masaisah, 'Ain Zarbah, and other places, gaining complete control of Iraq and the Syrian borders as well as earning the sobriquet, the "Pale Death of the Saracens". With the Fatimids, however, he proved less successful. After renouncing his payments of tribute to the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphs, he sent an expedition to Sicily, but was forced by defeats on land and sea to evacuate the island completely. In 967, he made peace with the Fatimids
Fatimids
and turned to defend himself against their common enemy, Otto I, who had proclaimed himself Roman Emperor and had attacked Byzantine possessions in Italy.[citation needed] Civil war and decline[edit]

The Al-Azhar Mosque, of medieval Islamic Cairo.

Renovated Juyushi Mosque,Cairo

While the ethnic-based army was generally successful on the battlefield, it began to have negative effects on Fatimid
Fatimid
internal politics. Traditionally the Berber element of the army had the strongest sway over political affairs, but as the Turkish element grew more powerful, it began to challenge this, and by 1020 serious riots had begun to break out among the Black African troops who were fighting back against a Berber-Turk Alliance. By the 1060s, the tentative balance between the different ethnic groups within the Fatimid
Fatimid
army collapsed as Egypt
Egypt
suffered an extended period of drought and famine. Declining resources accelerated the problems among the different ethnic factions, and outright civil war began, primarily between the Turks under Nasir al-Dawla ibn Hamdan and Black African troops, while the Berbers
Berbers
shifted alliance between the two sides.[22] The Turkish forces of the Fatimid
Fatimid
army seized most of Cairo
Cairo
and held the city and Caliph
Caliph
at ransom, while the Berber troops and remaining Sudanese
Sudanese
forces roamed the other parts of Egypt. By 1072, in a desperate attempt to save Egypt, the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliph
Caliph
Abū Tamīm Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah
Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah
recalled general Badr al-Jamali, who was at the time the governor of Acre, Palestine. Badr al-Jamali
Badr al-Jamali
led his troops into Egypt
Egypt
and was able to successfully suppress the different groups of the rebelling armies, largely purging the Turks in the process. Although the Caliphate
Caliphate
was saved from immediate destruction, the decade long rebellion devastated Egypt
Egypt
and it was never able to regain much power. As a result, Badr al-Jamali
Badr al-Jamali
was also made the vizier of the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliph, becoming one of the first military viziers ("Amir al Juyush", Arabic: امير الجيوش‎, Commander of Forces of the Fatimids) who would dominate late Fatimid politics. Al-Jam`e Al-Juyushi (Arabic: الجامع الجيوشي‎, The Mosque
Mosque
of the Armies), or Juyushi Mosque, was built by Badr al-Jamali. The mosque was completed in 478 H/1085 AD under the patronage of then Caliph
Caliph
and Imam
Imam
Ma'ad al-Mustansir
Ma'ad al-Mustansir
Billah. It was built on an end of the Mokattam
Mokattam
Hills, ensuring a view of the Cairo city.[23] This Mosque/mashhad was also known as a victory monument commemorating vizier Badr's restoration of order for the Imam Mustansir.[24] As the military viziers effectively became heads of state, the Caliph
Caliph
himself was reduced to the role of a figurehead. Badr al-Jamali's son, Al-Afdal Shahanshah, succeeded him in power as vizier. After the eighteenth Imam, al-Mustansir Billah, the Nizari
Nizari
sect believed that his son Nizar was his successor, while another Ismāʿīlī branch known as the Mustaali
Mustaali
(from whom the Dawoodi Bohra would eventually descend), supported his other son, al-Musta'li. The Fatimid
Fatimid
dynasty continued with al- Musta'li
Musta'li
as both Imam
Imam
and Caliph, and those positions were held jointly until the 20th Imam, al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah (1132 CE). At the death of Imam
Imam
Amir, one branch of the Mustaali
Mustaali
faith claimed that he had transferred the imamate to his son at-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim, who was then two years old. Another faction claimed Amir died without producing an heir, and supported Amir's cousin al-Hafiz as both the rightful Caliph
Caliph
and Imam. The al-Hafiz faction became the Hafizi
Hafizi
Ismailis, who later converted during the rule of Sultan Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūbi. The supporters of Tayyeb became the Tayyibi
Tayyibi
Ismāʿīlī. Tayyeb's claim to the imamate was endorsed by the Hurratu l-Malika ("the Noble Queen") Arwa al-Sulayhi, the Queen of Yemen. Arwa was designated a hujjah (a holy, pious lady), the highest rank in the Yemeni Dawat, by al-Mustansir in 1084 CE. Under Queen Arwa, the Dai al-Balagh (intermediary between the Imam
Imam
in Cairo
Cairo
and local headquarters) Lamak ibn Malik and then Yahya ibn Lamak worked for the cause of the Fatimids. After seclusion of Imam
Imam
Taiyab Dai given independent charge by Queen Arwa, and were called Dai al Mutlaq. First Dai Mutlaq was Syedna Zoib, common Dai of all Taiybians.

Burial place of Fatimid, Mukhallafāt al-Rasul, Cairo, Egypt.

Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphs / imams[edit]

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Main article: List of caliphs of the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate

Abū Muḥammad 'Abdul-Lāh al-Mahdī bi'llāh (909–934) founder Fatimid
Fatimid
dynasty Abū l-Qāsim Muḥammad al-Qā'im bi-Amr Allāh (934–946) Abū Ṭāhir Ismā'il al-Manṣūr bi-llāh (946–953) Abū Tamīm Ma'add al-Mu'izz li-Dīn Allāh (953–975) Egypt
Egypt
is conquered during his reign Abū Manṣūr Nizār al-'Azīz bi-llāh (975–996) Abū 'Alī al-Manṣūr al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (996–1021) The Druze
Druze
religion is founded during the lifetime of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Abū'l-Ḥasan 'Alī al-Ẓāhir li-I'zāz Dīn Allāh (1021–1036) Abū Tamīm Ma'add al-Mustanṣir bi-llāh (1036–1094) al-Musta'lī bi-llāh (1094–1101) Quarrels over his succession led to the Nizari
Nizari
split. Abū 'Alī Mansur al-Āmir bi-Aḥkām Allāh (1101–1130) The Fatimid
Fatimid
rulers of Egypt
Egypt
after him are not recognized as Imams by Mustaali/ Taiyabi
Taiyabi
Ismailis. 'Abd al-Majīd al-Ḥāfiẓ (1130–1149) The Hafizi
Hafizi
sect is founded with Al-Hafiz
Al-Hafiz
as Imam. al-Ẓāfir (1149–1154) al-Fā'iz (1154–1160) al-'Āḍid (1160–1171)[25]

Burial places[edit] There is the place known as "Al-Mashhad al-Hussaini" (Masjid Imam Husain, Cairo), wherein lie buried underground Twelve Fatimid
Fatimid
Imams from 9th Taqi Muhammad
Muhammad
to 20th Mansur al-Āmir. This place is also known as "Bāb Mukhallafāt al-Rasul" (door of remaining part of Rasul), where Sacred Hair [26][27] of Muhammad
Muhammad
is preserved. Decay and fall[edit] In the 1040s, the Berber Zirids
Zirids
(governors of North Africa
North Africa
under the Fatimids) declared their independence from the Fatimids
Fatimids
and their recognition of the Sunni
Sunni
Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs of Baghdad, which led the Fatimids
Fatimids
to launch the devastating Banū Hilal invasions of North Africa. After about 1070, the Fatimid
Fatimid
hold on the Levant
Levant
coast and parts of Syria
Syria
was challenged first by Turkic invasions, then the Crusades, so that Fatimid
Fatimid
territory shrank until it consisted only of Egypt. The Fatimids
Fatimids
gradually lost the Emirate of Sicily
Emirate of Sicily
over thirty years to the Italo-Norman
Italo-Norman
Roger I who was in total control of the entire island by 1091. The reliance on the Iqta system also ate into Fatimid
Fatimid
central authority, as more and more the military officers at the further ends of the empire became semi-independent. After the decay of the Fatimid
Fatimid
political system in the 1160s, the Zengid
Zengid
ruler Nūr ad-Dīn had his general, Shirkuh, seize Egypt
Egypt
from the vizier Shawar in 1169. Shirkuh
Shirkuh
died two months after taking power, and rule passed to his nephew, Saladin.[28] This began the Ayyubid Sultanate of Egypt
Sultanate of Egypt
and Syria. Fatimid
Fatimid
heritage[edit] After caliph al-'Āḍid, the Fatimids
Fatimids
were deposed from rule over Egypt
Egypt
by the Ayyubids. Many " Tayyibi
Tayyibi
groups" (Alavi, Hebtiahs, Atbai Malak, Dawoodi) lay claim to the Fatimid
Fatimid
legacy. The Taiyabi
Taiyabi
(the Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
being a majority constituent) claim that their Da`is (see List of Dai of Dawoodi Bohra) are successors in authority to 21st Imam
Imam
Taiyab abi al-Qasim, the son of 20th Imam
Imam
Mansur al-Āmir bi-Aḥkām Allāh (10th Fatimid
Fatimid
calipha) (the office of Da`i being instituted by Sulayhid queen of Yemen
Yemen
Arwa al-Sulayhi). Arwa al-Sulayhi was the Hujjah in Yemen
Yemen
from the time of Imam
Imam
al Mustansir. She appointed the Dai in Yemen
Yemen
to run religious affairs. Ismaili missionaries Ahmed and Abadullah (in about 1067 AD(460AH))[29][30] were also sent to India in that time. They sent Syedi Nuruddin
Syedi Nuruddin
to Dongaon to look after southern part and Syedi Fakhruddin
Syedi Fakhruddin
to East Rajasthan, India.[31][32] The Nizari
Nizari
claim that Nizar succeeded Mustansir Billah in the Ismaili Imamate. Their current leader, titled Aga Khan, is Shah Karim al-Hussaini, the 49th Hazir Imam. See also[edit]

Badr al-Jamali Al-Afdal Shahanshah Al-Ma'mun al-Bata'ihi Emirate
Emirate
of Sicily List of Shi'a Muslims dynasties List of Ismaili
Ismaili
Imams List of Dai of Dawoodi Bohra Mustali Taiyabi Dawoodi Bohra Ali
Ali
al-Sulayhi Arwa al-Sulayhi North Africa
North Africa
Arabization Constantine the African Fatimid
Fatimid
architecture Hafizi- Isma'ili
Isma'ili
family tree

References[edit]

Notes

^ Hathaway, Jane (2012). A Tale of Two Factions: Myth, Memory, and Identity in Ottoman Egypt
Egypt
and Yemen. SUNY Press. p. 97. ISBN 9780791486108.  ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 12 September 2016.  ^ Rein Taagepera
Rein Taagepera
(September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 495. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. Retrieved 12 September 2016.  ^ Katsoni, Vicky; Stratigea, Anastasia (2016-03-03). Tourism and Culture in the Age of Innovation: Second International Conference IACuDiT, Athens 2015. Springer. ISBN 9783319275284.  ^ Ilahiane, Hsain (2004). Ethnicities, Community Making, and Agrarian Change: The Political Ecology of a Moroccan Oasis. University Press of America. p. 43. ISBN 9780761828761.  ^ Wintle, Justin (May 2003). History of Islam. London: Rough Guides Ltd. pp. 136–7. ISBN 1-84353-018-X.  ^ Pollard;Rosenberg;Tignor, Elizabeth;Clifford;Robert (2011). Worlds together Worlds Apart. New York, New York: Norton. p. 313. ISBN 9780393918472. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Baer, Eva (1983). Metalwork in Medieval Islamic Art. SUNY Press. p. xxiii. ISBN 9780791495575. In the course of the later eleventh and twelfth century, however, the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphate declined rapidly, and in 1171 the country was invaded by Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn, the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. He restored Egypt
Egypt
as a political power, reincorporated it in the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphate and established Ayyubid suzerainty not only over Egypt
Egypt
and Syria
Syria
but, as mentioned above, temporarily over northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
as well.  ^ a b c Yeomans 2006, p. 43. ^ a b c d e Goldschmidt 84-86 ^ Yeomans 2006, p. 44. ^ Tracy 2000, p. 234. ^ Beeson, Irene (September–October 1969). "Cairo, a Millennial". Saudi Aramco World: 24, 26–30. Retrieved 9 August 2007.  ^ Talbi, M., “al-Mahdiyya”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 24 April 2017 ^ Talbi, M., “Ṣabra or al-Manṣūriyya”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 24 April 2017 ^ Rogers, J.M., J. M. Rogers and J. Jomier, “al-Ḳāhira”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 24 April 2017 ^ Halm, Heinz. The Fatimids
Fatimids
and their Traditions of Learning. London: The Institute of Ismaili
Ismaili
Studies and I.B. Tauris. 1997. ^ a b c Shorter Shi'ite
Shi'ite
Encyclopaedia, By: Hasan al-Amin, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 June 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.  ^ " Cairo
Cairo
of the Mind". oldroads.org. 21 June 2007. Archived from the original on 12 December 2007.  ^ Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. 1, pg. 154. ^ Cambridge History of Egypt, Vol. 1, pg. 155. ^ Cambridge history of Egypt
Egypt
vol 1 page 155 ^ al Juyushi: A Vision of the Fatemiyeen. Graphico Printing Ltd. 2002. ISBN 978-0953927012.  ^ "Masjid al-Juyushi". Archnet.org. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2013.  ^ Wilson B. Bishai (1968). Islamic History of the Middle East: Backgrounds, Development, and Fall of the Arab Empire. Allyn and Bacon. Nevertheless, the Seljuqs of Syria
Syria
kept the Crusaders occupied for several years until the reign of the last Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliph
Caliph
al-Adid (1160-1171) when, in the face of a Crusade threat, the caliph appointed a warrior of the Seljuq regime by the name of Shirkuh
Shirkuh
to be his chief minister.  ^ Brief History of Transfer of the Sacred Head of Hussain ibn Ali, From Damascus to Ashkelon to Qahera ^ Brief History of Transfer of the Sacred Head of Husain ibn Ali, From Damascus to Ashkelon to Qahera By: Qazi Dr. Shaikh Abbas Borhany PhD (USA), NDI, Shahadat al A’alamiyyah (Najaf, Iraq), M.A., LLM (Shariah) Member, Ulama Council of Pakistan, Published in Daily News, Karachi, Pakistan on 03-1-2009. ^ Amin Maalouf (1984). The Crusades Through Arab Eyes. Al Saqi Books. pp. 160–170. ISBN 0-8052-0898-4.  ^ Enthoven, R. E. (1922). The Tribes and Castes of Bombay. 1. Asian Educational Services. p. 199. ISBN 81-206-0630-2.  ^ The Bohras, By: Asgharali Engineer, Vikas Pub. House, p.109,101 ^ [1], Mullahs on the Mainframe.., By Jonah Blank, p.139 ^ The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines By Farhad Daftary; p.299

Further reading[edit]

Brett, Michael (2001). The Rise of the Fatimids: The World of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the Middle East in the Fourth Century of the Hijra, Tenth Century CE. The Medieval Mediterranean. 30. Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 9004117415.  Cortese, Delia, "Fatimids", in Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I, pp. 187–191. Daftary, Farhad (1992). The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-42974-0.  Daftary, Farhad (1999). "FATIMIDS". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. IX, Fasc. 4. pp. 423–426.  Halm, Heinz (1996). The Empire
Empire
of the Mahdi: The Rise of the Fatimids. Handbook of Oriental Studies. 26. transl. by Michael Bonner. Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 9004100563.  Kennedy, Hugh N. (2004). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century (Second Edition). Harlow: Longman. ISBN 978-0-58-240525-7.  Lev, Yaacov (1987). "Army, Regime, and Society in Fatimid
Fatimid
Egypt, 358–487/968–1094". International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 19: 337–365. JSTOR 163658.  Walker, Paul E. (2002). Exploring an Islamic Empire: Fatimid
Fatimid
History and its Sources. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 9781860646928. 

Notes[edit]

^ The name Mansuriyya means "the victorious", after its founder Ismāʿīl Abu Tahir Ismail Billah, called al-Mansur, "the victor."[12]

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