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Khadija bint Khuwaylid
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Muhammad (/ˈfætəmə, ˈfɑːtiːˌmɑː/; Arabic:
فاطمة Fāṭimah;[pronunciation 1] born c. 609 (or 20
Jumada al-Thani 5 BH [(609-07-27)27 July 609
AD] ?) – died 28 August 632 [disputed]) was the
youngest daughter and according to
Shia Muslims, the only child of
the Islamic prophet
Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and
therefore part of Muhammad's household. She was a wife of
mother of Hasan and Husayn. She is the object of love and
respect of Muslims, as she was the child closest to her father and
supported him in his difficulties, was the supporter and loving
caretaker of her own husband and children, and was the only child of
Muhammad to have male children live beyond childhood, whose
descendants are spread throughout the Islamic world and are known as
Sayyids. The 11th century dynasty ruling
Egypt at the time of the
Crusades, the Fatimids, claimed descent from her.
Fatimah is an inspiring example and 'Fatimah' is one of
the most popular girl's names throughout the Muslim world.
Fatimah is a vital character in the religion of
Islam and is
considered a role model for all Muslim women. Although there is
controversy between different sects of
Islam regarding her political
role, she is the daughter of
Muhammad and is revered by many Muslims.
1.1 Mother's Day
3 Early life
5 Life before the death of Muhammad
5.1 A humble life
5.2 Married life
5.3 On the battlefield
Fatimah in the Qur'an
7 Life after the death of Muhammad
7.1 Caliphate of Abu Bakr
7.2 Sunni view
Twelver Shi'a view
8.1 Sunni View
8.2 Shi'a View
8.3 Burial place
11 Spiritual character
12 See also
14.1 Primary sources
14.2 Books and journals
15 External links
See also: Genealogy of Khadijah's daughters
Fatimah was born in
Mecca to Khadija, the first of Muhammad's wives.
There are differences of opinion on the exact date of her birth, but
the widely accepted view is that she was born five years before the
first Quranic revelations, during the time of the rebuilding of the
Kaaba in 605, although this does imply she was over 18 at
the time of her marriage, which was unusual in Arabia.
sources, however, state that she was born either two or five years
after the first Qur'anic revelations, but that timeline would imply
her mother was over fifty at the time of her birth, according to Sunni
Fatimah had three sisters named Zaynab bint Muhammad, Umm Kulthum bint
Muhammad, and Ruqayyah bint Muhammad. She also had three brothers
named Qasim ibn Muhammad, Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad, and Ibrahim ibn
Muhammad, all of whom died in childhood. While
Sunnis believe Zainab,
Ruqayyah, and Umm Kulthum to be the other daughters of Muhammad, Shias
believe that they were actually the daughters of Hala, the sister of
Khadijah, who were adopted by
Muhammad and Khadijah at her death. A
strong reason given by the Shi'a scholars for this belief is the event
of (Mubahala) mentioned in the Quran, in which there is no reference
to the presence of any other female apart from Fatimah, however Sunnis
Muhammad had four daughters all from Khadijah.
Fatimah residence location at Medina mosque
There are several traditions related before and after Fatimah’s
Shia sources which are expressed on this occasion: the
Muhammad in the presence of Fatima in the
ascension: O Muhammad! Allah gives you the good news of
Khadījah bint Khuwaylid. "The Holy Prophet, before the
coagulation of Fatima’s sperm, fasted for forty days and worshiped
at nights."  After forty days of worship,
Gabriel came down and
said: O great Prophet! Allah bless you and orders to be ready for His
great present. The Prophet said to Gabriel: “what is the gift of the
Lord of all the Worlds?”
Gabriel said: I have no knowledge about it;
at that time Michael descended while carrying a vessel covered with
fine silk and heavy brocade and placed the vessel in front of the
Prophet. The great present of Allah was the existence of Fatimah
to all being.
Iranians celebrate Fatima Zahra's birth anniversary (20 Jumada
al-Thani) as Mother's Day. The Gregorian date for this changes
See also: List of Shi'a titles for Fatima Zahra
Fatimah is given many titles by Muslims to show their admiration of
her moral and physical characteristics. The most used title is
"al-Zahra", meaning "the shining one", and she is commonly referred to
Fatimah Zahra. She was also known as "al-Batūl" (the chaste
and pure one) as she spent much of her time in prayer, reciting the
Qur'an and in other acts of worship. Besides, amongst 125 famous
veneration titles, she has also been honored with the title of
Umm-ul-Aaima (Mother of Imams).
Umm al-Ā’ima (Mother of Imams).
Moreover, there are plenty of
Shia narrations which have been stated
from their Imams about the names and titles of Fatima. For instance,
Imam al-Sadiq says: Fatima (as) has nine names from God: 1-Fāṭima
(a woman who throws herself and her followers out of the hell),
2-al-Ṣiddīqah (a woman who has never lied), 3-al-Mubārakah (a
woman who is full of blessings), 4-al-Ṭāhirah (a woman who is pure,
sinless and infallible), 5-al-Zakiyyah (a woman who is away from any
contamination), 6-al-Raḍiyyah (a woman who suffers hardship and
difficulty and is happy with the will of God), 7-al-Marḍiyyah (a
woman with whom
God is satisfied), 8-al-Muḥaddithah (a woman who
transmits some aḥādīth [Prophetic traditions]), 9-al-Zahrah
(bright and shining).
Following the birth of Fatimah, she was nursed by her mother and
brought up by her father; contrary to local customs where the
newborns were sent to "wet nurses" in the surrounding villages.
She spent her early youth under the care of her parents in
the shadow of the tribulations suffered by her father at the hands of
Evoking the caring nature of Fatima is the account of when Muhammad,
as he was performing the salat (prayer) in the Kaaba, had camel
placenta poured over him by
Amr ibn Hishām
Amr ibn Hishām (Abu Jahl) and his men.
Fatimah, upon hearing the news, rushed to her father and wiped away
the filth while scolding the men.
At the death of her mother,
Fatimah was overcome by sorrow and found
it very difficult to cope with it. To console her, her father informed
her about having received word from angel
God had built
for her a palace in paradise.
Fatimah to Ali, as depicted in the Siyer-i Nebi
Many of Muhammad's companions asked for Fatimah's hand in marriage,
Abu Bakr and Umar.
Muhammad turned them all down, saying
that he was awaiting a sign of her destiny. Ali, Muhammad's cousin,
also had a desire to marry Fatimah. When he went to see Muhammad, he
could not vocalise his intention but remained silent. Muhammad
understood the reason for his being there and prompted
Ali to confirm
that he had come to seek
Fatimah in marriage. He suggested that Ali
had a shield, which if sold, would provide sufficient money to pay the
bridal gift (mahr).
Muhammad put forward the proposal from Ali
to Fatimah, who remained silent and did not reject the proposal like
the previous ones.
Muhammad took this to be a sign of affirmation and
The actual date of the marriage is unclear, but it most likely took
place in 623, the second year of the hijra, although some sources say
it was in 622. The age of
Fatimah is reported to have been 9 or 19
(due to differences of opinion on the exact date of her birth i.e. 605
or 615) at the time of her marriage while
Ali was between 21 and
Ali that he had been ordered by
God to give
Ali in marriage.
Muhammad said to
Fatimah: "I have married you to the dearest of my family to me."
Ali sold his shield to raise the money needed for the wedding, as
suggested by Muhammad. However, Uthman ibn Affan, to whom the
shield was sold, gave it back to
Ali saying it was his wedding gift to
Ali and Fatimah.
Muhammad himself performed the wedding ceremony
and two of his wives,
Aisha and Umm Salama, prepared the wedding feast
with dates, figs, sheep and other food donated by various members of
the Madinan community. According to Hossein Nasr, their marriage
possesses a special spiritual significance for all Muslims because it
is seen as the marriage between the greatest saintly figures
surrounding Muhammad. Their marriage lasted about ten years and
Fatimah died. Although polygyny is permitted by Islam,
Muhammad did not permit
Ali to marry another woman while
Life before the death of Muhammad
Fatimah marital life
A humble life
After her marriage to Ali, the couple led a humble life in contrast to
her sisters who were all married to wealthy individuals.
built a house not too far from Muhammad's residence where he lived
with Fatimah. However, due to Fatimah's desire to be closer to her
father, a Medinan (Haritha bin al-Numan) donated his own house to
For several years after her marriage, she did all of the work by
herself. The shoulder on which she carried pitchers of water from the
well was swollen and the hand with which she worked the handmill to
grind corn were often covered with blisters.
Fatimah vouched to
take care of the household work, make dough, bake bread, and clean the
house; in return,
Ali vouched to take care of the outside work such as
gathering firewood and bringing food.
Ali worked to irrigate other
people's lands by drawing water from the wells. Their circumstances
were akin to many of the Muslims at the time and only improved
Battle of Khaybar
Battle of Khaybar when the produce of
distributed among the poor. When the economic situations of the
Muslims become better,
Fatimah gained some maids but treated them like
her family and performed the house duties with them.
Another reference to their simple life comes to us from the
Fatimah, a divine formula that was first given to
Fatimah when she
asked her father for a kaneez (servant girl) in order to help her with
household chores. Her father asked her if she would like a gift
instead that was better than a servant and worth more than everything
in the world. Upon her ready agreement, he told her to recite at the
end of every prayer the Great Exaltation, Allahu Akbar 34 times, the
Statement of Absolute Gratitude,
Alhamdulillah 33 times and the
Invocation of Divine Glory,
Subhan'Allah 33 times, totalling 100. This
collective prayer is called the
Tasbih of Fatima.
The event of
Ahl al-Kisa signifies a happy married life.
to say: "Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to
see, and what hurts her, hurts me." The three most popular
versions of this tradition are related by al-Miswar b. Makhrama, a
Companion who was about nine years old when
Muhammad died. Ali,
anyhow, did not marry another woman during Fatima's lifetime. One of
Ali's letter provides comparison of alleged proposal
Human beings have received and will receive perfection through us. The
perpetual supremacy and inherent superiority do no prevent us from
making contact with human beings or with your clan, and we have
married amongst you and have established family connections with your
clan, though you do not belong to our class. How can you be our equal
when the Holy Prophet belongs to us and Abu Jahl, the worst enemy of
Islam was from amongst you..(Famous written reply of
Ali to Muawiya)
In contrary with what Sunni says, in
Shia literature, there are some
Ali that deny any problem with his spouse. For instance,
Ali has sworn to the God, " I never did any act that made Fatimah
angry and she never made me angry either."
Shia acknowledge the saying of Muhammad, "
Fatimah is a part of me and
whoever offends her offends me", but the context of the reporting in
Ali is disputed, like Abu
Muhammad Ordoni quotes in his
book: "Among the many fabricated stories told against
Ali was that he
had asked for Abu Jahl's (the chief of infidels) daughter's hand in
marriage. When this news reached Fatimah, she rushed to her father who
found out the falsity of the story."
Shia say this statement was used by
Fatimah herself when she spoke
Abu Bakr and Umar, stating that they had both displeased her.
On the battlefield
Following the Battle of Uhud,
Fatimah tended to the wounds of her
father and husband and took it upon herself to regularly visit the
graves of all those who died in the battle and pray for them. Fatimah,
along with her husband, was also called upon by Abu Sufyan to
intercede on his behalf with
Muhammad while attempting to make amends
following the violation of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. Abu Sufyan also
asked for Fatimah's protection when she went to
Mecca while it was
under occupation which she refused under instruction from her
Fatimah in the Qur'an
See also: Ahl al-Bayt
Some verses in the
Qur'an are associated with
Fatimah and her
household by classical exegetes, although she is not mentioned by
name. According to J. D. McAuliffe, two of the most important verses
include the verse of purification, which is the 33rd ayah in sura
al-Ahzab and the 61st ayah in sura Al-i-Imran. In the
first verse, the phrase "people of the house" (ahl al-bayt) is
ordinarily understood to consist of Muhammad, Fatimah, her husband Ali
and their two sons (al-Tabari in his exegesis also mentions a
tradition that interprets "people of the house" as Muhammad's wives;
for Ibn al-Jawzi, the order of these options is reversed). The
second verse refers to an episode in which
Muhammad proposed an ordeal
of mutual adjuration (Mubahala) to a delegation of Christians.
Fatimah, according to the "occasion for the revelation" of this verse,
was among those offered by
Muhammad as witnesses and guarantors.
Muslim exegesis of the Qur'anic verse 3:42, links the praise of Mary,
the mother of Jesus, with that of
Fatimah based on a quote attributed
Muhammad that lists the outstanding women of all time as Mary,
Asiya (the wife of Pharaoh), Khadija and Fatima.
One of the significant chapters in the Quran related to Fatima is
Surah Al-Kauthar. This chapter was revealed when Fatima was born
in Mecca. However, it had been expressed by Muhammad's enemies that he
would be without posterity. Another considerable verse which is
regarded to Fatima is verse 23th of Surah Ash-Shura: ....I do not ask
you any reward for it except love of [my] relatives.... [42/23] Ibn
Abbas says: when this verse revealed, I asked the Holy Prophet (pbuh):
who are those persons that their kindness and love is obligatory? The
Prophet said: They are Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn.
It has been said by some Quranic commentators, following the first
verse of surah Al-Qadr, that the meaning [entire example] of Night
(لَيْلَةِ ) is Fatima. Some traditions are also narrated from
Shia Imams regarding to this matter.
Life after the death of Muhammad
Caliphate of Abu Bakr
Main article: Succession to Muhammad
Umar at Fatimah's house
For the few months that she survived following the death of her
Fatimah found herself at the centre of political disunity.
There are differing accounts of how the events surrounding the
commencement of the caliphate led to the
Shia and Sunni split.
Sunni Muslims believe that
Abu Bakr was favored as the Caliph
following his selection to the caliphate after a meeting in
the time of Muhammed's death; whereas a portion of the population
supported Fatimah's husband, Ali.
Twelver Shi'a view
Shia historians hold that
Umar called for
Ali and his followers to
come out and swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. When they did not, Umar
broke in, resulting in Fatimah's ribs being broken by being pressed
between the door and the wall causing her to miscarry Muhsin which led
to her eventual death. Another
Shia version of the events says
Umar sent a force led by his slave-boy Qunfud to Fatimah's house
instructing them to bring
Ali to the mosque. Arriving at the house,
Qunfud requested permission to enter, which was refused by
Qunfud to return to
Abu Bakr and
Umar and relate the events, who
instructed them to go back and enter the house by force if necessary.
Qunfud and his men returned but were this time refused permission by
Fatimah which caused Qunfud to send his men back to
Abu Bakr and Umar
for further instructions who told them to burn the house down if
necessary in order to bring
Ali to them.
Shi'as hold the beliefs that she was involved in three significant
political actions. First, after the conquest of Mecca, she refused her
protection to Abu Sufian; Second, after Muhammad's death, she defended
Ali's cause, fiercely opposed the election of Abu Bakr, and had
violent disputes with him and particularly with Umar; Third, she laid
claim to the property rights of her father and challenged Abu Bakr's
categorical refusal to cede them, particularly Fadak and a share
in the produce of Khaybar.
Main article: Fadak
Unlike the ascetic who has renounced the affairs of the world, both
the historical and hagiographical sources about Fatima al-Zahra
document her active participation in domestic and public life. One
particular event is recounted in all of the histories both Shiʿi and
Sunni: the dispute over the land Fatima received from her father at
Fadak...her knowledge of her legal rights and desire for justice
indicate that she was a woman involved in the affairs of society".
After the death of her father,
Abu Bakr and asked
him to relinquish her share of the inheritance from Muhammad's estate.
Fatimah expected the land of
Fadak (situated 30 mi (48 km)
from Medina) and a share of
Khaybar would be passed onto her as
part of her inheritance. However,
Abu Bakr rejected her request citing
a narration where
Muhammad stated that prophets do not leave behind
inheritance and that all their possessions become sadaqah to be used
Fatimah was upset at this flat refusal by
Abu Bakr and
did not speak to him until her death (however some Sunni sources claim
she had reconciled her differences with
Abu Bakr before she died).
Shias contend that
Fadak had been given to
Muhammad and Abu
Bakr was wrong in not allowing her to take possession of it.
Umar at Fatimah's house
Sunnis believe that
Fatimah reconciled her differences with Abu Bakr
prior to her death.
Fatima died as a result of separation from her beloved father.
Muzaffer Ozak writes:
After our Master had honoured the world of the Hereafter, Fatima would
neither eat nor drink and she forgot all laughter and joy. She had an
apartment built for her in which she stayed by night and day, weeping
her heart out for her beloved father.
After the Farewell Pilgrimage,
Fatimah and informed
her that he would die soon, and also told her that she would be the
next of his household to die. After Mohammad's subsequent
Fatimah was grief-stricken and remained so until she herself
died less than six months later, on 3rd, Jumada al-Sani (as per
She passed the time sobbing and sighing and nothing could take away
her grief. As soon as she had done her household chores and taken care
of her husband, 'Ali, and their sons, Hasan and Husain, she would
continue weeping: "O my beloved father! To whom have you left your
Fatima?" Less than six months went by in this fashion till Fatima got
so thin that there was nothing left of her but skin and bones.
Shia believe that Fatima died as a result of injuries sustained after
her house was raided by
Umar ibn al-Khattab who Shi'a believe set fire
to her house. Historians claim that the door is said to have been
rammed open by one of the assailants, reportedly Khalid bin Walid
Fatimah to the ground. This attack is said to have cracked
her rib-cage whilst she was pregnant, causing her to miscarry.
Shia tradition, Muhammed appeared in a dream and informed
Fatimah that she would be passing away the next day.
Ali of her impending death and asked him not to allow the
oppressors to be involved in her ceremonial prayers janazah (prayer
performed in congregation after the death of a Muslim) or take part in
According to some sources[who?], on the morning of her death, she took
a bath, put on new clothes and lay down in bed. She asked for
informed him that her time to die was very close. Upon hearing this
Ali began to cry but was consoled by
Fatimah who asked him to
look after her two sons and for him to bury her without ceremony. It
is further stated that her two sons were the first family members to
learn of her death and immediately proceeded to the mosque to inform
their father. Upon hearing the news,
Ali fell unconscious. After
recovering he followed Fatima's wishes and performed the janazah. He
buried her during the night on 13
Jumada al-awwal or 3rd
Jamadi-u-Thani 11 AH (632 AD), also making three false graves to
ensure her real grave could not be identified. With him were his
family and a few of his close companions. After her death, Ali
followed her wishes and buried her without informing the Medinan
Lesley Hazleton also describes Fatimah' death as follows:
But perhaps most painful of all in those months after the loss of her
third son was the ostracism she suffered ordered by
Abu Bakr to force
Ali into line. [...] When she knew death was close she asked
Ali for a
clandestine burial [...]
Abu Bakr was not to be informed of her death
she said. he was to be given no chance to officiate at her funeral.
Twelver Shi'a, especially Iranians, hold ceremonies every year for 20
Jumada al-awwal to commemorate the anniversary of the
martyrdom of Fatimah. Mourners march in procession through the streets
to reaffirm their allegiance to the ideals of Fatima.
Main article: The burial place of Fatimah
Fatimah's burial place is a disputed issue among Muslims from
different sects. It is famous that
Ali ibn Abi Taleb buried his wife
in an unknown location, because it was Fatimah's decision .
According to Madelung in The Succession to Muhammad, the secret burial
was done with the aim of avoiding the presence of caliph (Abu
Bakr). Different locations have been mentioned as the possible
burial places of
Fatimah some of which are said to be nearer to fact.
Al-Baqi', her house and between the Prophet's tomb and his minbar are
the possible places of her grave. One of the important reasons
that Fatima’s grave was concealed is because of her protest against
what happened regarding to the caliphate of the Holy prophet.
Hence, as long as the Muslims don’t believe in what Fatima believes
relating to the Holy prophet’s succession, the reason for the
concealment of her grave will remain. One of the historians in this
filed says: "… In any case, concealment of the prophet’s daughter
indicates that she was dejected about some people and it’s clear
that she wanted to declare her dissatisfaction and unhappiness".
See also: Descendants of
Ali ibn Abi Talib
Fatimah was survived by two sons, Hasan and Husayn, and two daughters,
Zaynab and Umm Kulthum. Controversy surrounds the fate of her third
son, Muhsin. Shias and some sunni scholars such as ibn Abi
l-Hadid say that she miscarried following an attack on her house
Abu Bakr and Umar, while other
Sunnis insist that Muhsin died in
his infancy of natural causes.
Modern descendants of
Muhammad trace their lineage exclusively through
Fatimah, as she was the only surviving child of
Muhammad (According to
Shias. Sunni and some
Muhammad had 4 daughters).
Muhammad had no sons who reached adulthood.
Fatimah's descendants are given the honorific titles
lord or sir),
Sharif (meaning noble), and respected by both Sunni and
Shi'a, though the Shi'as place much more emphasis and value on the
Fatimah as a loving and devoted daughter, mother, wife,
a sincere Muslim, and an exemplar for women. It is believed
that she was very close to her father and her distinction from other
women is mentioned in many hadith. After Khadijah, Muslims regard
Fatimah as the most significant historical figure, considered to be
the leader (Arabic: Sayyidih) of all women in this world and in
Paradise. It is because of her moral purity that she
occupies an analogous position in
Islam to that Mary occupies in
Catholic Christianity. She was the first wife of Ali, whom Sunnis
consider the fourth
Rashidun caliph, and whom the Shi'as consider the
first infallible Imam, the mother of the second and third Imams, and
the ancestor of all the succeeding Imams; indeed, the Fatimid
Caliphate is named after her.
Main article: Shi'a view of Fatimah
The Fourteen Infallibles
The Fourteen Infallibles and Fatimid
Fatimah, regarded as "the Mother of the Imams", plays a special role
Shia sect. She has a unique status as Muhammad's only surviving
child, the wife of Ali, their first Imam, and the mother of Hasan and
Husayn. The chapter of Quran on abundance (Sūrat al-Kawthar) mentions
the significance of her birth and recognises her as the only surviving
child of Muhammad. The
Fatimid Caliphate/ Imamate is named for
her. She is believed to have been immaculate, sinless, and a model for
Muslim women. Although leading a life of poverty, the
emphasises her compassion and sharing of whatever she had with
Shias greatly respect her, and her character shines as one of the
bravest and most courageous in the Islamic history.
Fatimah stood as
the lone defender of Muhammad's declaration of Ghadeer. She put
forward her arguments to prove
Fadak as her right and undisputed
property amongst those who had killed her unborn child Mohsin.
According to Mahmoud Ayoud, the two main images of
Fatimah within the
Shia tradition are those of the "Eternal Weeper" and "the Judge in the
hereafter". According to
Shia tradition, the suffering and death
Fatimah was the first tragedy of Islam. She spent her last days
mourning the death of her father.
Fatimah eternally weeps at the death
of her two sons, who were murdered by the Umayyads. Shias believe they
share in Fatimah's suffering by weeping for her sorrows. It is
believed that the tears of the faithful console Fatimah. Shias
Fatimah will play a redemptive role as the mistress of the
day of judgment in the hereafter, as a reward for her suffering in
According to Louis Massignon there are many different attitudes among
Sunnis about the Mubahalah. One of those disagreements is
in terms of the approving of the verse of Quran on Mubahalah whether
the verse III, 54 was with the presence of the five persons such as
Fatima. According to
Shia sources not only
Mubahala happened with the
presence of Fatima but also Fatima considered as someone who is
standing back of prophet. In other words, some mystical sects refer to
the symbolic role during that event. They try to interpret her as an
image. This image shows a lighting matter. Some sects such as
Nusayrieh believes that the Christians of Najran acknowledge to the
place of Fatima as Maryam.
Shia Islam portal
Book of Fatimah
Children of Muhammad
Fatima the Gracious, biography of Fatimah
Genealogy of Khadijah's daughters
Hamsa, type of amulet also referred to as "Hand of Fatima"
Our Lady of Fátima, title of the Virgin Mary based on reported
apparitions at Fátima, Portugal
Fadak given by Fatimah
^ Arabic pronunciation: [ˈfɑːtˤɪma, ˈfɑːtˤimæ,
fɑːˈtˤemæ, ˈfɑːt̪ˠɪmɐ]; especially colloquially:
[ˈfɑːtˤma, ˈfɑtˤmɑ, ˈfɑːt̪ˠmɐ, ˈfɑːtˤme]
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Fatimah",
Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "
Fatimah bint Muhammad". Muslim Students'
Association (West) Compendium of Muslim Texts. Archived from the
original on 28 May 2009.
^ a b c d Ordoni (1990) pp.42-45
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p
Sharif al-Qarashi, Bāqir. The Life
of Fatima az-Zahra (sa). Trans. Jāsim al-Rasheed. Qum, Iran:
Ansariyan Publications, n.d. Print. Pgs. 37-41
^ "The Ka'aba, The House Of Allah Story of the Holy Ka'aba Books
Islam and Muslims". Al-Islam.org. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
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