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Fatima bint Muhammad Al-Fihriya Al-Qurashiya (Arabic: فاطمة بنت محمد الفهرية القرشية‎) was an Arab
Arab
Muslim woman who is credited for founding the oldest existing, continually operating and first degree-awarding educational institution in the world, The University of Al Quaraouiyine
University of Al Quaraouiyine
in Fes, Morocco in 859 CE.[1]

Contents

1 Biography 2 World's Oldest Library 3 References 4 Further reading

Biography[edit]

Karaouine Mosque and University.

The madrasa she founded is still in operation today as the University of Al Quaraouiyine. It is the oldest continually operating educational institution in the world and is sometimes referred to as the world's oldest university, by being the first institution to award degrees indicative of different levels of study. The mosque is also still in operation, and is one of the largest in North Africa.[2][3][4] Al-Fihri was the daughter of a wealthy merchant, and had been educated.[1] The family was part of a large migration to Fes
Fes
from the town of Qayrawan (in modern Tunisia), and so the town lent its name to the mosque and madrassa.[5] Mariam, Fatima's sister, was the sponsor of the Al-Andalus mosque, also in Fes. Both were part of a larger tradition of women founding mosques.[6] World's Oldest Library[edit] Al-Fihri founded one of the world's oldest libraries in the University of Al Quaraouiyine. The library recently underwent restoration and reopened to the public in May 2016.[7] The library's collection of over 4000 manuscripts includes a 9th-century Qur'an and the earliest collection of hadiths.[8][9][10] References[edit]

^ a b Kenney, Jeffrey T.; Moosa, Ebrahim (2013-08-15). Islam in the Modern World. Routledge. p. 128. ISBN 9781135007959.  ^ Lulat, Y. G.-M.: A History Of African Higher Education From Antiquity To The Present: A Critical Synthesis Studies in Higher Education, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005, ISBN 978-0-313-32061-3, p. 70:

As for the nature of its curriculum, it was typical of other major madrasahs such as al-Azhar and al-Qarawiyyin, though many of the texts used at the institution came from Muslim
Muslim
Spain...Al-Qarawiyyin began its life as a small mosque constructed in 859 C.E. by means of an endowment bequeathed by a wealthy woman of much piety, Fatima bint Muhammed al-Fahri.

^ Joseph, Suad; Najmabadi, Afsaneh (2003-01-01). Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures: Economics, education, mobility and space. Brill. p. 314. ISBN 9789004128200.  ^ Swartley, Keith E. (2005-01-01). Encountering the World of Islam. Biblica. p. 74. ISBN 9781932805246.  ^ Gates, Jr., Henry Louis (ed.). Dictionary of African Biography. 6. pp. 357–359. ISBN 9780195382075.  ^ Kahera, Akel; Abdulmalik, Latif; Anz, Craig (2009-10-26). Design Criteria for Mosques and Islamic Centres. Routledge. p. 81. ISBN 9781136441271.  ^ Shaheen, Kareem (2016-09-19). "World's oldest library reopens in Fez: 'You can hurt us, but you can't hurt the books'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-05-30.  ^ Fadel, Leila (21 May 2016). "The Delicate Task Of Restoring One Of The World's Oldest Libraries". NPR. Retrieved 1 September 2016.  ^ Weller, Chris (28 June 2016). "The oldest library in the world just opened to the public — here's a look inside". Tech Insider. Retrieved 1 September 2016.  ^ CNN, Daisy Carrington. "This 1,157-year-old library gets a facelift". CNN. Retrieved 2017-05-30. 

Further reading[edit]

"Kairaouine Mosque, Fes". Sacred Destinations.  "The Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque". Morocc

.